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ABDHESH KUMAR (20130101) ANKUR DUTTA ROY (20130105) AMIT SONI (20130104)
ABDHESH KUMAR (20130101) ANKUR DUTTA ROY (20130105) AMIT SONI (20130104)
ABDHESH KUMAR (20130101) ANKUR DUTTA ROY (20130105) AMIT SONI (20130104)








The fundamental rights and directive principles had

their origins in the Indian independence movement,

which strove to achieve the values of liberty and social

welfare as the goals of an independent Indian state. The

development of constitutional rights in India was

inspired by historical documents such as England's bill of rights, the united states bill of rights and France's

declaration of the rights of man.


The Fundamental Rights, embodied in Part III of the

Constitution, guarantee civil rights to all Indians, and

prevent the State from encroaching on individual liberty while simultaneously placing upon it an

obligation to protect the citizens' rights from

encroachment by society.


  • The Right to Equality is one of the chief guarantees of the Constitution. It is embodied in Articles 1416, which collectively encompass the general principles of equality before law and non-discrimination, and Articles 1718 which collectively further the philosophy of social equality.


  • The Right to Freedom is covered in Articles 1922, with the view of guaranteeing individual rights that were considered vital by the framers of the Constitution, and these Articles also include certain restrictions that may be imposed by the State on individual liberty under specified conditions. Article 19 guarantees six freedoms in the nature of civil rights, which are available only to citizens of India.



  • The Right to Freedom of Religion, covered in Articles 2528, provides religious freedom to all citizens and ensures a secular state in India . According to the Constitution, there is no official State religion, and the State is required to treat all religions impartially and neutrally.



  • The Right against Exploitation, contained in Articles 2324, lays down certain provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society by individuals or the State.

  • Article 23 provides prohibits human trafficking making it an offence punishable by law, and also prohibits forced labour or any act of compelling a person to work without wages where he was legally entitled not to work or to receive remuneration for it.




  • The Right to Constitutional Remedies empowers citizens to approach the Supreme Court of India to seek enforcement, or protection against infringement, of their Fundamental Rights.

  • Article 32 provides a guaranteed remedy, in the form of a Fundamental Right itself, for enforcement of all the other Fundamental Rights, and the Supreme Court is designated as the protector of these rights by the Constitution.



The Cultural and Educational rights, given in Articles 29 and

30, are measures to protect the rights of cultural, linguistic

and religious minorities, by enabling them to conserve their heritage and protecting them against discrimination.


  • to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;

  • to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;

  • to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

  • to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;

  • to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;

  • to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;

  • to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;

  • to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;

  • to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;

  • to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;

  • who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years



  • It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to the Concurrent List by this amendment.

  • It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill.

The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act,


  • By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.

  • The Constitution (37th Amendment) Act, 1975:

  • It was passed by Parliament on April 26, 1975, to provide for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers to Arunachal Pradesh, the country’s north- easternmost Union Territory.