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TEKNIK TENAGA AIR

WISNU HARIYANTO

POKOK BAHASAN



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PENGERTIAN UMUM.
PEMBANGKITAN TENAGA AIR.
EFFISIENSI PEMBANGKITAN.
FASILITAS BANGUNAN TENAGA AIR.
=== UTM ====
• 5. TURBIN AIR.
• 6. PUMP STORAGE
• 7. KELAYAKAN LINGKUNGAN, SOSIAL DAN
POLITIK
==== UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER ====

BUKU – BUKU REFERENSI
• 1. WARNICK,CC, 1984, “HYDRO POWER
ENGINEERING”, PRENTICE HALL INC, NEW
JERSEY.
• 2. DAVIS, CV; SORENSEN.KE,1970,”HANDBOOK OF
APPLIED HYDRAULICS”, Mc GRAW HILL.
• 3. DEPARTEMEN PENDIDIKAN KMTS UGM, 1970,
“BANGUNAN TENAGA AIR”, YOGYAKARTA
• 4. ARISMUNANDAR,A DAN KUWARA,S,
1979,“TEKNIK TENAGA LISTRIK”, PRADNYA
PARAMITA, JAKARTA.

• SISTEM MINI HIDRO DAN MICRO HIDRO.PENGERTIAN UMUM • SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR. • POTENSI TENAGA AIR DI INDONESIA DAN DUNIA. .

Manusia memakai tenaga mekanik berasal dari tenaga hewan.SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR (1) Dibagi dalam 4 (empat) fase sebagai berikut: • Sekitar 2000 tahun yg lalu sampai dengan pertengahan abad ke 18. . tenaga air dan tenaga manusia sendiri. orang telah menggunakan tenaga air untuk kincir air.

karena tenaga air hanya terdapat pada air yang mempunyai tenaga yaitu debit (Q) dan head (H).SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR (2) • Setelah orang dapat menggunakan tenaga uap sebagai bahan penggerak tenaga. Tenaga air pada saat itu kurang dipakai. manusia mendapatkan tenaga dari bahan bakar minyak (bensin. Contoh : Negeri Belanda  banyak air akan tetapi tidak punya tinggi terjun yang cukup krn letaknya dibawah permukaan air laut. maka tenaga uap (steam power) popular didalam pemakaian tenaga oleh manusia. . Dengan perkembangan waktu. minyak diesel) untuk membuat barang barang kebutuhan materiil.

Austria. Germany. Akan tetapi di Inggris dan USA kurang diperhatikan karena disana masih banyak batubara yang menjadi bahan bakar mesin uap. maka tenaga air menjadi sumber tenaga yang banyak diminati terutama di Norwegia.SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR (3) • Setelah tenaga air. Italia dan Jepang. . tenaga uap dan tenaga minyak dapat diubah menjadi tenaga listrik dan dapat dialirkan sampai ke jarak yang jauh dengan jalur transmisi. Swiss. Swedia.

sehingga menjadi sangat mahal. . karena:  Buruh tak mudah lagi dipergunakan sebagai alat produksi. maka tenaga uap dan minyak merupakan tenaga yang lebih sukar dipergunakan. • Tenaga air yang tidak memerlukan tenaga buruh dan bahan bakar menjadi populair kembali terlebih lagi bangunan tenaga air dapat digabungkan dalam suatu proyek serba guna (multi purpose project) atau minimal dual purpose project.  Harga bahan bakar menjadi labil.SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR (4) • Setelah PD I.

 Pengairan (irrigation).  Air minum  Perikanan darat dan satwa liar.  Pengendalian banjir (flood control).  Pariwisata.SEJARAH PEMAKAIAN TENAGA AIR (5) • Project serba guna (multi purpose project) meliputi al:  Pembangkit tenaga listrik (murah). .  Penanggulangan pencemaran air.  Lalu lintas air (navigation)  Pengendalian kadar garam dan sedimentasi.

.( > 1000 kW) • Di Kanada. • Pembangunan pembangkit tenaga air dapat dilaksanakan di banyak daerah dengan skala kapasitas yang bermacam macam dari skala mikro hidro (< 100 kW).POTENSI TENAGA AIR (1) • Pembangkitan tenaga air sangat dipengaruhi oleh kondisi geografis. mini hidro (100 ≤ P ≤ 1000 kW) sampai dengan skala PLTA. kondisi curah hujan dan daerah aliran sungai (DAS) di daerah tersebut. Norwegia dan Swedia misalnya tenaga air merupakan sumber tenaga utama.

• Jumlah potensi tenaga air di permukaan disebut dengan potensi tenaga air teoritis. . • Sumber sumber yg dapat dikembangkan secara teknis disebut potensi tenaga air teknis.POTENSI TENAGA AIR (1) • Ditinjau dari luas daerah. • Sumber sumber yg dikembangkan secara ekonomis disebut dengan potensi tenaga air ekonomis. Jepang dan Indonesia dikarunai dengan kekayaan akan sumber sumber air yang besar. perlu diketahui secara jelas potensi sumber tenaganya. • Untuk mengembangkan sumber sumber tenaga air secara wajar.

. potensi tenaga air ekonomis dianggap sebagai potensi tenaga air. • Namun dengan perkembangan teknologi. • Rasio potensi tenaga air teknis terhadap potensi tenaga air teoritis adalah 34% sd 40%.POTENSI TENAGA AIR (2) • Pada umumnya. • Rasio potensi tenaga air ekonomis terhadap tenaga air teoritis adalah 20% sd 30%. maka tidak ada lagi perbedaan yang jelas diantara ketiganya.

POTENSI TENAGA AIR (3) .

POTENSI TENAGA AIR (3) .

POTENSI TENAGA AIR (4) .

POTENSI TENAGA AIR (5) INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW) 2966 4755 BATUBARA (EKSISTING) 1149 17020 BATUBARA (RENCANA) 7911 GAS (EKSISTING) GEOTHERMAL 15921 HIDRO HIDRO .PUMP STORAGE (RENC) .

POTENSI TENAGA AIR (6) PEMBANGKIT HYDRO INSTALL CAPACITY (MW) 4000 3500 3337 3000 2500 2000 1416 1500 1000 500 0 PT PLN IPP .

139/2011 : Guarantee for PLN’s Viability for IPP Project included in FTP II • MoEMR Regulation No. Hydro 18 18 .000 MW Fast TrackLNG Programs II). 15/2010 : List of Accelerated Development of Power Plant project using Renewable Energy.NATIONAL POLICIES ON NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT • President Regulation No. Gas • MoEMR Regulation No. Coal and Gas as well as Related Transmission where the portion of energy generated from Geothermal Power Plants 40 % and Hydro Power Plants 12 % Coal • MoEMR Regulation No. 002/2006 : Procedure on Medium Scale of Renewable Energy Geothermal Development Business. PLN to Accelerate Power Plant Development Using Renewable Energy. 5/2006. Contribution of renewable in 2025 : 17% (boosted by vision of 25 % in 2025 (25/25) • President Decree No. 2/2011 : Assignment to PLN to purchase electricity from geothermal power plant and its ceilings price HSD MFO • MoF Regulation No. 4/2010 : Assignment to PT. Coal and Gas (10.

2 % per annum for upcoming decade • Electrification ratio increases from 68 % in 2010 to 91 % in 2019 • Fossil Fuel Consumption Reduction Program from 13% (2010) to 3 % started in 2013 and LNG the increase of renewable portion in the energy mixture from 12 % (2010) to 19 % (2019) Gas • Still dominated by Coal Fired Power Plants (CFPP) program. • The development of renewable energy especially Geothermal and Hydro Power Plant and also small scale renewable energy currently is not based on “least cost” but on the readiness of the scheme.PLN POLICIES : LONG TERM ELECTRICITY SUPPLY PLANNING (2010-2019) • Projection of electricity growth of 9. HEPPreservoir or Open Cycle Gas Fired Power Plant Geothermal 19 19 . about 60 %. Coal • Reserve Margin (RM) 40% and 35% for out of Jawa-Bali and for Jawa-Bali respectively • Development of diesel power plant is only to support system at peak load. covering HSD MFO remaining load share from more efficient peakers such as pumped storage.

000 7.373 MW (2009) 3.000 9.000 2.000 6.678 150 HEPP 3.127 Coal STPP 8.GENERATION CAPACITY (TYPE AND OWNERSHIP) Existing Total Capacity 29.420 695 Geothermal 400 3 Micro HEPP 56 285 CCPP 7.000 3.438 - 1.027 290 GTPP 2.000 IPP (MW) 20 5.000 4.000 8.000 PLN (MW) 20 .745 60 Diesel PP 2.

RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIAL AND DEVELOPMENT PLAN NO RENEWABLE TYPE POTENCY INSTALLED CAPACITY ADDITIONAL CAPACITY PROGRAM (2010-2019) 1 Hydro power 75.670 MW 5.810 MW 445 MW 184 MW 5 Solar power 4.189 MW 5990 MW 3 Mini/Micro Hydro 769 MW 218 MW 267 MW 4 Biomass 49.038 MW 1.80 kWh/m2/day 13.290 MW) 1.5 MW 187 MW 6 Wind power 3 – 6 m/s (9.705 MW 5140 MW 2 Geothermal 29.87 MW 74 MW Source : RIPEBAT 2010-2025 updated from multiple sources and RUPTL 2010-2019 21 .

000 200.000 60.000 20.NATIONAL INSTALLED CAPACITY AND ENERGY PRODUCTION) PROJECTION National Installed Capacity Projection (MW) National Energy Production (GWh) 140.000 80.000 100.000 - - 2010 CFPP 22 2015 CCPP GTPP 2020 DIPP HEPP GeoPP 2025 NPP 2010 Coal Gas 2015 LNG Oil 2020 Hydro Geothermal 2025 Nuclear 22 .000 120.000 40.000 600.000 100.000 500.000 300.000 700.000 400.

945 2.601 4.262 3.182 4.200 200 7 700 1.390 23.500 2.007 16.653 70 353 395 530 665 5. Cy.302 3.212 2.283 Total PLN+IPP 4.608 5.981 3.276 290 110 30 - 120 - - - - - 550 10 10 80 - - - - - - - 100 - - - - - - - - 178 857 330 392 IPP Coal STPP Comb.985 8.203 Comb.483 3.985 1.750 2.000 65 103 715 1. and Small Scale Green & New Energy PP) • 57% of the total capacity of Green Energy PP will be expected from IPPs 23 23 .280 3.649 1.175 31.291 4.311 818 4.248 4.607 6.596 6. GREEN & NEW ENERGY DEVELOPMENT) Tahun 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Total PLN Coal STPP 3.000 2.703 SMALL SCALE GREEN & NEW ENERGY PP - 267 • Total Capacity of Green & New Energy PP to be built in the period is 11.558 2.479 2.447 65 235 800 1.250 - 6.065 1.540 MW (total capacity of Geothermal PPs.321 HEPP Total PLN - - - 3.643 2.921 1.490 5.997 65 235 800 1.484 58 57 90 155 191 208 217 222 242 263 1.825 - 3.028 - 2.525 2.925 - - 22 5. Hydro Electric PPs-HEPP.384 3.415 Comb.DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF POWER GENERATION CAPACITY (INCL. PP Mini HEPP HEPP Total IPP 66 - - 22 - 3 25 31 180 195 91 531 1.353 1.550 1.417 3.421 Diesel PP 11 14 12 48 44 42 34 16 33 50 303 Geo.160 2.565 55.686 5.065 1. PP 484 930 423 350 360 Gas TPP 115 10 305 50 Diesel PP 11 36 12 48 44 42 34 16 33 50 325 Geo.410 745 16.697 700 1. Mini HEPPs.752 32. Cy.586 4.317 4. PP Gas TPP Diesel PP Geo.415 157 - 1 645 - 201 962 PLN+IPP Coal STPP 3.157 155 413 745 1.930 1.280 3.990 Mini-Hydro PP - - 39 38 98 56 13 6 6 9 2 Hydro Electric PP 180 195 10 300 1.500 2.625 4.450 42 50 510 6 2 1 1 90 310 30 2. PP 10 58 256 1.250 - 6. Cy.191 2.090 834 1.958 26 891 2. PP 10 55 78 143 203 20 23 3 20 20 575 Mini HEPP 14 6 6 14 8 4 5 8 1 10 300 1.130 1.156 6.698 306 2.311 818 5. PP 194 820 393 350 240 Gas TPP 105 225 50 - - 110 1.242 4.270 3.703 2.299 3.

490 5.156 MW 4.608 2.643 Total : 55.565 2018 2019 4.NEW ADDITION OF GENERATION CAPACITY FOR INDONESIA 9.000 8.000 5.000 2.607 6.000 2010 2011 PLTU COAL 24 2012 PLTP GEOTHERMAL 2013 2014 PLTGU GAS /CC 2015 PLTG GAS/OC PLTD FUEL OIL PLTA HYDRO 24 .000 6.586 4.596 2016 2017 6.000 1.248 6.985 5.000 4.000 3.000 7.484 MW 8.

0% 3% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 2% 0% 3% 0% 2% 0% 4% 0% 2% 0% 4% 24% 22% 19% 20% 18% 54% 56% 57% 56% 58% 12% 13% 13% 13% 13% 13% 0% 3% 1% 2% 0% 3% 0% 2% 0% 25% 28% 29% 26% 25% 60% 50% 51% 40% 51% 54% 52% 6% 6% 6% 9% 6% 6% 5% 5% 5% 4% 4% 4% 4% 4% 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Nuklir Batubara MFO HSD 46% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hydro 25 Geothermal Gas LNG Pumped Storage 25 .FUEL MIX INDONESIA 2010-2019 0% 100% 7% 13% 90% 3% 80% 70% 0% 3% 0% 4.8% 2.

ALTERNATIVE RENEWABLE ENERGY POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT YEAR 2011 .5 10 3 5 5 10 10 40 67 72 72 77 93 495 DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE BASED POWER PLANT .2020 DEVELOPM ENT OF RENEWABLE BASED POWER PLANT .5 2.2020 ) No TYPE OF POWER PLANT 1 2 3 4 5 Solar Wind Biomass Sea Bio-fuel TOTAL 26 Stn MWp MW MW MW MW MW 2011 2012 2013 2014 20 40 50 60 5 15 15 15 16 33 35 35 0 0 12 56 60 80 53 144 160 190 2015 70 15 35 1 80 201 YEAR 2016 2017 2018 2019 70 75 75 80 15 20 20 25 40 40 45 45 1 2 2 2 90 90 95 95 216 227 237 247 2020 80 25 50 3 100 TOTAL 620 170 374 10 758 258 1.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ( PROPOSED REVISION FOR RUPTL YEAR 2011 .0 2.2019 ) TYPE OF POWER PLANT No 1 2 3 4 5 Solar Wind Biomass Sea Bio-fuel TOTAL Stn 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 MWp 2 5 5 10 15 MW 0 5 5 8 8 MW 4 10 10 10 10 MW 0.0 2.ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ( RUPTL YEAR 2010 .2 0.932 26 .5 2 2 2 MW 6 21 22 30 36 YEAR 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 TOTAL 30 30 30 30 30 187 8 10 10 10 10 74 25 25 25 25 40 184 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 MW 0.3 0.0 1.

5 TWh IB : 6% 5.771 GWh (2010) to become 17.0 TWh 1.0 TWh IT : 40% 5.1 TWh JB : 3.PROJECTION OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY FROM HYDRO 2010 AND 2019 5.3 TWh 7.4% National electricity supply from hydro was 9.655 GWh (2019) with growth approximately 8.1 % per annum (Source: RUPTL 20102019) 27 27 .6 TWh 3.

PROJECTION OF ELECTRICITY SUPPLY FROM GEOTHERMAL 2010 AND 2019 11.06 TWh IB : 68% 2.8TWh 0.835 GWh (2019) with growth approximately 17 % per annum (Source: RUPTL 2010-2019) 28 28 .44 TWh IT : 20% 35.318 GWh (2010) to become 49.8 TWh JB : 14% National electricity supply from geothermal was 10.6 TWh 0.3 TWh 9.

SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM 29 29 .

7 cent USD/kWh d.PPA FOR LARGE SCALE RENEWABLE IPPs (> 10 MW) • Regulation: – IPP regulation : Law 15/85. Tariff B2B except Geothermal FTO II based on WKP tender with result < 9. Tariff will be escalated based on agreed formula or Tender Formula Geothermal Hydro e. Government Regulation 10/1985. Government Regulation 3/2005. Contract period of 30 years f. Capacity as required by system HSD MFO b.7 c USD/kWH Coal accepted as a result of tender WKP) Terms and conditions of ESC/PPA standard : a. Capacity Factor as TOP/DOP : 85% – 95% c. 2/2011 LNG – Special for FTP II project : MoF Regulation No. Government Regulation 26/2006 and MoEMR Decree 04/2007 – Additional for Geothermal only : MoEMR Regulation No. 9. 139/2011 Guarantee for PLN’s Gas Viability • • PPA or ESC standard has been available and part of RFP document Procurement Procedure: B2B including tariff (only geothermal FTP II max. Transmission network prepared by developer or PLN • 30 30 . Government guarantee for PLNs’ viability (only FTP II) g. Law 30/2009.

Incentive factor : 1. Law 30/2009.2 – 1. Transmission network prepared by developer. • • PPA standard has been available Terms and conditions of ESC/PPA standard : a.PPA FOR SMALL SCALE RENEWABLE IPPs (< 10 MW) • Regulation:  IPP regulation : Law 15/85. as a “ feed in tariff .5 for Outside Jawa .15 years with possibly extended f. Feed in tariff (B2B approach for tariff higher than above FIT tariff) d.FIT“: LNG . Flat Tariff without escalation e.5 c USD /kWh (connected to MV) Gas . Not considered TOP/DOP c. Contract period of min.5 c USD /kWh (connected to LV) . 31 Coal Geothermal Hydro 31 . Government Regulation 3/2005.7.B2B approach for tariff higher than above FIT tariff.31/2009. Capacity as it is HSD MFO b.11. Government Regulation 26/2006 and MoEMR Decree 04/2007  Tariff : MoEMR Decree no. Government Regulation 10/1985.

2019 5578 282 63 136 545 545 989 357 911 101 8 Additional Proposed RUPTL 4945 28 41 166 435 235 501 329 929 105 Coal 490 7 10523 MFO 310 104 302 979 779 149 0 686 184 0 207 5 Revised RUPTL HSD 2011 .HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT Capacit y (MW) Target COD LNG 201 1 201 2 201 3 201 4 201 5 201 6 201 7 201 8 Gas 202 201 9 0 RUPTL 2010 .2020 734 122 4 Geothermal Hydro 32 32 .