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FAQIH RUHYANUDIN

TERMASUK:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

SUHU TUBUH
NADI
PERNAFASAN
TEKANAN DARAH
(NYERI : sering
disebut tandatanda vital yang
ke-5)

Status fisiologis
fungsi tubuh
seseorang dapat
direfleksikan oleh
indikator TTV
perubahan TTV
indikasikan perub.
kesehatan

Vital sign
Normal

vital
signs berubah
dipengaruhi oleh
: umur, sex,
berat badan,
Aktivitas, dan
kondisi
(sehat/sakit)

Pengukuran TTV
Sesuai permintaan, untuk melengkapi data
dasar pengkajian
Sesuai permintaan dokter
Sekali sehari klien stabil
Setiap 4 jam 1 /> TTV abnormal
Setiap 5 15mnt klien tidak stabil atau
resiko perubahan fisiologi secara cepat post
op
Ketika kondisi klien tampakberubah

Setiap menit atau lebih sering, bila ada


perubahan signifikan dari hasil
pengukuran sebelumnya
Ketika klien merasa tidak seperti biasa
Sebelum,selama dan setelah transfusi
Sebelum pemberian obat efek
perubahan TTV

SUHU
TUBUH
SUHU TUBUH MENUNJUKKAN
KEHANGATANTUBUH MANUSIA
Panas tubuh
Diproduksi :

Hilang : melalui kulit,


paru, dan produk
sisa melalui proses
radiasi,
konduksi,konveksi,
evaporasi

exercise dan
metabolisme
makanan

Suhu tubuh mencerminkan keseimbangan


antara produksi panas dan kehilangan
panas, dan diukur dalam unit panas yang
disebut derajat.
Ada 2 macam suhu tubuh:

Suhu inti jaringan dalam tubuh: rongga


abdomen dan rongga pelvic Relatif konstan
2. Suhu permukaan suhu kulit, SC, dan lemak
SC naik dan turun merespon thd
lingkungan
1.

FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG
MEMPENGARUHI PRODUKSI
PANAS
1. BMR : jumlah energi yang digunakan
ubuh untuk melakukan aktivitas utama
seperti bernafas
2. AKTIVITAS OTOT: termasuk menggigil,
meingkatkan metabolisme rate
3. TYROXINE OUTPUT: meningkatnya
output tyroxine akan meningkatkan
metabolisme sel seluruh tubuh

4. Stimulasi/respon Epineprin,
norephinephrine, simpatis. Hormon ini
dengan seketika meningkatkan
metbolisme sel dibeberapa jaringan
tubuh
5. Fever, meningkatkan jumlah
metabolisme tubuh

MEKANISME KEHILANGAN
PANAS
Radiasi adalah pemindahan panas dari
permukaan objek tertentu ke permukaan
onjek yang lain tanpa adanya kontak antara
kedua objek, yang paling sering adalah
dengan sinar inframerah. (atau penyebaran
panas dengan gelombang elektromagnetik)
Konduksi adalah perpindahan panas ke objek
lain melalui kontak langsung

Evaporasi (penguapan) adalah perubahan


dari cairan menjadi uap. Seperti cairan tubuh
dalam bentuk keringat menguap dari kulit
Konveksi adalah penyebaran panas oleh
karena pergerakan udara dengan kepadatan
yang tidak sama. orang yang
menggunakan kipas angin

Mekanisme perpindahan panas

FAKTOR YANG
MEMPENGARUHI SUHU
TUBUH

Circadian Rhythms perubahan fisiologis, seperti


perubahan suhu dan TTV yang lain secara
fluktuatif : pagi hari lebih rendah dibandingkan
sore hari, suhu tubuh berfluktuasi 0,28o 1,1oC
selama periode 24jam
Usia suhu tuuh bayi dan anak-anak berubah
lebih cepat dalam merespon perubahan
panas dan dingin

Hormonal perempuan cenderung


lebih fluktuatif dibandingkan dengan
laki-laki, karena perubahan hormon
Stress respon tubuh terhadap stress
fisik dan emosi akan meningkatkan
produksi epineprin dan nor epineprin
sehingga mengakibatkan
peningkatan metabolisme rate
peningkatan suhu tubuh

SUHU TUBUH NORMAL


Suhu Permukaan : 36,8o 37,4o C (96,6o 99,3o
F)
Suhu inti
: 36,4o 38o C (97,5o 100,4o F)

Suhu diukur dengan termometer.


Termometer yang paling dikenal Celsius
(C), Reaumur (rankine) (R),
Fahrenheit (F), Kelvin (K), dengan
perbandingan antara satu dan
lainnya mengikuti:
C:R:(F-32) = 5:4:9

PENGATURAN SUHU
Suhu manusia dikendalikan
oleh HIPOTHALAMUS
Anterior
hilangnya panas

Vasodilatasi dan
bengkak

Posterior produksi dan


menyimpan panas

1. Menyesuaikan dengan
sirkulasi darah
2. Piloerectile (mengatur
konstriksi atau dilatasi
pori-pori kulit)
3. Respon menggigil

Hipotalamus meningatkan produksi panas


dengan cara meningkatkan metabolisme
melalui sekresi hormon thyroid, yaitu
epinephrin dan norepinephrin medulla
adrenalis
Dalam keadaan normal, hipotalamus menjaga
suhu inti set point(suhu tubuh optimal)
sebesar 1C oleh perubahan suhu
permukaan tubuh dan darah
Suhu > 41C, dan < 34C
indikasi kerusakan di
pusat pengaturan
hipotalamus

Pengaturan Suhu Tubuh oleh


HIPOTALAMUS

PENGUKURAN SUHU
1.

ORAL
Termometer diletakkan di
dibawah lidah
sublingual artery
- biasanya hasil
pengukuran 0,5 0,8 C
dibawah suhu inti

KONTRA INDIKASI
PENGUKURAN SUHU DI ORAL:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Klien tidak kooperatif


Bayi atau toodler
Tidak sadar
Dalam keadaan menggigil
orang yang biasa bernafas dengan mulut
Pembedahan pada mulut
Pasien tidak bisa menutup mulut

Untuk menjamin keakuratan


hasil pengukuran perlu dikaji:
Pengukuran dilakukan 30 menit setelah klien :
1. Mengunyah permen/permen karet
2. Merokok
3. Makan dan minum panas atau dingin

2. Rektal

Berbeda 0,1C dengan


suhu inti

Kontraindikasi
Diare
Pembedahan rektal
Clotting disorders
Hemorrhoids

3. Aksila
Hasil pengukuran 0,6C lebih rendah
dibandingkan suhu oral
Paling sering dilakukan mudah, nyaman

Contraindication of axillary temperature


Pasien kurus
Inflamasi Lokal daerah aksila
Tidak sadar, shock
Konstriksi pembuluh darah perifer

Ekuivalen Pengukuran suhu


TEMPAT
PENGUKURAN
Oral

CELCIUS

Rektal (setara)

37,5

Aksila (setara)

36,4

37

4. Telinga (Aural)
Riset menunjukkan suhu ditelinga pada
membran timpani paling mendekati suhu
inti tubuh
Kesimpulan ini diddasarkan pada 2 fakta
anatomi:

Membran tympani hanya berjarak 3,8 cm dari


hipotalamus
2. Darah pada arteri karotis internadan eksterna,
adalah pembuluh darah yang menyuplai
hipotalamus dan membran tympani
1.

Tympanic Thermometer

PENINGKATAN SUHU
TUBUH
1. Pyrexia : istilah yang digunakan untuk
menggambarkan suhu tubuhlebih tinggi dari set
point normal
2. Fever (demam) : suhu tubuh > 37,4C, tanda
dan gejala:
-

Kulit kemerahan
Gelisah,
irratibilitas (lekas marah)
Tidak nafsu makan
Pandangan menurun dan sensitif terhadap cahaya

Banyak Keringat
Sakit kepala
Nadi dan RR meningkat
Disorientasi dan bingung (jika suhu terlalu
tinggi)
Kejang pada infantdan anak-anak

3. Hiperthermi : suhu tubuh > 40,6C


sangat beriko terjadi kerusakan otak
bahkan kematian kerusakan pusat
pernafasan

TAHAPAN DEMAM
(FEVER)
Prodromal phase : gejala tidakspesifik
sebelumpeningkatan suhu
2. Onset or invasion phase (fase
serangan)
peningkatan suhu tubuh, menggigil
3. Stationary phase : demam menetap
4. Resolution phase : suhu kembali normal
1.

Nursing Interventions for Client's


with fever:

Monitor vital signs


Assess skin color and temperature
Monitor WBC, HCT, and other laboratory reports for
indications of infection or dehydration
Remove excess blanket when the client feels warm,
but provide extra warmth when the client feels
chilled.
Measure intake and output
Provide adequate nutrition and fluid
Reduce physical activity to limit heat production.

Administer antipyretic
Provide oral hygiene to keep the mucous
membrane moist.
Provide a tepid sponge bath to increase heat loss
through conduction.
Provide dry clothing and bed linens.

Hypothermia; is a core body temperature below


the lower limit of normal. The three physiologic
mechanisms of hypothermia are:
Excessive heat loss
Inadequate heat production to counteract heat
loss
Impaired hypothalamic thermoregulation

The clinical signs of hypothermia:


Decreased body temperature, pulse, and
respiration
Severe shivering
Feelings of cold and chills
Pale, cool skin
Hypotension
Decreased urinary output
Lack of muscle coordination
Disorientation
Drowsiness progressing to coma
Frostbite(nose, fingers, toes)

Nursing Interventions for Client's with


Hypothermia
1. Provide a warm environment
2. Provide dry clothing
3. Apply warm blanket
4. Keep limbs close to body
5. Cover the client's scalp with a cap

6. Supply warm oral or intravenous fluids


7. Apply warming pads

DIAGNOSA KEPERAWATAN
BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN SUHU TUBUH

Resiko Trauma
2. Hyperthermia
3. Hypothermia
4. Resiko ketidakseimbangan suhu
tubuh
5. Ineffektif termoregulasi
1.

PROSEDUR PEMERIKSAAN
SUHU
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pastikan frekuensi dan cara pemeriksaan


suhu sesuai dengan permintaan dokter atau
rencana keperawatan (nursing care plan)
Identifikasi pasien
Jelaskan prosedur pemeriksaan kepada
pasien
Pastikan termometer dalam keadaan siap
pakai
Cuci tangan dan gunakan sarung tangan bila
ada indikasi
Pilih letak pemasangan termometer

7. Ikuti tahap-tahap pengukuran sesuai


pedoman secara berurutan menyesuaikan
dengan jenis termometer
8. Cuci tangan
9. catat hasil pengukuran

PEMERIKSAAN NADI
Nadi adalah sensasi
denyutan seperti gelombang
yang dapat dirasakan/
dipalpasi di arteri perifer,
terjadi karena gerakan atau
aliran darah ketika
konstraksi jantung

Nadi adalah gelombang darah yang


dibuat oleh kontraksi ventrikel kiri
jantung
Pada orang dewasa kontraksi jantung
60 100 x/mnt saat istirahat
Cardiac output; adalah volume darah
yang dipompakan kedalam arteri oleh
jantung dan = SVxHR
Nadi Perifer; nadi yang berada jauh
dari jantung, ex: kaki, radialis, leher
Nadi apical; nadi central, lokasinya di
apex jantung

KECEPATAN NADI (PULSE


RATE)
Pulse Rate (jumlah denyutan perifer
yang dirasakan selama 1 menit)
dihitung dengan menekan arteri perifer
dengan menggunakan ujung jari
Tachycardia: nadi >100 -150 x/mnt
jantung overwork oksigenasi sel tidak
adequat
Palpitasi : perasaan berdebar-debar,
sering menyertai tachycardi

Denyut Nadi sangat fluktuatif dan


meningkat dengan :
1. exercise,
2. illness,
3. injury, and
4. emotions.
wanita cenderung dibandingkan
laki-laki.
Athlets, mis. Pelari, bisa jadi heart
rates-nya 40 x/mnt dan tidak
masalah.

Bradycardia : denyut nadi < 60 x/mnt


kejadian lebih sedikit dibandingkan
tachycardia

FACTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI


NADI
1.
2.

3.

Usia; peningkatan usia, nadi berangsurangsur menurun


Jenis Kelamin; pria sedikit lebih
rendah daripada wanita (P=60-65 x/mnt
ketika istirahat, W=7-8 x/mnt lebih
cepat)
Circadian rhythm; rata-rata menurun
pada pagi hari dan meningkat pada
siamg dan sore hari

4. Bentuk tubuh; tinggi, langsing biasanya denyut


jantung lebih pelan dan nadi lebih sedikit
dibandingkan orang gemuk
5. Aktivitas dan exercise; nadi akan meningkat
dengan aktivitas dan exercise dan menurun
dengan istirahat
6. Stress dan emosi; rangsangan syaraf simpatis
dan emosi seperti cemas, takut, gembira
meningkatkan denyut jantung dan nadi.
Nyeri, adalah stressor yang dapat memacu
nadi lebih cepat

7. Suhu Tubuh; setiap peningkatan 1F nadi


meningkat 10x/mnt, peningkatan 1C nadi
meningkat 15x/mnt. Sebaliknya bila terjadi
penurunan suhu tubuh maka nadi akan menurun
8. Volume darah; kehilanngan darah yang berlebihan
akan menyebabkan peningkatan nadi
9. obat-obatan; beberapa obat dapat menurunkan
atau meningkatkan kontraksi jantung. Golongan
digitalisdan sedatifmenurunkan HR, Caffeine,
nicotine,cocaine, hormon tyroid, adrenalin
meningkatkan HR

Penghitungan Nadi Normal


USIA

RENTANG
NORMAL

RATA-RATA

BBL
1 12 BL
1 2 TH
3 6 TH
7 12 TH
REMAJA
DEWASA

120 160
80 140
80 130
75 120
75 110
60 100
60 100

140
120
110
100
95
80
80

IRAMA NADI
1.

2.

REGULER; pola dan jarak waktu


denyutan pada tiap denyutan teraba
sama/teratur
NORMAL
IRREGULER
(arrhythmia/dysrhythmia); pola dan
jarak waktu denyutan pada tiap
denyutan teraba tidak sama/tidak
teratur

ISI DENYUTAN
Adalah kualitas denyutan yang teraba yang
berhubungan dengan julah darah yang
dipompakan oleh jantung ketika berkontraksi
Kualitas

definisi

Deskripsi

Tidak ada nadi

Tidak teraba, meskipun ditekan dengan


kuat

1+

Nadi sangat lemah


(thready Pulse)

Pulsasi susah dirasakan, dengan tekanan


ringan tidak teraba

2+
3+

Nadi lemah
Normal

Denyutan Lebih kuat dibanding Thready

4+

Dapt teraba dengan mudah,dengan


palpasi ringan denyutan tidak teraba
Denyutan kuat dan teraba dengan palpasi
sedang

PENGUKURAN NADI
Temporal; passes over the
temporal bone of the head. The
site is superior and lateral to the
eye.
2. Carotid; at the side of the neck
between the trachea and the
sternocleiodomastoid muscle.
3. Apical; at the apex of the hearty.
About 8cm to the left of the
sternum and at the fourth and
sixth intercostals space.
4. Brachial; at the inner aspect of
the biceps muscle of the arm
1.

5. Radial; on the thumb side of


6.
7.
8.
9.

the inner aspect of the wrist


Femoral; alongside the
inguinal ligaments
Popliteal; behind the knee
Posterior tibial; on the
medial surface of the ankle
Pedal dorsalis pedis; over
the bones of the feet

Adalah jumlah
frekuensi pernafan
seseorang selama
satu menit
Frekuensi
pernafasan dihitung
setiap satu gerakan
inhalasi dan
ekshalasi

Mechanics and regulation of breathing


During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts the ribs
move upward and outward, and the sternum
moves outward, thus enlarging the thorax and
permitting the lungs to expand.
During exhalation. The diaphragm relaxes, the
ribs move downward and inward, and the
sternum moves inward, thus decreasing the size
of the thorax as the lungs are compressed.

Respiration is controlled by (a) respiratory


centers in the medulla oblongata and the pons
of the brain and (b) by chemo receptors
located centrally in the medulla and
peripherally in the carotid and aortic bodies.
External respiration; the interchange of oxygen
and carbon dioxide between the alveoli of the
lungs and the pulmonary blood. Internal
respiration; the interchange of these same
gases between the circulating blood and the
cells of the body tissues.

The respiratory rate is normally described in


breaths per minute, normal in depth and rate
called eupnea. Bradypnea; abnormally slow
respirations. Tachypnea; abnormally fast
respirations. Apnea; the absence of
breathing.

Abnormal Respiratory Rate

Respiration rates
over 25 or under 12
breaths per minute
(when at rest) may
be considered
abnormal

under 12 breaths

over 25 breaths

Respiratory Rate

Normal respiration
rates at rest range
from 15 to 20
breaths per minute.
In the cardiopulmonary illness, it
can be a very
reliable marker of
disease activity.

15

20

Factors affecting Respirations

Factors increase the rate:


Exercise
Increase metabolism
Stress
Increased environmental temperature
Lowered oxygen concentration

Factors decrease respiration rate:


Decreased environmental temperature
Certain medications such as narcotics
Increased intra cranial pressure

Respiration depth; is generally described as


normal, deep, or shallow. Deep respirations;
large volume of air is inhaled and exhaled,
inflated most of the lungs.
Shallow breathing involve the exchange of a
small volume of air and often the minimal use
of a lung tissue
Hyperventilation; refers to very deep, rapid
respiration.
Hypoventilation; refers to very shallow
respirations

Respiratory rhythm refers to the regularity of the


expirations and the inspirations .An respiratory
rhythm can be described as regular or irregular.
- Cheyne-stokes breathing, from very deep to very
shallow breathing and temporary apnea.

Breath sounds
- Stridor, harsh sound heard during inspiration with
laryngeal obstruction
- Stertor, snoring respiration usually due to a
partial obstruction of the upper airway.
- Wheeze, continuous, high pitched musical sound
occurring on expiration when air moves through
narrowed or partially obstructed air way.

Secretions and coughing


- Hemoptysis, the presence of blood in the sputum
- Productive cough, a cough accompanied by
expectorated secretions
- Nonproductive cough, a dry, harsh cough without
secretions

Preparation for
measurement

Patient should
abstain from eating,
drinking, smoking
and taking drugs that
affect the blood
pressure one hour
before
measurement.

Remember the following for accuracy of


your readings

Instruct your patients


to avoid coffee,
smoking or any other
unprescribed drug
with
sympathomimetic
activity on the day of
the measurement

Preparation for
measurement

Because a full
bladder affects the
blood pressure it
should have been
emptied.

Preparation for
measurement
Painful procedures
and exercise should
not have occurred
within one hour.
Patient should have
been sitting quietly
for about 5 minutes.

Preparation for
measurement

BP take in quiet room


and comfortable
temperature, must
record room
temperature and time
of day.

Position of the Patient


Sitting position
Arm and back are
supported.
Feet should be
resting firmly on the
floor
Feet not dangling.

Position of the arm

The measurements should be made on the right arm


whenever possible.
Patient arm should be resting on the desk and raised
(by using a pillow)

Position of the arm

Raise patient arm so that the brachial artery is roughly


at the same height as the heart. If the arm is held too
high, the reading will be artifactually lowered, and vice
versa.

Position of the arm

Palm is facing up.


The arm should remain somewhat bent and
completely relaxed

In order to measure the Blood


Pressure (equipment)

Pediatric Cuff size


Minimum Cuff Width:

2/3 length of upper


arm
Minimum Cuff length:
Bladder nearly
encircles arm

In order to measure the Blood


Pressure (equipment)

Adult Cuff size


Cuff Width: 40% of

limb's circumference
Cuff Length: Bladder at
80% of limb's
circumference

In order to measure the Blood


Pressure (equipment)

Adult Cuff size


Indications for large

cuff or thigh cuff


Upper arm

circumference >34 cm

Indications for forearm

cuff (with radial


palpation)
Upper arm

circumference >50 cm

Blood Pressure

If it is too small, the


readings will be
artificially elevated.
The opposite occurs
if the cuff is too large.
Clinics should have
at least 2 cuff sizes
available, normal and
large.

In order to measure the Blood


Pressure (Cuff Position)

Patient's arm
slightly flexed at
elbow
Push the sleeve up,
wrap the cuff around
the bare arm

In order to measure the Blood


Pressure (Cuff Position)

Cuff applied directly


over skin (Clothes
artificially raises
blood pressure )
Position lower cuff
border 2.5 cm
above antecubital
Center inflatable
bladder over
brachial artery

Measurement of the pulse rate

The manometer
scale should be at
eye level, and the
column vertical. The
patient should not be
able to see the
column of the
manometer

In order to measure the BP


Feel

for a pulse
from the artery
coursing through
the inside of the
elbow
(antecubital
fossa).

In order to measure the BP


Wrap the cuff around
the patient's upper
arm
Close the thumbscrew.

In order to measure the BP

With your left hand


place the
stethoscope head
directly over the
artery you found.
Press in firmly but not
so hard that you
block the artery.

Technique of BP measurement

Use your right hand


to pump the squeeze
bulb several times
and Inflate the cuff
until you can no
longer feel the pulse
to level above
suspected SBP

Technique of BP measurement

If you immediately
hear sound, pump up
an additional 20
mmHg and repeat

Technique of BP measurement

Deflate cuff slowly at


a rate of 2-3 mmHg
per second until you
can again detect a
radial pulse

Technique of BP measurement

Listen for auditory


vibrations from artery
"bump, bump, bump"
(Korotkoff)

In order to measure the BP

Systolic blood
pressure is the
pressure at which
you can first hear the
pulse.

In order to measure the BP

Diastolic blood pressure is the last pressure at


which you can still hear the pulse

In order to measure the BP

Avoid moving your


hands or the head of
the stethescope while
you are taking
readings as this may
produce noise that
can obscure the
Sounds of Koratkoff.

Technique of BP measurement
BP

must take
in both arms
and one lower
extremity.

In order to measure the BP

The two arm


readings should be
within 10-15 mm Hg.
Differences greater
then 10-15 imply
differential blood flow.

In order to measure the BP

If you wish to repeat


the BP measurement
you should allow the
cuff to completely
deflate, permit any
venous congestion in
the arm to resolve
and then repeat a
minute or so later.

Remember the following for


accuracy of your readings

If the BP is
surprisingly high or
low, repeat the
measurement
towards the end of
your exam
(Repeated blood

pressure
measurement can
be uncomfortable).

In order to measure the BP

You can verify the


SBP by palpation.
Place the index and
middle fingers of
your right hand over
the radial artery.

In order to measure the BP

Diastolic blood
pressure allow free
flow of blood without
turbulence and thus
no audible sound.
These are known as
the Sounds of
Koratkoff.

Blood pressure

The minimal SBP


required to maintain
perfusion varies with
the individual.
Interpretation of low
values must take into
account the clinical
situation.

Blood pressure for adult

Physician will want to


see multiple blood
pressure
measurements over
several days or
weeks before making
a diagnosis of
hypertension and
initiating treatment.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Pre-high blood
pressure: systolic
pressure consistently
120 to 139, or diastolic
80 to 89

Stage 1 high blood


pressure: systolic
pressure consistently
140 to 159, or diastolic
90 to 99

What Abnormal Results


Mean

Stage 2 high blood


pressure: systolic
pressure consistently
160 or over, or
diastolic 100 or over

What Abnormal Results


Mean

Hypotension (blood
pressure below
normal): may be
indicated by a
systolic pressure
lower than 90, or a
pressure 25 mmHg
lower than usual

Hypertension

High

blood pressure greater


than 139-89..

Blood pressure (mm Hg)


Normal blood
pressure 100/60 and
139/89.
Prehypertension
120,139-80,89

Blood pressure may be affected by


many different conditions
Cardiovascular
disorders
Neurological
conditions
Kidney and urological
disorders

Blood pressure may be affected by


many different conditions
Pre eclampsia in
pregnant women
Psychological factors
such as stress,
anger, or fear

Eclampsia

Blood pressure may be affected by


many different conditions

Various medications
"White coat hypertension" may occur if the
medical visit itself produces extreme anxiety

Remember the following for


accuracy of your readings

Orthostatic (postural)
measurements of
pulse and blood
pressure are part of
the assessment for
hypovolemia.

Remember the following for


accuracy of your readings

First measuring BP
when the patient is
supine and then
repeating them after
they have stood for
2 minutes, which
allows for
equilibration.

Remember the following for


accuracy of your readings
Systolic

blood
pressure does
not vary by more
then 20 points
when a patient
moves from
lying to standing.

Remember the following for


accuracy of your readings

Orthostatic
measurements may
also be used to
determine if postural
dizziness (diabethic
autonomic nervous
system dysfunction)
is the result of a fall
in blood pressure.

Vital signs

Oxygen Saturation

Over the past


decade, Oxygen
Saturation
measurement of gas
exchange and red
blood cell oxygen
carrying capacity has
become available in
all hospitals and
many clinics.

Oxygen Saturation

Oxygen Saturation
provide important
information about
cardio-pulmonary
dysfunction and is
considered by many
to be a fifth vital sign.

Oxygen Saturation

For those suffering


from either acute or
chronic cardiopulmonary disorders,
Oxygen Saturation
can help quantify the
degree of
impairment.