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WIRELESS LANS

INTRODUCTION
Introduced in 1980 and marketed to replace
wired LAN.
Based on IEEE 802.11 architecture.
Transmission medium Microwave radio &
Infrared.

Wireless LANs Application


Buildings with large open areas (manufacturing
plants, stock exchange trading floors,
warehouses).
Historical buildings with insufficient twisted pair
and where drilling holes for new wiring is
prohibited.

Small offices where installation and maintenance


of wired LANs are not economical.

Advantages & Disadvanatges

Advantages
Mobility
Relocation
Adhoc networking
Coverage of locations
difficult to wire

Disadavatages
High Price
Low data rate
Safety and security risk
Need for license.

Typical Wireless LAN Configuration


Single Cell Wireless LAN
There is a backbone wired
LAN, such as Ethernet,
that supports servers,
workstations and one or
more bridges or routers to
link with other networks.
There is a control module
(CM) that acts as an
interface to a wireless LAN
Some of the end systems
are standalone devices,
such as a workstation or a
server.
Hubs or other user
modules (UMs) that
control a number of
stations off a wired LAN
may also be part of the
wireless LAN configuration

Typical Wireless LAN Configuration


Multiple Cell Wireless LAN

Wireless LAN requirements

Throughput
Number of nodes
Service area 100-300m
Connection to backbone LAN
Battery power consumption
Transmission robustness and security
Collocated network operation
License free operation
Roaming
Dynamic configuration

IEEE 802.11 Architecture


Station
- All components that can connect into a wireless medium in a
network are referred to as stations. All stations are equipped with
wireless network interface cards (WNICs).
- Stations fall into two categories.
1.Access points
2. Clients
Access point
- Access points (APs) are base stations for the wireless network.
They transmit and receive radio frequencies for wireless enabled
devices(clients) to communicate with.
Client
- Wireless clients can be mobile devices such as laptops, personal
digital assistants, IP phones, or fixed devices such as desktops and
workstations that are equipped with a wireless network interface .

IEEE 802.11 Architecture


Basic service set
- The basic service set (BSS) is a set of all stations that can communicate
with each other.

Extended service set


- An extended service set (ESS) is a set of connected BSSs. Access points in
an ESS are connected by a distribution system.

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Distribution system
A distribution system connects access points
in an extended service set. A distribution
system is usually a wired LAN but can be a
wireless LAN.

IEEE Architecture

IEEE 802.11 SERVICES


ASSOCIATION

logical connection between a mobile station and an access point.


Each station must become associated with an access point before it is allowed to send data through
the access point onto the distribution system.
The connection is necessary in order for the distribution system to know where and how to deliver
data to the mobile station.

DISASSOCIATION
The disassociation service is used either to
1. force a mobile station to eliminate an association with an access point
2. a mobile station inform an access point that it no longer requires the services of the distribution
system.
REASSOCIATION
The established association is transferred from one AP to another AP.

A mobile station will use the re-association service repeatedly as it moves through out the ESS,
loses contact with the access point with which it is associated.

contd
.
AUTHENTICATION
The authentication service provides a mechanism for one
station to identify another station.
Without this proof of identity, the station is not allowed to
use the WLAN for data delivery.
All 802.11 stations, whether they are part of an
independent BSS or ESS network, must use the
authentication service prior to communicating with
another station.
PRIVACY
Prevent the content of messages being read by others than
recipient.

IEEE 802.11 PROTOCOL LAYERS

IEEE 802.11 Physical Layer

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