various types of projections are described

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various types of projections are described

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by world coordinate system.

But our display devices like monitor, printout

etc. are 2Dimensional.

So, we need to convert these 3D objects to 2D.

i.e., we need to convert the world coordinates

into screen coordinates. This process of

conversion of 3D objects to a 2D screen is

known as projection.

Projections

In general, a projection transforms a Ndimension points to (N-1) dimensional points.

An object is projected by projecting each of its

endpoints.

Projections

COP: Its a point from where projection is taken. It can either be light source or eye position.

Projection or image plane: The plane on which projection of object formed.

Projectors: Lines emerge from COP and hit the projection plane.

Categories of Projections

Parallel Projections

projection is situated at infinite distance such that

projectors(lines) are parallel to each other.

The plane on which we are taking the projection is

called view plane.

The principle: Select a direction v and construct a ray

that starts at a general point P on the object and goes

in the direction v. The point P where this ray

intercepts the projection plane becomes the projection

of P. The process is repeated for all the points on the

object, creating a set of parallel rays

The point of intersection is the projection of the

vertex.

Parallel Projections

Here our objective is to represent a 3D object

onto a 2D plane like a monitor and to discard z

coordinates.

Our special case of discarding z coordinate is

the case, where the screen or viewing surface,

is parallel to xy plane and lines of projection are

parallel to the z axis.

So as we move along the lines of projection,

only the z coordinates changes while x and y

values remain constant.

Parallel Projections

The views formed by parallel projection varies

according to the angle that the direction of

projection makes with the projection plane.

Parallel Projections

Mathematical treatment

Assume that the direction of projection is given

by the vector (xp,yp,zp) and that the image is

projected onto the xy plane.

Say, the point on the object is (x1,y1,z1) and

now we wish to find out where the projected

point (x2,y2) will lie.

Now, the equation of a line passing through the

point (x1,y1,z1) and the direction of projection

with the use of parametric form as

Parallel Projections

x=x1+xpu------equ1

y=y1+ypu-------equ2

z=z1+zpu--------equ3

If z=0, then equ 3 becomes

0=z1+zpu

or u= -z1/zp ------------equ4

Parallel Projections

Putting equ4 in 1 and 2 we get

x2=x1-z1 (xp/zp)

y2=y1-z1 (yp/zp)

In homogenous matrix form we can rewrite as follows.

0

1

0

1

[x2, y2, z2 1] = [x1, y1, z1 1]

x p / y p y p / x p

0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 1

Parallel Projections

In Figure 2.1a the rays are perpendicular to the projection plane and is called

orthographic projections.

In Figure 2.1b they strike at a different angle.

This is why the it is called oblique projection

Figure 2.1c shows a different interpretation of parallel projections.

Because the rays are parallel, we can imagine that they originate at a

canter of projection located at infinity. This interpretation unifies parallel

and perspective projections and is in accordance with the general rule of projections

which distinguishes between parallel and perspective projections by the

location of the center of projection. It is called Axonometric projections.

.

Orthographic Projections

The family of orthographic projections is the simplest of the three types of

parallel projections.

The principle is to imagine a box around the object to be projected and to

project the object flat on each of the six sides of the box. If the object is

simple and familiar, three projections, on three orthogonal sides, may be

enough.

Orthographic Projections

If one side of the box is the xy plane, then a point P =

(x, y, z) is projected on this side by removing its z

coordinate to become P = (x, y). This operation can be

carried out formally by multiplying P by matrix Tz.

Similarly, matrices Tx and Ty project points

orthographically on the yz and the xz planes,

respectively.

Oblique Projections

An oblique projection is a special case of a parallel

projection (i.e., with a center of projection at infinity)

where the projecting rays are not perpendicular to the

projection plane.

Oblique projections generally show more object

details than axonometric projections but distort angles

and dimensions even more.

In an oblique projection, only those faces of the

object that are parallel to the projection plane are

projected with their true dimensions.

Other faces are distorted such that measuring

dimensions on them requires calculations

Oblique Projections

Figure illustrates the principle of oblique projections.

A three-dimensional point P = (x, y, z) is projected obliquely

onto a point P on the xy plane.

between the two segments PP and

PQ.

A cavalier projection is obtained when = 45.

A cabinet projection is the result of = 63.43.

Oblique Projections

the projection angle is 45,which implies s = cot(45) =

1. Thus, all edges and segments have shrink factors of

1.

A projection angle of 90. A value = 90 implies a

shrink factor s = cot(90) =0. Matrix T of Equation (2.9)

reduces to matrix Tz of Equation (2.1), showing how the

oblique projection reduces in this case to an

orthographic projection.

A cabinet projection. It is defined as the case where

the projection angle is 63.43, which implies s =

cot(63.43) = 1/2. All edges and segments

perpendicular to the projection plane have shrink

factors of 1/2.

Axonometric Projections

The term axonometric is derived from the Greek

or o (axon, axis) and o (metron, a measure).

To construct an axonometric projection, the object

may first have to be rotated to bring the desired faces

toward the projection plane.

It is then projected on that plane in parallel. We

assume that the projection plane is the xy plane, so the

projection is done by clearing the z coordinates of all

the points or, equivalently, by multiplying each point,

after rotating it, by matrix Tz.

Assuming that we first rotate the object degrees

about the y axis and then degrees about the x axis,

the combined rotation/projection matrix is

Axonometric Projections

Axonometric Projections

Figure 2.6a shows a unit cube rotated such that its three sides, which used to

be parallel to the coordinate axes, seem to have different lengths. Such an

axonometric projection is called trimetric.

Figure 2.6b shows the same unit cube rotated such that two of its three sides

seem to have the same length, while the third side looks shorter. Such an

axonometric projection is called dimetric.

Similarly, Figure 2.6c shows the same unit cube rotated such that all its sides

seem to have the same length. This type of axonometric projection is called

isometric.

Axonometric and oblique projections are generally

considered different, but Figure shows that the

difference between them is a matter of taste and

terminology.

If we rotate the object and light rays of the oblique

projection 45 counterclockwise, the result on the

projection plane is identical to the axonometric

projection.

Perspective Projections

The term perspective refers to several

techniques that create the illusion of depth

(three dimensions) on a two-dimensional

surface.

Linear perspective is one of these methods.

It can be defined as a method for correctly

placing objects in a painting or a drawing so they

appear closer to the observer or farther away

from him.

Perspective Projections

The first step toward understanding perspective is an

understanding of converging lines and vanishing points.

Imagine a simple house shaped like a cube. If we stand

in front of it, we see only its front wall, a square, much

like the one depicted in Figure 3.5a. If, however, we

imagine the house to be transparent, it would look like

part (b) of the figure. Its back wall is farther away from

us, so it looks smaller than its front wall, which is why

the four parallel lines connecting the front and back

walls do not look parallel; they seem to converge to an

imaginary point called a vanishing point.

Perspective Projections

We now walk around our transparent, cubic

house and turn to the left, such that our line of

sight is aimed at one of the corners, as shown in

Figure 3.5c. The house is the same: it hasnt

moved or changed shape. We, the viewers, are

also the same, only our position and orientation

have changed. Yet, when we look at the house,

we see two groups of lines converging at two

vanishing points (Figure 3.5d).

Perspective Projections

Perspective Projections

Figure 3.6 shows examples of perspective with three

vanishing points. Imagine a person standing in front of

a corner of a skyscraper, craning his neck in an attempt

to see all the way to the top of the building.

Because of the height of the building, its top seems

smaller than its bottom, so the straight, parallel lines

connecting top to bottom also seem to converge to a

vanishing point. Even a small object, such as a cube,

can feature three vanishing points if it is hoisted up and

we are positioned under it. Even a small, one-story

house can feature three vanishing points if it has a

traditional pitched roof.

Perspective Projections

Perspective Projections

Perspective Projections are of 3types

a. 1 point perspective projection

b. 2 point perspective projection

c. 3 point perspective projection

a. One point perspective projection occurs when--1. Only one principal axis intersects the plane of projection

.2 When the projection plane is parallel to two principal axis or conversely,

when the view plane is perpendicular to one of the principal axis.

b. Two point perspective projection occurs when--1.When plane of projection intersects exactly two of the principal axis.

2. Two point perspective projection can also be obtained by the concatenation

of two single point perspective transformation.

c. Three point perspective projection occurs when--1. This occurs when the view plane/ projection plane intersects all of the

3 principal axis i.e, none of the principal axis is parallel to the projection

plane. This has got 3 vanishing points.

1. Perspective Foreshortening:

Perspective projections produce realistic views but does not preserve

relative proportions of object dimensions.

Projections of distant objects are smaller than the projections of the

objects of the same size that are closer to the projection plane or center

of projection. So, it is defined as an illusion that objects and lengths

appear smaller as their distance from the center of projection increases.

2. Vanishing points:

The phenomena of illusion that after projection certain set of parallel

lines appear to meet at some point on the projection plane is called as

fanning and the points are known as vanishing points.

For example, a railway track is an example of real life which appears to

meet at the vanishing point.

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