Anda di halaman 1dari 15

Stress

Faktor Psikologis dan Kesehatan

Dosen Ir.Henrikus, SPsi

What is Stress?
Stress

Stressors
Bencana
Merubah Kehidupan
Menimbulkan kerepotan

Faktor Intervensi
Penilaian
Kontrol Penerimaan
Personaliti
Dukungan sosial
Coping behaviors

Stress
reactions
Physiological
Emotional
Behavioral

Tindakan karena
proses yang terjadi
atas anggapan dan
respon kita pada
kejadian tertentu,
yang kita anggap
membahayakan dan
menantang.

Stressful Life Events


Bencana
earthquakes, combat stress, floods

Life Changes
death of a loved one, divorce, loss of job, promotion

Kejadian harian
rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, burnout

Kehilangan Kontrol, can increase stress hormones

Hans Selye (1976) menciptakan istilah sindrom adaptasi menyeluruh


(general adaptation syndrome/GAS
tubuh bereaksi sama terhadap berbagai streSsor yang tidak
menyenangkan, baik sumber stres berupa serangan bakteri
mikroskopi, penyakit karena organisme, perceraian, ataupun
kebanjiran.
Model GAS menyatakan bahwa dalam keadaan stres, tubuh kita
seperti jam dengan sistem alarm yang tidak berhenti sampai
tenaganya habis.
GAS terdiri dari tiga tahap:

Tahap reaksi waspada (alarm reaction),

Tahap resistansi (resistance stage),

Tahap kelelahan (exhaustion stage).

Tahap Alarm Reaction


Selama Fase Alarm tubuh merespon stressor dengan cara bagian
otak Hypotalamus menghasilkan hormone glucocorticoids
hormones.
Selanjutnya kelenjar adrenaI menghasilkan Kortisol dan Adrenalin
untuk membuat tubuh bereaksi.
Yang selanjutnya menaikkan tingkat nafas, detak jantung dan kadar
gula darah meningkat untuk membooster energi

Tahap resistansi (resistance stage)


Tubuh tetap menjaga tingkat kewaspadaan, untuk melawan atau lari
dari stressor.
Kortex Adrenal tetap melepaskan Glucocorticoids untuk membantu
tubuh bereaksi sampai stress berhenti atau atau sampai tubuh tidak
mampu lagi bertahan.
Cadangan energy dipakai untuk menghadapi stress, sehingga untuk
menghadapai dingin, penyakit pada saat itu berkurang.

Tahap kelelahan (exhaustion stage).


Apabila stresor tetap berlanjut atau terjadi stresor baru yang
memperburuk keadaan, kita dapat sampai pada tahap kelelahan
(exhaustion).

Kortikal steroid mungkin salah satu hal yang menyebabkan stres


yang menetap akan memicu masalah kesehatan. Meskipun dalam
beberapa hal kortikal steroid membantu tubuh mengatasi stres,
sekresi terus-menerus dari steroid ini menekan aktivitas sistem
kekebalan tubuh. Efek kortikal steroid tidak mengganggu bila
terlepas secara periodik, akan tetapi sekresi yang terus-menerus
terjadi menurunkan fungsi kekebalan tubuh dengan cara
mengganggu produksi antibodi, sebagai akibatnya kita menjadi
rentan terhadap berbagai penyakit, bahkan terhadap flu biasa
(Cohen, Tyrrell, & Smith, 1991).

Faktor-faktor Psikologis yang Mengurangi Stres


1. Cara coping stres,
2. Harapan terhadap self efficacy,
3. Ketabahan hati atau daya tahan psikologis,
4. Optimisme,
5. Dukungan sosial, dan
6. Identitas etnik dapat menjadi faktor-faktor yang
mengurangi atau menahan efek dari stres.

Stress and Disease


Negative emotions and health-related
consequences
Heart
disease

Negative
emotions

Stress
hormones

Immune
suppression

Autonomic nervous
system effects

Unhealthy behaviors
(smoking, drinking,
poor nutrition and sleep)

(headaches,
hypertension)
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coping Strategies
Coping
Efforts through action and thought to deal with demands
that are perceived as taxing or overwhelming
Problem-focused coping
Direct response aimed at reducing, modifying, or
eliminating a source of stress
After getting a poor grade, student decides to study
harder or get a tutor
Emotion-focused coping
A response involving reappraising of a stressor to reduce
its emotional impact
View loss of a job as a challenge or opportunity not a
tragedy
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All
rights reserved.

Coping Strategies
Defensive coping
Use of defense mechanisms as protection against the
unpleasant emotions brought on by stress.
Small illusions may be beneficial, large distortions are
maladaptive.

Constructive coping
Confront problems directly
Realistic appraisal of stress and coping resources
Learn to recognize and stop disruptive emotional reactions
Make efforts to protect the body from the damaging effects
of stress

Personal Factors Reducing


The Impact of Stress and Illness
Optimism
Cope more effectively with stress
Reduced risk of illness
Generally expect good outcomes
Find positives even in the darkest circumstances
Generally more stress resistant

Copyright 2011 Pearson


Education, Inc. All rights
reserved.

Personal Factors Reducing


The Impact of Stress and Illness
Hardiness
A combination of three psychological qualities shared by
people who can handle high levels of stress and remain
healthy
1. Commitment
To both work and personal life
2. Control
Do not see themselves as victims of what life brings
Believe they have control over consequences and outcomes
3. Challenge
Act to solve their own problems
Welcome challenges in life
View challenges as opportunities for growth and improvement

Personal Factors Reducing


The Impact of Stress and Illness

Social Support

Tangible and/or emotional support provided in time


of need by family members, friends, and others
The feeling of being loved, valued, and cared for by
those toward whom we feel a similar obligation
Has a positive effect on the immune, cardiovascular,
and endocrine systems
Encourages health-promoting behaviors and reduces
impact of stress
Less likely to use unhealthy methods of coping
Relaxation Techniques