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A Nation Deceived:

How Schools Hold Back Americas


Brightest Students
by

Nicholas Colangelo
Susan G. Assouline
The University of Iowa
Miraca U.M. Gross
University of New South Wales

A Nation Deceived
http://www.nationdeceived.org

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

A Nation Deceived

Time Magazine
Education Week
New York Times
Boston Globe
Radio
Keynotes
Evaluation in Progress

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Website
www.NationDeceived.org
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The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

We must not be content with any


system of universal education that
provides identical treatment for all
pupils.
Leona E. Tyler (1974)

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Help students learn only what they


dont already know.
Julian C. Stanley

Acceleration is about children, not


statistics.
Templeton Report
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Definitions
Progress through an educational program at rates
faster or at ages younger than conventional.
(Pressey, 1949)

to provide an appropriate level of challenge, and to


reduce the time period necessary for students to
complete traditional schooling.
National Association for Gifted Children
Position Paper 11/92

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

18 Types of Acceleration
Examples:
Early entrance to school
Grade-skipping (whole-grade acceleration)
Subject matter acceleration
Self-paced instruction
Curriculum compacting
Mentoring
Advanced Placement / Post-secondary
courses
Early entrance to college
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Subject-Based Acceleration
Provides student advanced content, skills and
understandings before expected age or grade level

Early entrance to kindergarten or first grade


Single-subject acceleration
Compacted curriculum
Distance learning
Talent search programs
Independent study/Mentoring
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Grade-Based Acceleration
Shortens the number of years a student
remains in the K-12 school system

Grade skipping
Multi-grade classrooms
Grade telescoping (2 years in one)
Early admission to college

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Types of Acceleration
Individual
Student
Grade-Skipping
Early Entrance
Mentoring

Group
Single-Subject
Acceleration

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

AP

No paradox is more striking than the


inconsistency between research findings on
acceleration and the failure of our society to
reduce the time spent by superior students in
formal education
M.J. Gold
Education of the Intellectually Gifted (1965)
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Acceleration is one of the most curious


phenomena in the field of education. I can think
of no other issue in which there is such a gulf
between what research has revealed and what
most practitioners believe. The research on
acceleration is so uniformly positive, the benefits
of appropriate acceleration so unequivocal, that it
is difficult to see how our educators could
oppose it.
James H. Borland
Professor
Teachers College, Columbia University (1989)
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Meta-Analytic Studies
of Acceleration
Meta-analytic reviews have
consistently concluded that educational
acceleration helps students
academically without shortchanging
them socially and emotionally.
James A. Kulik
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Meta-Analytic Studies
of Acceleration
Meta-analytic studies also show that
other provisions for the gifted are less
effective than acceleration.
No other arrangement for gifted children
works as well as acceleration.
James A. Kulik
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Academic Effects
The studies reported here provide
educational decision-makers with a
large, research-supported menu of
accelerative options that may result in
significant academic achievement for
gifted learners.
Karen B. Rogers

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Social-Emotional Effects
None of the options has been shown to
do psychosocial damage to gifted
students as a group; when effects are
noted, they are usually (but not
invariably) in a positive direction.
Nancy M. Robinson

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Long-Term Effects
Adult surveys of gifted individuals reveal
that they do not regret their acceleration.
Rather, they regret not having
accelerated more.
(Lubinski, Webb, et al., 2001)

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Radical Acceleration
[Radical accelerants] achieve high,
sometimes extraordinary, levels of
academic success at college and
university.
Radical accelerants socialize well with
their older classmates.
Miraca U.M. Gross

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Early Entrance to School


Practically every reviewer of this
literature [early entrance to school]
has weighed in favorably about the
practice of permitting early entrance,
but invariably with caveats.
Nancy M. Robinson

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Early Entrance to School


As our results show clearly, early
entrants are definitely not the
students most at risk for
adjustment problems.
Gagn & Gagnier, 2004

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Grade-Skipping
Not only was academic achievement
more positive for the grade skipped
learners, but also their social
adjustment and academic self-esteem
were more positive.
Karen B. Rogers

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Grade-Skipping
The Iowa Acceleration Scale (IAS)
has been found to be a highly
effective decision-making instrument.
Nicholas Colangelo, Susan G. Assouline,
& Ann E. Lupkowski-Shoplik

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Iowa Acceleration Scale (IAS)


Instrument to help schools make effective
decision regarding a grade-skip.
The IAS and manual (2nd edition) are
available from Great Potential Press
http://www.giftedbooks.com

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Advanced Placement (AP)


AP is viewed as the best large-scale
option currently available for challenging
academically prepared youth while they
are still in high school.
(Benbow & Stanley, 1983;
National Research Council, 2002)

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Advanced Placement (AP)


Those who did participate [in AP] more
frequently expressed satisfaction with
the intellectual caliber of their high
school experience, compared with
those who did not.
(Bleske-Recheck, Lubinski, & Benbow, 2004)

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Early Entrance to College


Clearly, the research on groups of
early entrants strongly suggests
that many of [the students] were
highly successful academically
without experiencing concomitant
social or emotional difficulties.
Linda E. Brody, Michelle C. Muratori,
& Julian C. Stanley
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

3 Most Difficult Decisions


Early entrance to school
Grade-skipping
Early entrance to college
Lower in Difficulty
Subject-matter acceleration
AP/IBP
Dual enrolled in college courses
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Decision-Making Factors:
Policies on Acceleration
Cost
Minimal
Needed Personnel None
Research Evidence Highly Positive
Public Beliefs
Generally
Negative
Educator Views
Strongly Negative

James J. Gallagher
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Equity
Acceleration levels the playing
field of opportunity because any
cost to the family or school is
minimal
Nation Deceived (2004)
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Cost Effectiveness of Acceleration


To the student/family
To the school system
To the community

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Why Do Schools Hold Back Our


Brightest Students?
Not aware of the research
Aware of the research but dismiss it

Does not fit with personal


preferences / philosophy
Does not fit with political agenda
Colleges of Education
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Why Do Schools Hold Back Our


Brightest Students?

Gaps in knowledge
Social/emotional adjustments
Long-term effects
Hurrying or pressuring children
Status quo causes no harm
Unfair to other students

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Goal of the Templeton National


Report on Acceleration
Change conversations in
schools about acceleration
and gifted students.

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Goal of the Templeton National


Report on Acceleration
Educators would ask three questions:
Is the student ready?
Which type of acceleration?
What can we do as a school to ensure
that acceleration will work for this
student?
The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

What to Do

Know the research


Consider types of acceleration
Personal attitudes/System policies
Build an effective relationship with parents
of high ability students

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development

Open your minds

Thank You!

The Connie Belin & Jacqueline N. Blank International Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development