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By

Dr. Maria Selvester Thadeus, M.Biomed


2010

bagian dari biological science

Untuk mengerti dasar biomedical


science prinsip dasar dari fisika,
matematika, kimia dan biologi.

TEKNOLOGI BIOMOLEKULER
Biokimia zat-zat kimia dan proses-proses
vital yang berlangsung pada makhluk
hidup.
Genetika efek perbedaan genetik pada
makhluk hidup (misalnya mutasi)
Biologi molekular skala molekul atas
proses replikasi, transkripsi, dan translasi
bahan genetik

TEKNOLOGI
MIKROSKOP
CAHAYA
(2000 X)

MIKROSKOP ELEKTRON
(500.000 X)
Menyingkap
sampai derajat
struktur sub
selular organel
serta
organisasinya

Schrodinger
(1994)

Komponen-komponen

kimia dalam organisme


hidup bersifat dinamis.
Organisme hidup dari
komposisi molekulmolekul.

Bagaimana

molekulmolekul berkombinasi
secara karakteristik
untuk membentuk
kehidupan ?

Biomolecules (organicions)
Atom

Carbon (C) yang bergabung


dengan
Atom C lainnya
H (Hidrogen)
O (Oksigen)
N (Nitrogen)

Biomolekul (inorganik)
Fosfat komponen pembentuk asam
nukleat, kalsium hidroksil tulang, aktifator
beberapa enzim, dsb
Kalsium pembentuk tulang, signal
transducer, kontraksi otot, neurotransmitter,
koagulasi darah, dsb
K+, Na+, Cl- and Mg+ transport membrane,
tekanan osmotik, keseimbangan asam basa,
aktifator enzim, dsb
Fe + Hb, sitokrom, aktifator enzim
I- Hormon tiroid

Biomolekul (organik)
Nukleotida
Monosakarida
Glucosa
Fructosa

Galactosa

Asam

Amino (20)

Makro molekul
Protein
Asam

nukleat
Poli sakarida

DNA
(deoxyribo necleic acid)
Cytidine

(C)
Adenine ( A )
Thymine ( T )
Guanine ( G )

RNA
(Ribo nucleic acid)
Cytidine

(C)
Adenine ( A )
Uridine ( U )
Guanine ( G )

PROTEIN
Alanine
2. Valine
3. Leucine
4. Iso leucine
5. Proline
6. Glycine
7. Serine
8. Theonine
9. Cysteine
10. Methionine
1.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Asparagine
Glutamine
Phenyl Alanine
Tyrosine
Tryptophan
Lysine
Arginine
Histidine
Aspartate
Glutamate

FUNGSI BIOMOLEKUL
NUKLEOTIDA

- sub unit asam nukleat


- energy-carrying molecules

- transmit and translate genetic


information

FUNGSI BIOMOLEKUL
ASAM

AMINO
sub unit protein
prekursor hormon
neurotransmitter
pigmen

ENZIM
Pembangkit reaksi kimia selular.
Biokatalis (katabolisme,
anabolisme dan metabolisme)
Pengaktif reaksi kimia spesifik
Menjaga proses tetap berlanjut
Memelihara temperatur

Reaksi kimia enzim:


E + S ES E + P
Produk reaksi pertama
mengaktifkan reaksi
berikutnya:
Enzim 1

Enzim 2

Enzim 3

A --------- B --------- C --------- D-- dst

Enzym catalyzed reactions

Kandungan sel :
Protein
Lipid
KEHIDUPAN
ORGANISME
Karbohidrat
Asam nukleat

Struktur
supramolekul

membran

Makro
molekul

Protein
(KH& lipid)

Molekul
organik

Asam amino

kromosom

ribosom

Dinding sel

DNA (&
protein)

RNA (&
protein)

selulosa

nukleotida

CO2 H2O NH2

Monosakarida
(spt. Glukosa)

RNA

The building blocks


of the complex biomolecules
(macromolecules)
DNA : deoxyribonucleotides (C,A,T,G)
RNA : ribonucleotides (C,A,U,G)
Polysaccharides (glycogen) : glucose
Proteins: amino acid
Complex lipids : fatty acid

Reference
1.

2.

3.

4.

Carola R, Harley JP, Noback Jr. Human


Anatomy and Physiology. McGraw Hill Publ
Comp. 1990. pp 56-87, 858-899
Devlin TM. Textbook of Biochemistry with
Clinical Correlation. 4th ed. A John Wiley &
Sons, Inc, Publ New York. 1997. pp 2-20
Lehninger AL, Nelson DL, Cox MM. Principles of
Biochemistry. 2nd ed. Worth Publ. 1993. pp 376
Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M.,
Roberts, K., Walter, P. 2002. Molecular Biology
of the Cell. Edisi ke-4. Garland Science: New
York. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1 (versi online di NCBI
Bookshelf)

THE CELL

The Chromosomes (1)

The Mitokhondria

Golgi Vesicle

SIKLUS SEL

Embryo Development (1)


Cleavage in an idealized embryo (not drawn to scale)
(A) The single-celled zygote still has two polar bodies
attached to it. Succesive divisions result in two (B),
four ( C), eight (D) cells, and so on. Divions continue
to form a morula (E) and then a blastocyst zygote, and
the whole blastocyst, consisting of many cells and a
cavity (blastocoel), is scarrely larger than the one
original zygote cell.

Embryo Development (2)

Embryo Development (3)

The outline of sequence of the


events that take place from
fertilization to senescence (1)

Fertilization
Zygote
Blastomere
Morula
Blastocyst
Embryonic development
Fetal development
Childbirth

The outline of sequence of the


events that take place from
fertilization to senescence (2)

Childbirth
Neonatal
Infantcy
Childhood
Adolescence
Adulthood
Senescence
Died

Cell Death (Necrobiosis)

Natural death
Necrobiosis
Cell death resulting from irreversible
damage caused by disease or accident
Necrosis

Three types of nclear changes


accompany cell death:
Condensation and shringking of nuclear
material (pyknosis)
Disintegration of the nucleus into
fragments (karyonhexis)
Deisolation of the nucleus (karyolysis)

Cell Aging
No single hypothesis that can explain
aging. It has been estimated at least 7000
different genes are involved in the aging
process. Two of the popular hypothesis of
aging is free radical hypothesis and DNA
mutation hypothesis

TUHAN

Reference
1.

2.

3.
4.
5.

Carola R, Harley JP, Noback Jr. Human Anatomy and


Physiology. McGraw Hill Publ Comp. 1990. pp 56-87,
858-899
Darnell J., Lodesh H., Baltimore D. Molecular Cell
Biology. 2nd ed. Scientific American Books. 1990. pp 67145
Sack GH. Medical Genetics. Mc Graw-Hill Publ Comp.
1999. pp 1-37
Ulrich Drews. Atlas Berwarna & Teks Embriologi.
Hipokrates. 1996. pp 5-6, 15
Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K.,
Walter, P. 2002. Molecular Biology of the Cell. Edisi ke4. Garland Science: New York. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1
(versi online di NCBI Bookshelf)

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