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## Chapter 7. First and second order

transient circuits

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Contents

1. Introduction
2. First order circuits
3. Second order circuits
4. Application examples

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1. Introduction

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Analysis

dC (t ) C (t )

0
dt
R

d C ( t )
1

C (t ) 0
dt
RC

C (t ) V0e

t
RC

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## Solution to 1st order differential equation :

dx (t )
ax (t ) f (t )
dt
f (t) = 0 homogeneous equation
f (t) 0 inhomogeneous equation

dxc (t )
axc (t ) 0
dt
xh(t) or xc(t) homogeneous or complementary solution
xp(t) inhomogeneous or particular solution

x ( t ) x p ( t ) xc ( t )
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Particular solution :
For polynomial functions f (t) , x(t) should also be a polynomial
function of the order of equal or lower degree.

ex ) f (t ) 2t 2 3t 2
ex ) f (t ) A

x p (t ) at 2 bt c

x p (t ) K1

dx (t )
ax (t ) f (t ) A
dt

dx p (t )
dt

x p (t ) K1

ax p (t ) aK1 A

A
a

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Homogeneous solution :
dxc (t )
axc (t ) 0
dt

dxc
axc
dt

dxc
axc 0
dt

dxc
a dt d [ln xc ] a dt
xc

## Integrating both sides with respect to the arguments,

ln xc (t ) at C

xc (t ) e at C K 2e at

eC

x (t ) x p (t ) xc (t ) K1 K 2e at

A
K 2e at
a

The constant K2 can be found, if the value of x(t) is known at one instant of time.

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## General solution : 1st order differential equation

x (t ) K1 K 2e

t /

x(t) K1 as t when the second term
becomes negligible.
: time constant

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Simple RC circuit

( t 0)

d (t ) (t ) VS

0
dt
R

d (t )
1
V

(t ) S
dt
RC
RC

p (t ) K K VS

h ( t ) e t e t

1 t
e 0
RC

1
RC

(t ) p (t ) h (t ) VS K 2e

t
RC

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(t 0 ) 0 VS K 2
K 2 VS
(t ) VS VS e

t
RC

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Simple RL circuit

di (t )
Ri (t ) VS
dt

di (t ) R
V
i (t ) S
dt
L
L

R
t
VS
i (t )
K 2e L
R

V
i (t 0 ) i (0 ) S K 2 0
R

K2

VS
R

R
t
VS VS RL t VS
i (t )
e
1 e L
R R
R

R
t

R (t ) R i (t ) VS 1 e L

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Example 7.1
Consider the circuit shown in Fig. 7.4a. Assuming that the switch has been in
position 1 for a long time, at time t=0 the switch is moved to position 2. We wish to
calculate the current i(t) for t > 0.

Initial condition :

3k
4 [V ]
6k 3k

C (0 ) 12

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(t )
R1

d (t ) (t )

0
dt
R2

d (t )
5 (t ) 0
dt

## R1 6k, R2 3k, C 100 F

Suppose

(t ) Ae t
d ( t )
5 (t ) 0
dt

A(e t 5e t ) 0

(t ) Ae 5 t 4e 5 t
i (t )

(t )
R2

C (0 ) C (0 ) 4 [V ]

4 5 t
e [mA]
3
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Example 7.2
The switch in the network in Fig. 7.5a opens at t=0. Let us find the output
voltage vo(t) for t > 0.

iL ( 0 ) iL ( 0 )

4
[ A]
3

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VS1 ( R1 R3 )i (t ) L

di (t )
0
dt

di (t )
2i (t ) 6
dt

R1 2 , R3 2 , L 2 H

di (t )
2i (t ) 6
dt

i (t ) 3 K 2e 2 t
i (0 ) 3 K 2

4
4
5
K2 3
3
3
3

iL ( 0 ) iL ( 0 )

4
[ A]
3

5
i (t ) 3 e 2 t
3
o (t ) 2i (t ) 6

10 2 t
e
3

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