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Contoh Gerak Harmonik

Apa itu gerak periodik ?????????? harmonik ????????? Getaran ??????????

Gerak periodik, adalah gerak berulang pada


waktu yang tetap.
Getaran, adalah gerak bolak-balik pada
jalan yang sama.
Gerak harmonik, adalah gerak dengan
persamaan berupa fungsi
sinus.

Hooke's Law
One of the properties of elasticity is that it takes about
twice as much force to stretch a spring twice as far. That
linear dependence of displacement upon stretching force
is called Hooke's law.

Contoh gerak harmonis

Gaya yang bekerja : - Gaya balik


- Gaya Newton

: F = - kx
: F = ma

Dalam kondisi setimbang :

d 2x
F = - kx = m 2
dt
atau

d 2x
m 2 kx 0
dt
2

atau

d x
m 2 kx
dt

Persamaan ini dipenuhi oleh fungsi


sinusoidal.

Bentuk umum persamaan :

xt A cost
Jika didiferensialkan dua kali di dapat :

d
d
xt A cost A sin t
dt
dt
dan

d2
2
xt A cost
2
dt

Sehingga didapat diferensial kedua dari

xt A cost
adalah :

d2
2
xt A cost
2
dt

Arti fisis dari tetapan


persamaan :

dapat dilihat dalam

x A cos t 2 /
A cost 2
Acost
Jadi, fungsi kembali pada nilai semula setelah
selang waktu 2 / ( = T )

Besaran t disebut fasa dari gerak


harmonik.
Tetapan disebut tetapan fasa.
x 2 t
x1t

x1t A cos t

x1t

x3 t
x 4 t

x1t

x2t A cost 1800

x3t A2 cos t

x4t A cos 2t

Simple Harmonic Motion


When a mass is acted upon by an elastic force which tends to bring it back to
its equilibrium configuration, and when that force is proportional to the
distance from equilibrium (e.g., doubles when the distance from equilibrium
doubles, a Hooke's Law force), then the object will undergo simple harmonic
motion when released.

A mass on a spring is the standard example of such periodic motion. If the


displacement of the mass is plotted as a function of time, it will trace out a pure
sine wave. It turns out that the motion of the medium in a traveling wave is also
simple harmonic motion as the wave passes a given point in the medium.

Simple harmonic motion is typified by the motion of a mass on a


spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by
Hooke's Law. The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a
single resonant frequency.

Simple Harmonic Motion Equations


The motion equation for simple harmonic motion contains
a complete description of the motion, and other
parameters of the motion can be calculated from it.

The velocity and acceleration are given by

Simple Pendulum

The motion of a simple pendulum is like simple


harmonic motion in that the equation for the
angular displacement is

which is the same form as the


motion of a mass on a spring:

The anglular frequency of the motion is then


given by

compared to

for a mass on a spring.

The frequency of the pendulum in Hz is given


by

and the period of motion is


then

Period of Simple Pendulum


A point mass hanging on a massless string is
an idealized example of a simple pendulum.
When displaced from its equilibrium point, the
restoring force which brings it back to the
center is given by:

For small angles , we can use


the approximation

in which case Newton's 2nd


law takes the form

Even in this approximate case, the


solution of the equation uses calculus
and differential equations. The
differential equation is

and for small angles the


solution is:

Pendulum Geometry

Pendulum Equation
The equation of motion for the simple
pendulum for sufficiently small amplitude
has the form

which when put in angular form


becomes

This differential equation is like


that for the simple harmonic
oscillator and has the solution:

Deskripsi Gerak Harmonik Dengan


Menggunakan Vektor :

Tugas !!!!!!!
A

AA
A

Gerak Harmonik Teredam & Terpaksa


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Analisa dalam bentuk matematik
dengan caramu sendiri

Traveling Wave Relationship


A single frequency traveling wave will take the form of
a sine wave. A snapshot of the wave in space at an
instant of time can be used to show the relationship of
the wave properties frequency, wavelength and
propagation velocity.

Traveling Wave Relationship


The motion relationship "distance = velocity x
time" is the key to the basic wave relationship.
With the wavelength as distance, this relationship
becomes
=vT. Then using f=1/T gives the
standard wave relationship

This is a general wave relationship which applies to


sound and light waves, other electromagnetic
waves, and waves in mechanical media.

String Wave Solutions


A solution to the wave equation for an ideal string can take the
form of a traveling wave

For a string of length L which is fixed at both ends, the


solution can take the form of standing waves:

For different initial conditions on such a string, the


standing wave solution can be expressed to an
arbitrary degree of precision by a Fourier series

Traveling Wave Solution for String


A useful solution to the wave equation for an ideal string is

It can be shown to be a solution to the one-dimensional wave equation


by direct substitution:

Setting the final two expressions equal to each other and


factoring out the common terms gives

These two expressions are equal for all values of x and t


and therefore represent a valid solution if the wave
velocity is

Wave velocity for a stretched string

String Traveling Wave Velocity


For a point of constant height moving to the right:

For a point of constant height moving to the left:

From the traveling wave solution, the phase velocity for a string wave is
given by:

Traveling Wave Parameters


A traveling wave solution to the wave equation may be written in several different
ways with different choices of related parameters. These include the basic periodic
motion parameters amplitude, period and frequency.

Equivalent forms of wave solution:

Wave parameters:
*Amplitude A
*Period T = 1/f
*Frequency f = 1/T
*Propagation speed v
*Angular frequency = 2f
*Wave relationship v = f

Plane Wave Expressions


A traveling wave which is confined to one plane in space and varies
sinusoidally in both space and time can be expressed as
combinations of

It is sometimes convenient to use the complex form

which may be shown to be a combination of the above forms by


the use of the Euler identity

In the case of classical waves, either the real or the imaginary part is
chosen since the wave must be real, but for application to quantum
mechanical wavefunctions such as that for a free particle, the complex form
may be retained.