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Chapter 6

COMMUNICATION
Please, do not underestimate
the importance of communication in engineering.

audience
Fellow engineers
Supervisor
Skill craftsmen
Public
Government

The presentation must be


clear and precise
so that massage comes cross.

6.1 General Aspects of Effective


Communication
Written communication
Oral communication
Graphical communication

Verbal skills of wrting and speaking,


graphical and computer methods

Convey &
Persuade

6.2 Written Communication


Notes and records
Memoranda and letters
Technical reports

6.2.1 Notes and Records


Informal notes: day to day activities,
calculation, conversation
Formal notes: data records

6.2.2 Memoranda and Letters


Memoranda; commucation within a
company
Date, name, title, and address to the
receiver (to), and sender (from), short
statement of the topic (subject), signs, cc
(carbon copy) (Fig 6.3)
Letters (Fig. 6.4): date, address, Dear ,
content, Sincerely yours

6.2.3 Technical Reports


Writing a long report is painful for
everyone.
Table 6.1 Outline of a Technical Report :

Text:

Title Page

Introduction

Abstract

Experiments and tests

Table of contents

Analysis

List of figures and Tables

Result and discustion

Nomenclature

Summary and conclutions

Acknowlegments

References
Appendices

Illustrations, graphs, and tables

Introduction:
What was done,
Why it was done,
how it was done

Back ground for the work, relating it to similar studies performed in the past.
Literature survey, to judge the importance of work.
The purpose and scope of the work

Description of the work:


How much detail to include
-Out line the method of approach and solution technique
-Detail algebra, apparatus, computer programs etc.
Should be relagated to appendices

Resuls and Discustion:


Not just to show the graphs with data and verbal statement,
but it should alsocritically evaluate these results.
- Interpretation and opinion

The Sumary and Conclutions


Only the facts (and not opinion)

The Abstract
-The abstract is concise summary of the work that is usually written
after the main text.
- Summary of the introduction and thr conclutions sections.

Appendices
-Detail of the calculations, the experiments,
and the data should be included in the appendices.
-Only to persons who might want to repeat the work.

The References
Textbook, report, journal, proceeding, etc.

The Title Page


The title of report
The name and the title of author(s)
The name and address of the organization issuing the report
The number and date of the report.

The Table of Contents


List the title of all sections and sub sections and their page numbers.

List of figures and Tables


The title of all figure and tables and their page numbers

Nomenclatur
All symbols used in the report are listed and defined in the nomenclature section

6.2.4 Manuals and Technical


Specifications
Operating Manual
Directed toward individuals without extensive technical background!

Tested on a trial basis before implementation

Technical Spesifications
-Reference for expericed users
-Must be accurate and complete

Sulit dan
perlu pengalaman

Pruduk

Rancangan

6.2.5 Proposals and Sales


Literature
The technical proposal

To sell an idea

Not to a general
audience

To propose
a certain project or activity
Only one person
Or
Organization:
The prospective sponsor
Or client

External agency
Government
Who will give a funding or grant

Table 6.2 The outline or Technical Proposal

Cover material
Abstract
Table of contents
Text
Introduction
Objective
Background
Method of approch
Timetable
Documentation of qulifications
Participating engineer biographical data
Facilities of supporting institution

Other required documentation


Cost estimate and budget
Patent agreements
Security provisions

Engineer :
Technical information

Sales literature:
Professional marketing or
Advertising staff

6.3 Oral Communication

1.
2.
3.

Well organized:
The introduction
The description of work and results
The conclusions and summary

The introduction:
The objective &
The Reason

From general to specific

TIPS
Visual aid: 4 to 5 /ten minutes
Mathematical symbols should be
minimized
The presentation should be simple and to
the point
3 or 4 major ideas can be absorb 30 to 50
minute talk
Train hard, fight easy

6.4 Graphical Communication


A picture is worth a thousand words

Graphics

transmitting

Technical information
pictorally or
Symbolically
By means of
Images or illustrations
Etc.

6.4.1 Graphs
Bar charts
Pie or circle cahart
Line chart or graph

The process of constructing graphs:


Select the scale to be used
Identify the scale and parameter on each axis
Plot points on the graphs using proper symbol
Connect the points (fitting)
Identify and label each curve symbol
Add all necessary legends
Add aption, including figure number and title

6.4.2 Tables
Used to disguise poor data

6.4.3 Technical Illustrations


Engineering graphics (gambar teknik)

1. Block diagrams: major components


2. Schematic line diagrams; detailed representation
3. Pictorial drawings
3a. Isometric and perspective
3b. Multiview drawings
3c. Photographs

6.5 Computers and Communication


6.5.1 Impact on Communication

Wordprocessing systems
Computer graphics
Etc.

Easy
Efficient
fast

6.5.2 Computer Sofware


Banyak sekali !!!!