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INTRODUCTION TO OCCLUSION

CUSP HEIGHT DETERMINANTS

CUSP HEIGHT

VERTICAL DETERMINANTS
ANGLE OF EMINENTIA
GRADUAL EMINENTIA
SLOPE REQUIRES SHORT
CUSPS

STEEP EMINENTIA SLOPE


PERMITS LONGER CUSPS

VERTICAL DETERMINATS

VERTICAL OVERLAP (OVERBITE)


DEEP ANTERIOR OVERBITE
PERMITS LONGER CUSPS

MINIMUM ANTERIOR OVERBITE


REQUIRES SHORTER CUSPS

VERTICAL DETERMINANTS HORIZONTAL


OVERLAP

(OVERJET)
PRONOUNCED ANTERIOR
OVERJET REQUIRES SHORTER
CUSPS
MINIMUM ANTERIOR OVERJET
PERMITS LONGER CUSPS

VERTICAL DETERMINANTS

IMMEDIATE SIDE-SHIFT
EXCESSIVE IMMEDIATE SIDESHIFT REQUIRES SHORT CUSPS
GRADUAL IMMEDIATE SIDESHIFT PERMITS LONGER CUSPS

SHORT CUSPS MAY BE INCREASED IN LENGTH BY


INCREASING THE EFFECTS OF ANTERIOR GUIDANCE

REDUCING OVERJET
INCREASING OVERBITE

INCISAL GUIDANCE
Can be increased
Has > influence on cusps
Further from power source
Has > proprioception

VERTICAL DETERMINANTS
Incisal (Anterior) Guidance

INTRODUCTION TO OCCLUSION
TYPES OF OCCLUSION

TYPES OF OCCLUSION
BILATERALLY BALANCED

UNILATERALLY BALANCED (GROUP FUNCTION)

MUTUALLY PROTECTED (CANINE GUIDANCE)

BILATERAL BALANCED
OCCLUSION
USED PRIMARILY IN REMOVABLE
PROSTHETICS
A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF TEETH SHOULD
CONTACT IN ALL EXCURSIVE MOVEMENTS
USEFULL TO PREVENT TIPPING OF
DENTURES
WILL CAUSE EXCESSIVE WEAR TO NATURAL
TEETH

BILATERAL BALANCED
OCCLUSION

Right Working

Left Working

Protrusive

Maximal Intercuspation
View

Protrusive View

Right Working View

Left Working View

UNILATERALLY BALANCED
OCCLUSION
Group Function
Elimination of all contacts on the nonworking side
More than one tooth on the working side is
in contact during lateral excursions

Distributes the occlusal load


ACTIVATES/TRIGGERS MORE MUSCLE FIBERS
(**not a good thing)

UNILATERAL BALANCED
OCCLUSION/ Group Function

Anterior Guidance
Canine Guidance aka. Cuspid Rise

Anterior teeth bear all the load in excursive


movements of the mandible.
Posterior teeth are discluded in all excursive
movements

MUTUALLY PROTECTED
OCCLUSION
Anterior teeth protect the posterior teeth in
all excursive movements of the mandible.
(Working, Non-working, Protrusive, etc.)

Posterior teeth protect the anterior teeth in


the Maximal Intercuspal Position (MIP)

MUTALLY PROTECTED
OCCLUSION

WHY USE ANTERIOR


GUIDED OCCLUSION?
FORCE IS MORE FAVORABLY PLACED ON TEETH

CLASS THREE LEVER IS THE LEAST EFFICIENT AND


THUS LESS FORCE PLACED ON THE ANTERIOR
TEETH

POSTERIOR VS ANTERIOR
OCCLUSAL FORCE

LEVER TYPES
CLASS I LEVER SIMILAR TO A CROWBAR
POWER

FULCRUM

WORK

CLASS II LEVER SIMILAR TO A WHEELBARROW

FULCRUM

WORK

POWER

CLASS III LEVER SIMILAR TO A DRAWBRIDGE


FULCRUM

POWER

CONDYLE

MUSCLE

WORK
ANTERIOR TEETH

Lever Class I: Crowbar

Lever Class I

Lever Class I: Most


Powerful

Lever Class II:


WheelBarrow

Lever Class III: Chopsticks

CRITERIA FOR OPTIMUM


OCCLUSION
5 Criteria

1. Stable contacts are established between the

teeth when the condyles are in their most


anterior, superior, middle-most position.
(MIP=CR)

2. An anterior guidance that is in harmony


with the border movements of the

envelope of function

3. Disclusion of all posterior teeth in the


protrusive movement

4. Disclusion of all posterior teeth on the


Non-Working Side

5. Disclusion of all posterior teeth on the

Working Side

In Review
Cusp height determinants
Types of Occlusal Schemes

Lever Classifications
Optimal Occlusion Principles