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All objects available with us are being described

by world coordinate system.
But our display devices like monitor, printout
etc. are 2Dimensional.
So, we need to convert these 3D objects to 2D.
i.e., we need to convert the world coordinates
into screen coordinates. This process of
conversion of 3D objects to a 2D screen is
known as projection.

In general, a projection transforms a Ndimension points to (N-1) dimensional points.
An object is projected by projecting each of its


COP: Its a point from where projection is taken. It can either be light source or eye position.
Projection or image plane: The plane on which projection of object formed.
Projectors: Lines emerge from COP and hit the projection plane.

Categories of Projections

Parallel Projections

This is a type of projection in which the center of

projection is situated at infinite distance such that
projectors(lines) are parallel to each other.
The plane on which we are taking the projection is
called view plane.
The principle: Select a direction v and construct a ray
that starts at a general point P on the object and goes
in the direction v. The point P where this ray
intercepts the projection plane becomes the projection
of P. The process is repeated for all the points on the
object, creating a set of parallel rays
The point of intersection is the projection of the

Parallel Projections
Here our objective is to represent a 3D object
onto a 2D plane like a monitor and to discard z
Our special case of discarding z coordinate is
the case, where the screen or viewing surface,
is parallel to xy plane and lines of projection are
parallel to the z axis.
So as we move along the lines of projection,
only the z coordinates changes while x and y
values remain constant.

Parallel Projections
The views formed by parallel projection varies
according to the angle that the direction of
projection makes with the projection plane.

Parallel Projections
Mathematical treatment
Assume that the direction of projection is given
by the vector (xp,yp,zp) and that the image is
projected onto the xy plane.
Say, the point on the object is (x1,y1,z1) and
now we wish to find out where the projected
point (x2,y2) will lie.
Now, the equation of a line passing through the
point (x1,y1,z1) and the direction of projection
with the use of parametric form as

Parallel Projections
If z=0, then equ 3 becomes
or u= -z1/zp ------------equ4

Parallel Projections
Putting equ4 in 1 and 2 we get
x2=x1-z1 (xp/zp)
y2=y1-z1 (yp/zp)
In homogenous matrix form we can rewrite as follows.
[x2, y2, z2 1] = [x1, y1, z1 1]
x p / y p y p / x p


0 0
0 0
0 0

0 1

Parallel Projections

Figure 2.1 illustrates the principle of parallel projections.

In Figure 2.1a the rays are perpendicular to the projection plane and is called
orthographic projections.
In Figure 2.1b they strike at a different angle.
This is why the it is called oblique projection
Figure 2.1c shows a different interpretation of parallel projections.
Because the rays are parallel, we can imagine that they originate at a
canter of projection located at infinity. This interpretation unifies parallel
and perspective projections and is in accordance with the general rule of projections
which distinguishes between parallel and perspective projections by the
location of the center of projection. It is called Axonometric projections.

Orthographic Projections
The family of orthographic projections is the simplest of the three types of
parallel projections.
The principle is to imagine a box around the object to be projected and to
project the object flat on each of the six sides of the box. If the object is
simple and familiar, three projections, on three orthogonal sides, may be

Orthographic Projections
If one side of the box is the xy plane, then a point P =
(x, y, z) is projected on this side by removing its z
coordinate to become P = (x, y). This operation can be
carried out formally by multiplying P by matrix Tz.
Similarly, matrices Tx and Ty project points
orthographically on the yz and the xz planes,

Oblique Projections
An oblique projection is a special case of a parallel
projection (i.e., with a center of projection at infinity)
where the projecting rays are not perpendicular to the
projection plane.
Oblique projections generally show more object
details than axonometric projections but distort angles
and dimensions even more.
In an oblique projection, only those faces of the
object that are parallel to the projection plane are
projected with their true dimensions.
Other faces are distorted such that measuring
dimensions on them requires calculations

Oblique Projections
Figure illustrates the principle of oblique projections.
A three-dimensional point P = (x, y, z) is projected obliquely
onto a point P on the xy plane.

We denote the point (x, y, 0) by Q and examine the angle

between the two segments PP and
A cavalier projection is obtained when = 45.
A cabinet projection is the result of = 63.43.

Oblique Projections

A cavalier projection. It is defined as the case where

the projection angle is 45,which implies s = cot(45) =
1. Thus, all edges and segments have shrink factors of
A projection angle of 90. A value = 90 implies a
shrink factor s = cot(90) =0. Matrix T of Equation (2.9)
reduces to matrix Tz of Equation (2.1), showing how the
oblique projection reduces in this case to an
orthographic projection.
A cabinet projection. It is defined as the case where
the projection angle is 63.43, which implies s =
cot(63.43) = 1/2. All edges and segments
perpendicular to the projection plane have shrink
factors of 1/2.

Axonometric Projections
The term axonometric is derived from the Greek
or o (axon, axis) and o (metron, a measure).
To construct an axonometric projection, the object
may first have to be rotated to bring the desired faces
toward the projection plane.
It is then projected on that plane in parallel. We
assume that the projection plane is the xy plane, so the
projection is done by clearing the z coordinates of all
the points or, equivalently, by multiplying each point,
after rotating it, by matrix Tz.
Assuming that we first rotate the object degrees
about the y axis and then degrees about the x axis,
the combined rotation/projection matrix is

Axonometric Projections

Axonometric Projections
Figure 2.6a shows a unit cube rotated such that its three sides, which used to
be parallel to the coordinate axes, seem to have different lengths. Such an
axonometric projection is called trimetric.
Figure 2.6b shows the same unit cube rotated such that two of its three sides
seem to have the same length, while the third side looks shorter. Such an
axonometric projection is called dimetric.
Similarly, Figure 2.6c shows the same unit cube rotated such that all its sides
seem to have the same length. This type of axonometric projection is called

Comparing Parallel Projections

Axonometric and oblique projections are generally
considered different, but Figure shows that the
difference between them is a matter of taste and
If we rotate the object and light rays of the oblique
projection 45 counterclockwise, the result on the
projection plane is identical to the axonometric

Perspective Projections
The term perspective refers to several
techniques that create the illusion of depth
(three dimensions) on a two-dimensional
Linear perspective is one of these methods.
It can be defined as a method for correctly
placing objects in a painting or a drawing so they
appear closer to the observer or farther away
from him.

Perspective Projections
The first step toward understanding perspective is an
understanding of converging lines and vanishing points.
Imagine a simple house shaped like a cube. If we stand
in front of it, we see only its front wall, a square, much
like the one depicted in Figure 3.5a. If, however, we
imagine the house to be transparent, it would look like
part (b) of the figure. Its back wall is farther away from
us, so it looks smaller than its front wall, which is why
the four parallel lines connecting the front and back
walls do not look parallel; they seem to converge to an
imaginary point called a vanishing point.

Perspective Projections
We now walk around our transparent, cubic
house and turn to the left, such that our line of
sight is aimed at one of the corners, as shown in
Figure 3.5c. The house is the same: it hasnt
moved or changed shape. We, the viewers, are
also the same, only our position and orientation
have changed. Yet, when we look at the house,
we see two groups of lines converging at two
vanishing points (Figure 3.5d).

Perspective Projections

Perspective Projections
Figure 3.6 shows examples of perspective with three
vanishing points. Imagine a person standing in front of
a corner of a skyscraper, craning his neck in an attempt
to see all the way to the top of the building.
Because of the height of the building, its top seems
smaller than its bottom, so the straight, parallel lines
connecting top to bottom also seem to converge to a
vanishing point. Even a small object, such as a cube,
can feature three vanishing points if it is hoisted up and
we are positioned under it. Even a small, one-story
house can feature three vanishing points if it has a
traditional pitched roof.

Perspective Projections

Perspective Projections
Perspective Projections are of 3types
a. 1 point perspective projection
b. 2 point perspective projection
c. 3 point perspective projection
a. One point perspective projection occurs when--1. Only one principal axis intersects the plane of projection
.2 When the projection plane is parallel to two principal axis or conversely,
when the view plane is perpendicular to one of the principal axis.
b. Two point perspective projection occurs when--1.When plane of projection intersects exactly two of the principal axis.
2. Two point perspective projection can also be obtained by the concatenation
of two single point perspective transformation.
c. Three point perspective projection occurs when--1. This occurs when the view plane/ projection plane intersects all of the
3 principal axis i.e, none of the principal axis is parallel to the projection
plane. This has got 3 vanishing points.

Perspective projections Characteristics

1. Perspective Foreshortening:
Perspective projections produce realistic views but does not preserve
relative proportions of object dimensions.
Projections of distant objects are smaller than the projections of the
objects of the same size that are closer to the projection plane or center
of projection. So, it is defined as an illusion that objects and lengths
appear smaller as their distance from the center of projection increases.
2. Vanishing points:
The phenomena of illusion that after projection certain set of parallel
lines appear to meet at some point on the projection plane is called as
fanning and the points are known as vanishing points.
For example, a railway track is an example of real life which appears to
meet at the vanishing point.