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Axial Load

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

Determine deformation of

axially loaded members

Develop a method to find

support reactions when it

cannot be determined from

equilibrium equations

Analyze the effects of thermal stress, stress

concentrations, inelastic deformations, and residual

stress

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER OUTLINE

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Saint-Venants Principle

Elastic Deformation of an Axially Loaded Member

Principle of Superposition

Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Member

Force Method of Analysis for Axially Loaded

Member

Thermal Stress

Stress Concentrations

*Inelastic Axial Deformation

*Residual Stress

4. Axial Load

Localized deformation occurs at each end, and

the deformations decrease as measurements are

taken further away from the ends

At section c-c, stress reaches almost uniform

value as compared to a-a, b-b

c-c is sufficiently far

enough away from P so

that localized

deformation vanishes,

i.e., minimum distance

4. Axial Load

General rule: min. distance is at least equal to

largest dimension of loaded x-section. For the bar,

the min. distance is equal to width of bar

This behavior discovered by Barr de SaintVenant in 1855, this the name of the principle

Saint-Venant Principle states that localized effects

caused by any load acting on the body, will

dissipate/smooth out within regions that are

sufficiently removed from location of load

Thus, no need to study stress distributions at that

points near application loads or support reactions

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

respect to other end caused by this loading

Applying Saint-Venants Principle, ignore localized

deformations at points of concentrated loading and

where x-section suddenly changes

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

d

P(x)

=

=

dx

A(x)

Assume proportional limit not

exceeded, thus apply Hookes Law

= E

P(x)

d

=E

A(x)

dx

( )

P(x) dx

d =

A(x) E

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

L

0

P(x) dx

A(x) E

Eqn. 4-1

L

= distance between the two points

P(x) = internal axial force at the section, located a

distance x from one end

A(x) = x-sectional area of the bar, expressed as a

function of x

E = modulus of elasticity for material

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

For constant x-sectional area A, and homogenous

material, E is constant

With constant external force P, applied at each

end, then internal force P throughout length of bar

is constant

Thus, integrating Equation 4-1 will yield

PL

=

AE

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

If bar subjected to several different axial forces, or

x-sectional area or E is not constant, then the

equation can be applied to each segment of the

bar and added algebraically to get

PL

=

AE

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Sign Convention

Sign

Positive (+)

Negative ()

Forces

Tension

Compression

Displacement

Elongation

Contraction

10

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Internal Force.

Use method of sections to determine internal axial

force P in the member

If the force varies along members strength, section

made at the arbitrary location x from one end of

member and force represented as a function of x,

i.e., P(x)

If several constant external forces act on member,

internal force in each segment, between two

external forces, must then be determined

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

11

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Internal Force.

For any segment, internal tensile force is positive

and internal compressive force is negative. Results

of loading can be shown graphically by

constructing the normal-force diagram

Displacement.

When members x-sectional area varies along its

axis, the area should be expressed as a function of

its position x, i.e., A(x)

12

4. Axial Load

4.2 ELASTIC DEFORMATION OF AN AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Displacement.

If x-sectional area, modulus of elasticity, or internal

loading suddenly changes, then equation 4-2

should be applied to each segment for which the

qty are constant

When substituting data into equations, account for

proper sign for P, tensile loadings +ve,

compressive ve. Use consistent set of units. If

result is +ve, elongation occurs, ve means its a

contraction

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

13

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.1

Composite A-36 steel bar shown made from two

segments AB and BD. Area AAB = 600 mm2 and

ABD = 1200 mm2.

Determine the vertical

displacement of end A and

displacement of B relative

to C.

14

4. Axial Load

Internal Force

Due to external loadings, internal axial forces in

regions AB, BC and CD are different.

Apply method of

sections and

equation of vertical

force equilibrium as

shown. Variation is

also plotted.

15

4. Axial Load

Displacement

From tables, Est = 210(103) MPa.

Use sign convention, vertical displacement of A

relative to fixed support D is

[+75 kN](1 m)(106)

PL

A =

=

[600 mm2 (210)(103) kN/m2]

AE

[+35 kN](0.75 m)(106)

+

[1200 mm2 (210)(103) kN/m2]

[45 kN](0.5 m)(106)

+

[1200 mm2 (210)(103) kN/m2]

= +0.61 mm

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

16

4. Axial Load

Displacement

Since result is positive, the bar elongates and so

displacement at A is upward

Apply Equation 4-2 between B and C,

PBC LBC

=

A =

[1200 mm2 (210)(103) kN/m2]

ABC E

= +0.104 mm

elongates

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

17

4. Axial Load

After subdividing the load into components, the

principle of superposition states that the

resultant stress or displacement at the point can be

determined by first finding the stress or

displacement caused by each component load

acting separately on the member.

Resultant stress/displacement determined

algebraically by adding the contributions of each

component

18

4. Axial Load

Conditions

1. The loading must be linearly related to the stress

or displacement that is to be determined.

2. The loading must not significantly change the

original geometry or configuration of the member

When to ignore deformations?

Most loaded members will produce deformations

so small that change in position and direction of

loading will be insignificant and can be neglected

Exception to this rule is a column carrying axial

load, discussed in Chapter 13

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

19

4. Axial Load

4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

equations is sufficient to find the reaction at the

support. Such a problem is statically determinate

If bar is fixed at both ends, then two unknown

axial reactions occur, and the bar is statically

indeterminate

+ F = 0;

FB + FA P = 0

20

4. Axial Load

4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

geometry of deformation. Such an equation is

referred to as a compatibility or kinematic

condition

Since relative displacement of one end of bar to

the other end is equal to zero, since end supports

fixed,

A/B = 0

This equation can be expressed in terms of

applied loads using a load-displacement

relationship, which depends on the material

behavior

21

4. Axial Load

4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

can be written as

FA LAC

FB LCB

=0

AE

AE

simultaneously,

LAC

LCB

FB = P (

)

)

FA = P (

L

L

22

4. Axial Load

4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Equilibrium

Draw a free-body diagram of member to identigy

all forces acting on it

If unknown reactions on free-body diagram

greater than no. of equations, then problem is

statically indeterminate

Write the equations of equilibrium for the member

23

4. Axial Load

4.4 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE AXIALLY LOADED MEMBER

Compatibility.

Draw a diagram to investigate elongation or

contraction of loaded member

Express compatibility conditions in terms of

displacements caused by forces

Use load-displacement relations (=PL/AE) to

relate unknown displacements to reactions

Solve the equations. If result is negative, this

means the force acts in opposite direction of that

indicated on free-body diagram

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

24

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.5

Steel rod shown has diameter of 5 mm. Attached to

fixed wall at A, and before it is loaded, there is a gap

between the wall at B and the rod of 1 mm.

Determine reactions at A and B if rod is subjected

to axial force of P = 20 kN.

Neglect size of collar at C. Take Est = 200 GPa

25

4. Axial Load

Equilibrium

Assume force P large enough to cause rods end B to

contact wall at B. Equilibrium requires

+ F = 0;

FA FB + 20(103) N = 0

Compatibility

Compatibility equation:

B/A = 0.001 m

26

4. Axial Load

Compatibility

Use load-displacement equations (Eqn 4-2), apply

to AC and CB

FA LAC FB LCB

B/A = 0.001 m =

AE

AE

Solving simultaneously,

FA = 16.6 kN

FB = 3.39 kN

27

4. Axial Load

4.5 FORCE METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

problems by using superposition of the forces

acting on the free-body diagram

First, choose any one of the two supports as

redundant and remove its effect on the bar

Thus, the bar becomes statically determinate

Apply principle of superposition and solve the

equations simultaneously

28

4. Axial Load

4.5 FORCE METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

reaction at A

29

4. Axial Load

4.5 FORCE METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

Compatibility.

Choose one of the supports as redundant and

write the equation of compatibility.

Known displacement at redundant support (usually

zero), equated to displacement at support caused

only by external loads acting on the member plus

the displacement at the support caused only by the

redundant reaction acting on the member.

30

4. Axial Load

4.5 FORCE METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

Compatibility.

Express external load and redundant

displacements in terms of the loadings using loaddisplacement relationship

Use compatibility equation to solve for magnitude

of redundant force

31

4. Axial Load

4.5 FORCE METHOD OF ANALYSIS FOR AXIALLY LOADED MEMBERS

Equilibrium.

Draw a free-body diagram and write appropriate

equations of equilibrium for member using

calculated result for redundant force.

Solve the equations for other reactions

32

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.9

A-36 steel rod shown has diameter of 5 mm. Its

attached to fixed wall at A, and before it is loaded,

theres a gap between wall at B and rod of 1 mm.

Determine reactions at A and B.

33

4. Axial Load

Compatibility

Consider support at B as redundant. Use principle of

superposition,

(+)

0.001 m = P B

Equation 1

34

4. Axial Load

Compatibility

Deflections P and B are determined from Eqn. 4-2

PLAC

P =

= = 0.002037 m

AE

FB LAB

B =

= = 0.3056(10-6)FB

AE

Substituting into Equation 1, we get

0.001 m = 0.002037 m 0.3056(10-6)FB

FB = 3.40(103) N = 3.40 kN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

35

4. Axial Load

Equilibrium

From free-body diagram

+ Fx = 0;

FA + 20 kN 3.40 kN = 0

FA = 16.6 kN

36

4. Axial Load

Expansion or contraction of material is linearly

related to temperature increase or decrease that

occurs (for homogenous and isotropic material)

From experiment, deformation of a member

having length L is

T = T L

= liner coefficient of thermal expansion. Unit

measure strain per degree of temperature: 1/oC

(Celsius) or 1/oK (Kelvin)

T = algebraic change in temperature of member

T = algebraic change in length of member

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

37

4. Axial Load

For a statically indeterminate member, the

thermal displacements can be constrained by the

supports, producing thermal stresses that must be

considered in design.

38

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.10

A-36 steel bar shown is constrained to just fit

between two fixed supports when T1 = 30oC.

If temperature is raised to T2 = 60oC, determine the

average normal thermal stress developed in the

bar.

39

4. Axial Load

Equilibrium

As shown in free-body diagram,

+ Fy = 0;

FA = FB = F

force cannot be determined from equilibrium.

Compatibility

Since A/B =0, thermal displacement T at A

occur. Thus compatibility condition at A

becomes

+

A/B = 0 = T F

40

4. Axial Load

Compatibility

Apply thermal and load-displacement relationship,

FL

0 = T L

AL

F = T AE = = 7.2 kN

temperature causes large reaction forces in

statically indeterminate members.

Average normal compressive stress is

F

=

= = 72 MPa

A

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

41

4. Axial Load

force developed by the stress distribution to be

equal to P. In other words,

P = A dA

This integral represents graphically the volume

under each of the stress-distribution diagrams

shown.

42

4. Axial Load

not needed, only maximum stress at these

sections must be known. Member is designed to

resist this stress when axial load P is applied.

K is defined as a ratio of the maximum stress to

the average stress acting at the smallest cross

section:

max

K=

avg

43

4. Axial Load

type of discontinuity, only on the bars geometry

and the type of discontinuity.

As size r of the discontinuity is decreased, stress

concentration is increased.

It is important to use stress-concentration factors

in design when using brittle materials, but not

necessary for ductile materials

Stress concentrations also cause failure structural

members or mechanical elements subjected to

fatigue loadings

44

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.13

Steel bar shown below has allowable stress,

allow = 115 MPa. Determine largest axial force P that

the bar can carry.

45

4. Axial Load

Because there is a shoulder fillet, stressconcentrating factor determined using the graph

below

46

4. Axial Load

Calculating the necessary geometric parameters

yields

r 10 mm

= 0.50

=

n 20 mm

w 40 mm

=2

=

h 20 mm

Average normal stress at smallest x-section,

P

= 0.005P N/mm2

avg =

(20 mm)(10 mm)

47

4. Axial Load

Applying Eqn 4-7 with allow = max yields

allow = K max

115 N/mm2 = 1.4(0.005P)

P = 16.43(103) N = 16.43 kN

48

4. Axial Load

loading causes the material to yield and thereby

permanently deform.

Such members are made from highly ductile

material such as annealed low-carbon steel

having a stress-strain diagram shown below.

Such material is referred

to as being elastic

perfectly plastic or

elastoplastic

49

4. Axial Load

elastoplastic member can support

50

4. Axial Load

EXAMPLE 4.16

Steel bar shown assumed to be elastic perfectly

plastic with Y = 250 MPa.

Determine (a) maximum value of applied load P

that can be applied without causing the steel to

yield, (b) the maximum value of P that bar can

support. Sketch the stress distribution at the critical

section for each case.

51

4. Axial Load

(a) When material behaves elastically, we must use

a stress-concentration that is unique for the bars

geometry. r

4 mm

= 0.125

=

n (40 mm 8 mm)

w

40 mm

= 1.25

=

h (40 mm 8 mm

PY

)

max = K avg;

Y = K(

A

PY = 16.0 kN

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

52

4. Axial Load

(a) Load PY was calculated using the smallest xsection. Resulting stress distribution is shown.

For equilibrium, the volume contained within

this distribution must equal 9.14 kN.

53

4. Axial Load

(b) Maximum load sustained by the bar causes all

the material at smallest x-section to yield. As P

is increased to plastic load PP, the stress

distribution changes as shown.

PY

)

max = K avg;

Y = K(

A

PP = 16.0 kN

Here, PP equals the volume contained within the

stress distribution, i.e., PP = YA

2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

54

4. Axial Load

members form a statically indeterminate system

that can support both tensile and compressive

loads, then excessive external loadings, which

cause yielding of the material, will create residual

stresses in the members when the loads are

removed.

55

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER REVIEW

determining material strengths. Results of normal

stress and normal strain can then be plotted.

Many engineering materials behave in a linearelastic manner, where stress is proportional to

strain, defined by Hookes law, = E. E is the

modulus of elasticity, and is measured from slope

of a stress-strain diagram

When material stressed beyond yield point,

permanent deformation will occur.

56

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER REVIEW

material with increasing stress

At ultimate stress, localized region on specimen

begin to constrict, and starts necking. Fracture

occurs.

Ductile materials exhibit both plastic and elastic

behavior. Ductility specified by permanent

elongation to failure or by the permanent

reduction in cross-sectional area

Brittle materials exhibit little or no yielding before

failure

57

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER REVIEW

hardening, by applying load great enough to

cause increase in stress causing yielding, then

releasing the load. The larger stress produced

becomes the new yield point for the material

Deformations of material under load causes strain

energy to be stored. Strain energy per unit

volume/strain energy density is equivalent to area

under stress-strain curve.

The area up to the yield point of stress-strain

diagram is referred to as the modulus of resilience

58

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER REVIEW

referred to as the modulus of toughness

Poissons ratio (), a dimensionless property that

measures the lateral strain to the longitudinal

strain [0 0.5]

For shear stress vs. strain diagram: within elastic

region, = G, where G is the shearing modulus,

found from the slope of the line within elastic

region

G can also be obtained from the relationship of

G = E/[2(1+ )]

59

4. Axial Load

CHAPTER REVIEW

time, creep and fatigue are important.

Creep is the time rate of deformation, which

occurs at high stress and/or high temperature.

Design the material not to exceed a

predetermined stress called the creep strength

Fatigue occur when material undergoes a large

number of cycles of loading. Will cause microcracks to occur and lead to brittle failure.

Stress in material must not exceed specified

endurance or fatigue limit

60

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