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Jaya Shree Textiles, Rishra

By:
Saakshi Pratishruti
Roll no: B/AP/11/2185
NIFT Kannur

INTRODUCTION
Jaya Shree Textiles ,a Unit of Aditya Birla Nuvo Ltd. is a leading player in Linen and
Wool segment of the Global Textile Business.
Jaya Shree Textiles was established in 1949 at Rishra in Hooghly district of West

Bengal
It has significantly revolutionized the Indian and
foreign textile market by popularizing Linen across a
wide customer base with its brand Linen Club.
Jaya Shree Textiles sells its products in over 50
countries, spanning all the six continents of the World.
The company offers a wide range of products such as
Linen Yarn, Linen Fabric, Worsted Yarn and Wool Tops.

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
SBU's

FLAX
SPINNING

LINEN
FABRICS

WOOL
COMBING

WORSTED
SPINNING

SUPPORTING
FUNCTIONS

FINANCE/
ACCOUNTS

HR

IRL

WCM

ENGINEERING/
IT

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
DEPARTMENT

MARKETING/
SALES

OPERATIONS

MAINTENANCE

PRODUCTION

QUALITY
CONTROL

PRODUCT RANGE:
Natural, Bleached & Multifold Yarns
Linen Yarn for Weaving

Dry Spun - From 5 Lea to 10 Lea

Wet Spun*- From 10 Lea to 100 Lea

Linen Yarn for Circular Knitting


Wet Spun*- From 40 Lea to 80 Lea

SOURCING:

The fibre is sourced from the best grade Western European Fibre from France and Belgium
for the entire requirement.

The varieties of the flax procured generally are:

1. Suzanne
2.

Lorea

3. Alizee
4. Malina

FLAX SPINNING PROCESS FLOWCHART


SORTING
HACKLING

CARDING

DRAWING
ROVING

WET SPINNING
RF DRYER
AUTOCONER
PACKAGING

GILL SPINNING (DRY)

BLEACHING
RING FRAME

WINDING
PACKING

DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS SEQUENCE


SORTING: In this process the bales of flax fibres are manually sorted by the workers into
bunch. The weight of the bunch prepared is 90-110 g.
HACKLING:

The aim of hackling is to clean, untangle and align parallel the bunch of scutched flax, to

separate the fibrous bundles and to start dividing them in order to form a continuous sliver
that is ready for doubling and drafting operations that come next.

Scutched flax is hackled on hackling frames.

Handfuls of strands of flax, weighing 90- 110 gram and held in mobile clamps are fed
manually in the hackling frames.

Moving up and down these clamps convey the fibrous bundles to a double set of combs.

CARDING: Carding continues the cleaning process removing fibers too short for yarns and
separating and straightening the fibers so that they lay parallel to each other. These fibers are
then spread into a thin, uniform web. The web moves into a funnel shaped device (trumpet)
where it is gathered into a rope like mass and formed into the card sliver.

Efficiency of carding machine used:


700 kg per 8 hours

COMBING: The combing process is normally used to produce smoother, finer, stronger and
more uniform yarns.The machines used for combing are as follows:
1. Bi-coiler machine

Make: GC- 14

Production: 18 g/m

2. Comber

No. of combers used: 6

Make: GC- 15 no. 1 &


GC 15 no. 2

Each type has 1 machine and the difference between the two are while GC 15 no 1 produces 18
g/m of sliver, the GC 15 no. 2 produces only 12 g/m of sliver.

DRAWING:

The purpose of drawing is to make yarn more uniform by combing and elongating multiple
slivers, thus eliminating the randomly occurring defects. In this process further attenuation of
fibres and doubling is done.

Several strands of sliver (typically eight to ten) from different carding machines are combined
and conveyed to the drawing machine, where they are pulled together and drawn out into a
new sliver no larger than one of the original single slivers. The loose, rope like strand of fibers
resulting from this process is called drawn sliver

No. of machines: 6
No of fed slivers/head

Doubling no of sliver

8 or 4

8 or 4

Wt. of delivered sliver min(m/min)

17

11

7.3

4.9 or
2.5

1.6 or
0.8

16~24

17~25

17~25

19~26

17~24

Speed of the delivery roller(m/min)

ROVING:

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
Number of heads

15

Number of spindles

120

into roving.

Diameter of front roller (in cm)

38.1

Twisting the drafted strand.

Diameter of back roller (in cm)

38

Winding the twisted roving on a

Diameter of wooden pressing


roller (in cm)
Motor

180-200

Attenuation- drafting the sliver

bobbin.

No. of machines: 6

Spinning speed: 17.9m/min

160M-615 KW

Distance between front and back


roller (in cm)
Bobbin size (in cm)

550
280 X 115 X 38

Overall size

15158 X 3600

Weight

16.6 TON

Count of rove

NM 1.8-3.8

Draft

8.34-12.51

Twist

29-41T/m

Flyer speed rpm

833

BLEACHING PLANT:

In bleaching plant the roving materials are bleached in order to remove the natural colour of
the yarn. Bleaching is done mainly by following chemicals:

a. Hydrogen peroxide

j. Securon 540

b. Acetic acid

k. Contavon GAL

c. Sulphuric acid

l. Stabilizer NKC

d. Alfox 200

m. Beta foam KS

e. Soda ash
f. Sodium sillicate
g. Sodium nitrate
h. sodium chloride
i. Caustic flakes

WET SPINNING : The spinnerets are submerged in a chemical bath and as the filaments
emerge they precipitate from solution and solidify. Because the solution is extruded directly into
the precipitating liquid, this process for making fibers is called wet spinning.
MACHINE PARAMETERS
Yarn linear density

20-60 tex (Nm)

Twist/meter
Twist direction
Setting(mm)
Yarn ring diameter
Wind height
Spindle speed
Drafting system

300-800Tm
Right Z
180 (front and back roller nip)
55mm
210mm
3700-3800
Single zone, single apron drafting system
with two pressure rollers

Power of motor
Spinning machine drive
Spindle gauge
Spindle quantity

15 KW
0,37
88mm
64, 192, 240, 256

R.F DRYER:
After coming out of ring frame the pirns are in wet condition. It cannot be wound further
without drying them. So, R.F Dryer is used in this case. The lot of pirns are passed through
the R.F Dryer at a temperature of 80 degree Celsius.

AUTO CONER
A winding machine used for automatic packaging of yarns into cone
or cheese form

In Auto coner there are 3 different coloured lights:


RED- when the machine stops due to entanglement of threads
GREEN- when the machine is running

YELLOW- when the package is complete

CONDITIONING ROOM:

In this stage the bigger package wound in the Auto coner machine are stored in a
conditioning room and from there they are sent for packaging.

PACKAGING:

Packaging plays a vital role in marketing a particular product. Here the bobbins are packed
and delivered for further processing or sold to the buyer.

Bigger Package Cone- 1.6 kg

Small Package Cone- 1 kg/900 gm

Gross Weight of the Carton- 26 kg

Total number of bobbins/carton- 26

Production per day- 600 kg

WOOL COMBING SECTION

WOOL COMBING PROCESS FLOWCHART


BLENDING
SCOURING

CARDING

PRE-COMB GILLING

COMBING
POST-COMB GILLING

PRESS PACKING

BLENDING:
In this process, the workers manually mix the different sub lots of wool and prepare it to be
fed to the next stage

SCOURING:
It is the process of removal of the natural grease, dust and dirt that are present in wool by
washing. The by-product of this
process is wool grease.
Machine used: Scouring machine

Width of the machine: 1.2 m

CAPACITY
BOWLS

TEMPERATURE IN THE BOWL


VOLUME (in

BOWLS

TEMPERATUR

litres)

E (in degree

5000

Celsius)

5000

65

5000

60

5000

60

5000

55

58

SQEEZE ROLLER MANGLE PRESSURE


BOWLS

PRESSURE(in
kg/sq.cm)

5.5

CARDING:

The process of carding separates the individual fibres, helps in removal of

vegetable matter from the fibre and in the formation of sliver.

Machine used: Carding machine

No. of machine: 2

PRE- COMB GILLING: It is the process of parallelisation of fibre by drafting and

maintaining the evenness of sliver through doubling.


Machine used: Gill box
No. of machines used: 4
No. of doubling: 8 max.
Draft range: 3-8.8
Fallers: 72(UPPER) + 72 (LOWER)
Faller width: 270 mm
No. of working faller: 72
Top roller dia: 78-80 mm
Top roller pressure: 200-250 IBS
Spray nozzle1.75- 2.5 mm
Ratch: 35-60 mm
Max. speed: 360 M/P/M

Application:
Attenuation and alignment of fibre by drafting through intersecting pinned fallers
Obtaining sliver evenness through doubling

COMBING: It is the process of removal of short fibres and neps from gilled input
material and to make crimped sliver as an output.

Machine used: Combing machine

No. of machine: 16

NIPs/min: max upto 210-240

Feed/length: 5.8-7.2 mm

Apron size: 640mm *530 mm


580mm* 546 mm

Top comb: 410 mm

Feed gill:

5 PPC- 2pc
6PPC- 3pc
7PPC- 4 pc

Comb setting: 1mm down the shovel plate

Brush setting: 2mm with doffer and to touch last 3 or 4 vario bar for every rotation

POST-COMB GILLING: It includes further parallelisation and evenness of sliver by


drafting and doubling and the formation of tops/ bumps.

Machine used: Gill box


No. of machines used: 4
No. of doubling: 8 max.
Draft range: 3-8/8
Fallers: 72(UPPER) + 72 (LOWER)
Faller width: 270 mm
No. of working faller: 72
Top roller dia: 78-80 mm
Top roller pressure: 200-250 IBS
Spray nozzle1.75- 2.5 mm
Ratch: 35-60 mm
Max. speed: 360 M/P/M
Max. speed: 360 M/P/M

PRESS PACKING: It involves the packing of tops and bumps in bale forms for
dispatch.

Materials used for press packing are:

Bailing press

HDPE Bag

Hoop iron strap

WEAVING SECTION

WEAVING PROCESS FLOWCHART


YARN PROCUREMENT

SECTIONAL WARPING

BEAMING

(incoming inspection
of yarn)

(Warping of yarn
according to pattern)

(Preparation of
weavers beam)

DRAWING-IN
(Drawing of yarn in
heald and reed)

GREY CHECKING
AND FOLDING

(checking for cloth


defects)

WEAVING

BEAM GAITING

(interlacement of warp
and weft yarn)

(mounting of weavers
beam and gaiting)

Yarn Procurement

In this process the yarn is received from the spinning section to be prepared for
sectional warping.

Sectional Warping

Weaving preparatory process involves the process of warping. Sectional warping is done
in the industry. The yarn cones are mounted on a creel which has a capacity of 480
cones.

Machine specifications:

o Manufacture name: - Prashant Gamatex.


o Model:-E.P 1100
o Size:-2200 mm
o Total No. of m/c: - 07

o Beam or drum dia. - 3 meter


o Warping speed - 150 m/min

o Travers speed 232.4 mm


o Reed space 78 inch max (64 inch avg. used)
2. Single End Warping m/c

Model: SUZUKI NAS-130


FEATURES:

o Types of creel: Parallel cone creel ( magazine creel)


o Capacity: 480

o Features: warp stop motion, when yarn breakS. Here photo electric sensors are used.
o Creeling time: 25-30 min.
o Type of tensioner: Mechanical type (spring plate).
o Adjustment of the tensioner: Manually.

DRAWING: To drive the ends through eyes of healds and dents to feed with the help of
reed hook.

There are total 26 drawing- in m/c for drawing- in beam. Two workers are required-

Drawer

Reacher

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS

Average no. of ends drawn/shift/operative for plain sorts- 6000-6500 ends.

Specifications of heald wire ,drop pins, heald wire

o For projectile -length 13

o For rapier length 15

Drop pins- Different weighted drop pins are used for different count
Finer count above 80 low weight

BEAMING

As soon as all the sections are wound on the drum, the weavers beam formation is started

by unwinding the threads from the dresser and winding them all simultaneously on the
weavers beam placed on the chuck. This operation is named beaming.

No of workers required- 2

Time required- 150 to 180 minutes

Beam dimension:
For Rapier: Dia. Of beam- 8.2
Length of the beam- 92

Weight of the beam- 128kg


For Projectile: Dia. Of beam- 7
Length of the beam- 92
Weight of the beam- 128kg

Shift wise productivity: 2 beam per shift (avg.)

Requirement of worker: 2

Transportation of beams: by using trolleys.

Yarn count: 40 Lea

Beam flange to flange distance in mm =915 mm

Creel capacity= 480

Total length in meter=1200 m

End/mm=2.2 mm

No. of section=4 of 480 ends& 1 of 93 ends

Section width=218.8 mm

WEAVING:

The weaving department is divided into 2 sheds.

Shed 1: 30 rapier looms


20 projectile looms

Shed 2: 48 Rapier looms

Almost 14,000 meters of fabric is made in 1 day

The maximum width of the fabric is 153 inches i.e. 390 cm. Other widths of fabric include

200, 220 and 190.

A variety of weaves are used such as plain, twill, satin and fancy weave. They also have
attachments for dobby. Plain weave is the most commonly used weave. The department
works in all the three shifts. All the looms are Sulzer Ruti Loom

MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS
Manufacturer- Sulzer Ruti
Model: Rapier- G6200 W 200 N6 SPK
Projectile -P 7200 B 390 N4 SPK, P 7200 W220 N4 SPK
Width of the machines-(rapier)
220cm (34 machines)
200 cm (24 machines)
190 cm (20 machines)
Width of the machines-(projectile)
Double width 153(6 machines)
Single width 85(14 machines)
Speed and efficiency:
Rapier Loom: For yarn dyed-300-350 RPM
For grey fabric- 400(+/-) 20RPM
Projectile: 250-350 RPM
Efficiency of the machine is 70-75 %

DYEING SECTION

PROCESS SEQUENCE FOR PIECE DYED


GREY FABRIC

SINGEING,DEMINERALISATION &
DWELLING (4 hrs.)

BLEACHING
ON CBR

DRY ON
STENTER

CAUSTIC PADDING IN CASE OF


LINEN/ COTTON FABRIC

WASH ON
WASHING
RANGE

DRY ON
DRYER

PADDING ON
KUSTER &
DWELLING

CHECKING OF
SHADE

RFD
CHECKING

CALENDERING

DRY ON
STENTER

FINSHING ON
STENTER

WASH ON
CBR

SANFORISING

LAB. TESTING

PROCESS SEQUENCE FOR YARN DYED


GREY
FABRIC

DWELLING

SINGEING

CBR

DRY ON STENTER

DYE ON PADDING
DWELLING

WASHING

PACKAGING

TESTING

CHECKING SHADE

SINGEING MACHINE:

The purpose of singeing is to remove the loose hairy fibers protruding from the surface of
the cloth or yarn.

It gives a smooth, even and clean look.

Setting Parameters:

For singeing and denim: 90 m/min

For chemical padding: 70 m/min

Mangle pressure: 2 bar

Burner Opening: 0.2 mm

Gas pressure: 10 Mbar

Air pressure: 40 Mbar

Machine Details:

Machine length: 16.815 m

Roller width: 2000 mm

Fabric width: 1800 mm

Production speed: 150 m/min

Water pressure: 2-3 bar

Water hardness: 4-10 ppm

Compressed air: 6 bar

Steam: 6 bar

Gas pressure: 100 mbar

Temp: 10-40 degree Celsius

Wet pick up: 90%

Light: 250 lux

Threading length: 60 m

CBR (CONTINUOUS BLEACHING RANGE)


The process: The purpose of bleaching includes the removal of the various natural, added or
acquired impurities from the grey cloth as efficiently as possible, with minimum or no damage

to the fiber and leaving the fabrics in a perfectly white state.

Machine Specifications:
No. of chambers: 8
CHAMBER no.

CAPACITY (in litres)

1200

1200

200

Steamer

1800

1800

1200

8a

600

8b

600

Threading length: 240 m (feed


roller and delivery roller)

Contact time in steamer: 2-2.5

min (90 m)

Roller width: 2200 m

Working with: 2200 m

Maximum speed: 50 m/min

Centrifugal pump is driven by


electric motor
Setting Parameters:

Pressure required:

Steam pressure: 5-6 bar

Water pressure: 2-4 bar

Air pressure: 5-6 bar

STENTER: Stenter is used for openform fabric.


The main function of stenter is to stretch the
fabric widthwise and to recover the uniform width.
Machine Specifications:

No. of heating chamber: 6

No. of radiator: 4 in each chamber

No. of blower: 12

Max. temperature: 180 degree Celsius

Std. temperature: 160-180 degree Celsius

Blower fan speed: 100 r.p.m

Mangle: 2 (one rubber & one helextra roller)

Workable width: 180 cm

Threading length: 100m

Trough capacity: 150 litres

CALENDARING
The process: calendaring is a finishing process
used on cloth where fabric is folded in half and

passed under rollers at high temperature and


pressure.
Machine Parameters:

Make Ramisch Guarneri

Standard speed 50m/min

Maximum speed 82m/min

Threading length 10metres

Working width 180 cms

Maximum temperature 150 degree

Standard temperature 100 degree

Maximum calendar pressure 350N/mm

Standard calendar pressure 200N/mm

WASHING RANGE
The process: After dyeing, the fabric needs to be washed so that the excess colour is washed
off. The fabric is passed through 6 chambers. Second and third chamber contains soap solution.
Machine Specifications

Make ERBATECH Germany

Number of chambers - 6

Temperature of 1 to 4th chamber is 85-90 degree Celsius.

Temperature of 5th chamber is 30-35 degree Celsius.

Temperature of 6th chamber is 40 degree Celsius

Capacity of each chamber 600 litres\

Number of fibres cleaning filter 2 (attached with chamber number 2 and 4)

Maximum speed 50 m/min

Threading length 120 m (from entry in the first chamber to delivery width)

Roller width 1900 mm

Working width 1700mm

JIGGER MACHINE

The jig dyeing process involves treating fabric in open width form.

Jigger consists of a trough, fitted with two rollers known as draw rollers. An immersion roller is
provided in the bottom zone of the trough. Guide rollers are provided for guiding the path of the
fabric.

The fabric in the open-width form is wound on one of the draw rollers, from where it is unwound
and passed into the dye liquor contained in the trough with the help of the immersion roller.

After immersion, the fabric is wound on the

other draw roller.Then the fabric is passed


in the reverse direction again into the dye
bath.
Machine Used:

Make:-Pacific-Harish Industries Ltd.

Types:- (1) Jumbo Jigger


(2) Pacific Jigger(J;N1;N2;E)

SOFT FLOW MACHINE

In the soft flow dyeing machine water is used


for keeping the fabric in circulation.

There is no stopping of liquor or fabric


circulation for usual drain and fill steps.

Make:-ACME Machinery Industries Company


Ltd.,TAIWAN

Maxm Temp.:- 980C

Capacity:-For fabric

For Water

(1).150 Kg

700-800 L

(2).250 Kg

700-800 L

No. of m/c:- 02

ZERO ZERO SANFORISING


MACHINE

Make:-CORINO Spretto Rimar Santex


Group

Standard speed 30m/min

Working width 170 cm

Standard temperature of the rubber


blanket 125 to 130 degree Celsius

Standard wooden felt temperature 130


to 140 degree Celsius

Rubber thickness 40 to 65 mm

Air pressure 4 bar (max 6 bar)

Threading length 30 metre

Jaya Shree Textiles follows stringent quality processes and has the following certifications

to its credit: ISO 9001, ISO 14001, SA 8000, OHSAS 18001 and Oeko-tex 100.

FLAX QUALITY DEPARTMENT:


The machines used for quality control in this department are as follows:

USTER TESTER 5 [ UT - 5]
Application scope: Measurement of Unevenness % and imperfections in yarn, unevenness
% of roving and sliver, Automatic check of all values, diagrams and spectrograms.
Simulation of yarn boards woven and knitted fabrics.
USTER TENSORAPID 4 [UTR - 4]
Application: the USTER TENSORAPID 4 is a tensile testing installation for the quality
control in the textile industry. The determined values for the tensile force and the elongation

percentage

YARN APPEARANCE BOARD WINDER - MOTORIZED


Application : precise preparation of yarn appearance board for accuracy assessment of
imperfection to grade the yarn

WRAP REEL
Application : Length measurement for determination of yarn count

ELECTRONIC BALANCE
Application : Weight measurement

SPECTROPHOTOMETER
Application : Colour matching and quality control in the laboratory

SINGLE YARN STRENGTH TESTER


Application : Yarn Strength Measurement

WEAVING QUALITY DEPARTMENT:


COUNT OF YARN
G.S.M
BREAKING STRENGTH
COUNT OF YARN
G.S.M
BREAKING STRENGTH
TEARING STRENGTH
AIR PERMEABILITY TESTING MACHINE
CREASE RECOVERY ANGLE TESTER
BENDING LENGTH TESTER FOR STIFFNESS
BLEND ANALYSIS (BLEND PERCENTAGE)

DYEING QUALITY DEPARTMENT:


1. Colour fastness to washing
Equipment: Infra Red Dryer

Test method: AATCC 61 A


2. Colour fastness to perspiration
Equipment: Perspirometer
Test method: AATCC 15
3. Colour fastness to light
Equipment: Water cooled machine and xenon arc lamp
Test method: AATCC 16 E

4. Colour fastness to crocking/rubbing


Equipment: Paramount manual crockmeter
Test method: AATCC 8

5. Measurement of core pH
Equipment: Paramount pH meter with 0.1 graduation and buffer solution of pH 4 and 7
Test method:AATCC 81
6. Residual shrinkage percentage
Equipment: Paramount accu shrinkage scale
IFB washing machine
Tumble drier
Flat bed press
Test method: AATCC 135
7. Tensile strength in lbs

Equipment: Fabric strength tester


Test method:IS-1670-1970
8. tensile strength in kg
Equipment: Universal testing machine

Test method: ASTM D 5034: 1995

9. Tear strength (in lbs)


Equipment: Elmedorf tearing strength tester
Test method: ASTM D1424
10. Pilling Resistance
Equipment: Martindale pilling and abrasion resistance tester
Test method: ASTMD-4970
11. Abrasion resistance
Equipment: Martindale pilling and abrasion resistance tester
Test method: ASTMD 4966
12. Seam strength (in kg)
Equipment: Universal testing machine
Test method: ASTMD434:1995

13. Water repellency test, spray test


Equipment: AATCC spray tester,beaker, disilled water
Test method: AATCC 22-2001

14. Oil repellency


Equipment: Test liquids prepared and numbered according to the table, dropping
bottles, white AATCC Textile botting paper
Test method: AATCC 118- 2002
15. Determination of flammability and flame resistance of fabric
Equipment: Vertical flame resistance tester
Test method: IS: 1871-1986 Method A
16. Protective clothing- protection against heat and flame
Equipment: Horizontal flame resistance tester
Test method:BSEN352-1995

17. Method for determining the fire resistance of coated and uncoated textiles

Equipment: 45 degree angle flammability tester


Test method:UIC564-2
18. Method for determining deterioration of visibility due to smoke released on
combustion of materials
Equipment: Deterioration of visibility due to smoke release tester
Test method: UIC 564-2