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An Examination of Factors Related to

the Job Satisfaction and Retention of


Alternatively Certified Teachers
A Dissertation Proposal

Presented by

Jennifer Butcher

Dissertation Committee
William Allan Kritsonis, PhD., Chair
Donald R. Collins, PhD., Member
David Herrington, PhD., Member
Ronald Howard, PhD., Member

October 2008
Introduction
• The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
(NCLB) requires that all academic teachers
be highly qualified.
• Taking proactive steps to prepare and
retain highly qualified teachers requires
systematic effort of education, mentorship,
and motivation (Rosenow, 2005).
Introduction

• Teacher attrition and job shortages


are largely due to teacher
dissatisfaction and pursuit of other
jobs (Ingersoll, 2001).
• Studies have shown that higher
employee satisfaction leads to
increased customer satisfaction
(Rosenow, 2005).
Background of the
Problem
• Statistics gathered over a five year
period indicated that approximately
25,000 people, per year, were certified
to teach through alternative routes
(Feistritzer & Chester, 2003).
• Effective alternative teacher
certification programs should have a
strong academic course work
component, field–based learning in the
classroom, and support from qualified
mentors (Feistritzer & Chester, 2003).
Statement of the Problem
• Due to the teacher shortage and the influx of
new teachers from alternative certification
programs, it is important to address the
problem of attrition and identify strategies that
focus on the retention of alternatively certified
teachers.
• There is a need to determine if current
alternative certification programs and school
districts are providing the training, support,
and continued monitoring of alternatively
certified teachers.
Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to


examine factors related to the job
satisfaction and retention of
alternatively certified teachers.
This study will examine factors
related to alternatively certified
teachers’ decision to enter and
remain in the teaching profession.
Research Question

Quantitative
1. What trends are occurring in the
comparative numbers of alternatively
certified teachers and the numbers of
traditionally certified teachers over a
period of five years within a selected
urban district?
Research Question

Quantitative
2. Is there a relationship between the
percentage of alternatively certified
teachers and the percentage of
traditionally certified teachers in the
elementary schools of a selected urban
school district?
Research Questions

Qualitative
1. What do alternatively certified teachers
report to be the reasons for entering
the teaching profession?
2. What do alternatively certified teachers
perceive to be the factors that assisted
in their development as teachers?
Research Questions
Qualitative
3. What do alternatively certified teachers
perceive to be the factors that hindered
their development as teachers?
4. What do alternatively certified teachers
report to be the reasons that they have
remained in the teaching profession?
Research Questions

Qualitative
5. What do alternatively certified teachers
report about their early educator
preparation experiences?
6. What strategies does the selected
urban school district employ to identify
and utilize factors that encourage
teacher job satisfaction and retention?
Null Hypothesis

Ho1: There is no statistically


significant relationship in the
comparative numbers of
alternatively certified teachers
and the numbers of traditionally
certified teachers over a period of
five years within a selected urban
district.
Null Hypothesis

Ho2: There is no statistically


significant relationship between
the percentage of alternatively
certified teachers and the
percentage of traditionally
certified teachers in the
elementary schools of a selected
urban school district.
Theoretical Framework
• One theory guiding this study is derived
from the economic labor market theory
of supply and demand.
• In the same vein, Frederick Herzberg’s theory of
motivation and job satisfaction which was
developed from his studies of engineers and
accountants complements the supply and demand
theory.
Theoretical Framework

Dearth
of
Teachers

Alternatively
Job
Retention Certified
Satisfaction
Teachers

Employment
Opportunities
Significance of the Study
• Provide alternative certification programs with
information regarding areas of concern that
can be incorporated into their programs.
• Provide mentors with information on how they
can better guide the novice teachers.
• Provide administrators with information
regarding the critical role that alternatively
certified teachers have on their campus.
• Provide district human resources directors with
information regarding the needs of
alternatively certified teachers.
Assumptions
• Interviews will provide information
with reasons why alternatively
certified teachers remain in the
teaching profession.
• Respondents of the study will honestly
give the reasons for alternatively
certified teachers job satisfaction and
retention.
• Data will be recorded and analyzed
accurately by the investigator.
Limitations of the Study

• Research will reflect only on one


urban school district in Texas.
• Data will only be obtained from
elementary schools within the
selected urban school district.
Chapter II

Review of Literature
No Child Left Behind
• The language in the bill states schools are
expected to hire only “highly qualified”
teachers, ensure that all teachers are
assigned to teach in their field, are fully
licensed, and meet other criteria outlined
in the law (Trahan, 2002).
• Alternative route certification programs
are one example of states’ and cities’
attempts to fill urban classrooms with
highly qualified teachers (Easley, 2006).
Alternative Certification
Programs
• Alternative teacher certification has
become an increasingly popular
strategy for addressing both teacher
quality and teacher shortages (Darling-
Hammond, 2005).
• One out of four Texas teachers hired in
the last three years came into the
teaching workforce through alternative
certification (May, Katsinas, and Moore,
2003).
Recruitment of Teachers
Principals are often reluctant to hire
alternatively certified teachers because of
the amount of work and support required
and problems that these teachers may
have with regard to discipline, lesson
planning, student interaction,
assessments, and instructional strategies
in their first one to two years in the
classroom (Wang, 2007).
Recruitment of Teachers

Improving working conditions and


salaries are helpful steps toward
recruiting an adequate number of
teachers, but giving them chances
to learn and grow as they practice
their craft is the best way to retain
quality teachers in our nation’s
classrooms (Gray & Smith, 2005).
Induction / Mentoring

A number of studies have found


that well-designed mentoring
programs raise retention rates for
new teachers by improving their
attitudes, feelings of efficacy, and
instructional skills (Darling-
Hammond, 2003).
Professional Development
• Essential for teachers to receive current
information in the field of education.
• Allows an opportunity for teachers’ to
strengthen weak areas.
• Should be a priority in developing a
campus plan.
• Opportunities to enhance one’s
teaching ability will lead to meeting the
needs of the students (Trahan, 2002).
Teacher Retention
• According to Greiner & Smith (2004), studies
found links between teacher retention and
state mandated teacher certification scores
and teacher education preparation programs.
• Teachers’ feelings about administrative
support, resources for teaching, and teacher
input into decision making are strongly related
to their plans to stay in teaching and to their
reasons for leaving (Darling-Hammond, 2000;
Ingersoll, 2001).
Job Satisfaction
The main contributors to high levels of
teacher job satisfaction are working
with children (particularly where
teachers can develop strong
professional relationships), the
intellectual challenge of teaching and
employee autonomy and
independence (Spear, Gould, and Lee,
2000).
Chapter III

Methodology
Research Design

Research Method – Mixed methods


using a complementary design. This
includes descriptive and correlational
analysis of existing data as well as data
obtained from open-ended interview
questions and surveys.
Research Design
• Trend analysis will be used to identify
the staffing patterns comparing
alternatively certified teachers to
traditionally certified teachers.
• Trend analysis refers to the concept of
collecting information and attempting to
spot a pattern, or trend, in the
information.
• Descriptive trends will be used to
examine emerging trends.
Subjects of the Study
Quantitative
Question 1:
• Alternatively and Traditionally Certified
Teachers from 65 schools in a selected district
Question 2:
• Alternatively and Traditionally Certified
Teachers from 30 elementary campuses in a selected
district
Qualitative
• Alternatively Certified Teachers with 3 or more years of
teaching experience from 30 elementary campuses in a
selected district
• 15 Mentors
• 15 Administrators
• 2 Human Resources Directors
Instrumentation
• The researcher developed a questionnaire that
will be used to collect data related to the
attitudes of alternatively certified teachers in
regards to their retention in the field.

• A semi-structured interview technique will be


used to collect data from selected alternatively
certified teachers, mentors, administrators,
and human resources directors.
Validity and Reliability

A pilot study will be conducted for


the questionnaire and interview
guide to ensure reliability. Items
will be reviewed for logical validity.
Data Collection and
Recording
• The questionnaires will be delivered via
electronic mail to the alternatively
certified participants. Information
pertaining to distribution and due dates
will also be included with the delivery.
• Responses will be coded to assure
identity protection.
• Data from the questionnaires will be
placed in tables and graphs.
• Data from the district and respondents
will be secured in a bank vault for seven years.
Analysis of Data

Quantitative
• Demographic Data of Alternatively Certified Teachers
• Comparative Numbers of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally
Certified Teachers (Over a five year period as reported by a selected urban
district)
• Percentages of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers
(In the elementary schools of a selected urban district)

Qualitative Qualitative

Interviews of Alternatively Certified Questionnaires of Alternatively


Teachers, Mentors, School Certified Teachers
Administrators, and Human
Resources Directors
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)
Correlational
Research Hypothesis Independent Dependent Statistical
Question 1 Measurement
Variables Variable

What trends There is no Two Groups: Number of Pearson’s r


are occurring in statistically Alternatively coefficient
the significant 1) Alternatively Certified of
comparative relationship in Certified Teachers correlation
numbers of the comparative Teachers and
alternatively numbers of 2) Traditionally Traditionally
certified alternatively Certified Certified
teachers and certified Teachers Teachers
the numbers of teachers and
traditionally the numbers of
certified traditionally
teachers over a certified
period of five teachers over a
years within a period of five
selected urban years within a
district? selected urban
district.
Analysis of Data (Quantitative)
Correlational
Research Hypothesis Independent Dependent Statistical
Question 2 Measurement
Variables Variable

Is there a There is no Two Groups: Percentage of Pearson’s r


relationship statistically Alternatively coefficient
between the significant 1) Alternatively Certified of
percentage of relationship in Certified Teachers correlation
alternatively the percentage Teachers and
certified of alternatively 2) Traditionally Traditionally
teachers and certified Certified Certified
the percentage teachers and Teachers Teachers
of traditionally the percentage
certified of traditionally
teachers in the certified
elementary teachers in the
schools of the elementary
selected urban schools of the
district? selected urban
district.
Analysis of Data (Qualitative)
Surveys/Questionnaire
& Interviews

Data will be Responses for Inputs from the


presented in questions will be selected teachers,
tabular form to categorized mentors,
show categories into emergent administrators, and
& frequencies. themes. These HR directors will
The weighted will be presented be identified,
mean will be in tabular form summarized and
computed for showing the explained.
retention categories with
factors. corresponding
frequencies and
percentages.
References
• Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Solving the dilemmas of
teacher supply, demand, and quality. New York:
National Commission on Teaching and America’s
Future.
• Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers:
Why it matters, what leaders can do. Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development, 7-13.
• Darling-Hammond, L. (2005). Prepping our teachers for
teaching as a profession. The Education Digest, 22-
27.
• Easley, J. (2006). Alternative route urban teacher
retention and implication for principals’ moral leadership.
Educational Studies, 32(3), 241-249.
• Feistritzer, C.E., and Chester, D. T. (2003). Alternative
teacher certification. National Center for Education
Information.
References
• Gray, D.L. & Smith, A.E. (2005). No teacher left behind.
Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42(1), 7-9.
• Greiner, C.S. & Smith, B.S. (2004). Determining the effect
of selected variables on teacher retention. Education,
126(4), 653 -659.
• Hoy, W.K. and Miskel, C.G. (2005). Educational
administration: Theory, research, and practice. New York,
NY: McGraw-Hill.
• Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher
shortages: an organizational analysis. American
Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 499-534.
• May, P.B., Katsinas, S.G., and Moore, L. (2003).
Alternative teacher certification programs and Texas
community colleges. New Directions for Community
College, 121.
References
• Rosenow, D. (2005). Stress, burnout and self-esteem
among educators. Journal of Border Educational
Research, 4, 87-90.
• Spear, M., Gould, K., and Lee, B. (2000). Who would be a
teacher? A review of factors motivating and
demotivating prospective and practicing teachers
(Slough, UK, NFER).
• Trahan, C. (2002). Implications of the no child left
behind act of 2001 for teacher education.
Washington, DC. (Eric Document Reproduction Service
No. ED477723).
• Wang, C. (2007). The alternate route teachers’
transition to the classroom: Preparation, support, and
retention. NASSP Bulletin 91(1) 98-113.