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Topic 5 Energy And Chemical

Changes

5.1

ITeach Science Form 4

Physical And Chemical Changes


Perubahan Kimia Dan Perubahan Fizik

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Physical And Chemical Changes
Physical changes

Chemical changes

Involve changes in physical properties


such as

..

Produce

Normally, change is only


and is

Normally, change is fixed and is


reversible.

Involve little change of energy.

Involves a lot of change of energy.

No change in chemical properties and


composition of substance.

Change in properties
and composition of substance.

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Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Physical Changes - Changes
Of Physical State

Ice

Water

No new substance is formed

Composition of substance remain the same.

Processes are reversible.


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H2o (steam)

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Physical Changes - Dissolving
a solid in water

Sugar
Glass rod
Beaker
Water

No new substance is formed.

Process is reversible.
ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Physical Changes - Crystallisation Of
Sugar/Salt From Its Saturated Solution

Evaporating dish

Saturated solution of
sugar/salt is cooled at room
temperature.

Water is evaporated and colourless crystal of sugar/salt are formed.

Composition of substance remains the same

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Physical Changes - Heating Of Iodine Crystals
In A Closed Container

Ice cubes

Watch glass

Beaker

Iodine crystal
XXXXXXXXXX

Iodine crystals sublime and form purple vapour when heated.


The purple vapour sublimes and forms black crystal again.
No new substance is formed.
Composition of substance remain the same.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Chemical Changes
Sodium React With Water
Sodium + water

Sodium hydroxide + hydrogen + heat

..

..
Heat is released

Water

Products have different chemical properties


New substances are produced.
Process is irreversible.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes

Example Of Chemical Changes


...............................................
Charcoal + oxygen

Carbon diokside + ash

Fire
Charcoal

Product have different chemical properties


New substances are produced.
Process is irreversible.

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Ash

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Chemical Changes
................................................
Iron (Black)

Sulphur (Yellow)

heat

Iron sulphide (Black)


Crucible
Mixture of iron filling
and sulphur

Pipeclay triangle

Heat
Iron can be attracted by magnet.
Sulphur oxide cannot be attracted by magnet

Product has different chemical properties


Process is irreversible.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Chemical Changes
..........................................
Iron

Oxygen

Water

Iron oxide (rust)


Test tube

Water
Iron nail
Iron nail has shining surface.
Iron oxide (rust) is brownish substance.
Iron oxide is new substance with different chemical properties
Process is irreversible.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Chemical Changes
Reaction Between Zinc And Copper (II) Sulphate Solution
Zinc
(shining metal)

Copper (II)
sulphate
(blue solution)

Zinc
sulphate
(colourless solution)

Copper
(brownish colour)

Test tube
Cooper (II) sulphate solution
Zinc
Products have different chemical properties

Products are new substances.


Process is irreversible.

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Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Example Of Chemical Changes
.........................................
light

Water

Co2

Products have different chemical composition


New substances are produced.
Process is irreversible.

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..

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Crushing
onion

Physical
Changes In
Daily Life

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Producing sugar
crystal from
sugar cane juice.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes

Cooking rice

Rusting of iron gate


Chemical
Changes In
Daily Life
Milk turning sour

Respiration

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.2

ITeach Science Form 4

Heat Change In Chemical Reactions


Perubahan Haba Dalam Tindak Balas Kimia

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Heat Change In Chemical Reactions
Chemical reaction involve heat change either heat is absorbed or release.
Heat energy is .. when bond in the reactants are breaking.

Heat energy is.. when new bonds are formed in the product.
Chemical reaction can be
classified into two groups

Heat energy is ............................... to


the surrounding
Example :
Sodium hydroxide dissolves in water
(feel hot).

ITeach Science Form 4

Heat energy is.............................from


the surrounding.
Example :
Ammonium chloride
water (feel cold).

dissolves

in

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Comparison Between Exothermic Reactions And Endothermic Reactions

Exothermic Reactions
Heat energy is released to the surroundings.

Reactant will .
to the surrounding.
As the heat energy is released, the total
energy content in the product is less than the
total energy content of the reactants

Energy
level

As the heat energy is absorbed, the total


energy content in the product is more than
the total energy content of the reactants
Energy
level

reactants
Heat energy released

Products
The temperature of the surrounding
. Container and solution
become hot.
Example :

Combustion Neutralisation
Reaction between reactive metal and
water
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Endothermic Reactions
Heat energy is absorbed from the
surroundings.
Reactant will from
the surrounding.

Products
Heat energy
Reactants absorbed
The temperature of the surrounding
.. Container and solution
become cold.
Example
Photosynthesis

Decomposition by heat

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


Chemical Reactions In Industry

Reactions in industry usually occur under optimum conditions so that the time of
reaction is very short and the cost involved is minimal.

Example of chemical reactions in industry

The production of ..

The production of .

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


The Production Of Ammonia (Haber Process)

+
Is a reaction
Forward reaction
Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form
ammonia is an exothermic reaction. Heat
is released.

When
temperature is
decreased, more
ammonia will be
formed but rate
of reaction will
be slow down.

ITeach Science Form 4

When
temperature is
increased,
less
ammonia
is
produced
because
ammonia
will
decompose
to
absorb the extra
heat.

Backward reaction
Ammonia decomposes to hydrogen and
nitrogen is an endothermic reaction.
Heat is absorbed.

Hence, optimum
temperature for
Haber process is
450C.

Iron catalyst is
used to increased
the
rate
of
reaction

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Physical And Chemical Changes


The Production Of Sulphuric Acid (Contact Process)
First Stage

Sulphur
dioxide

Second
Stage

Sulphur
trioxide
(from excess air)

The production of sulphur trioxide is reversible

Forward reaction is an exothermic reaction. Heat is released.

Backward reaction is an endothermic reaction. Heat is absorbed.

Third Stage
Oleum

Both steps release heat


energy. Optimum conditions
are maintained.

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Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.3

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The Reactivity Series Of Metals


Siri Kereaktifan Logam

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Reactivity Of Metals With Water

Metals React With Water At Different


Rates

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Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


How Reactive Metals React With Water ?

Reactive metals react with water and release a lot of heat


+

The product are hydrogen solution which is alkaline and hidrogen gas is
released.

Example
Reactivity
decrease

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Potassium

Water

hydrogen

Sodium

Water

hydrogen

Calcium

Water

hydrogen

Magnesium

Water

hydrogen

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


How Less Reactive Metals React With Water ?
Less reactive metals react with steam / hot water to produce matal
hydroxide + hydrogen

Example
Reactivity
decrease

Metal

Hot water

Metal
hydroxide

Hydrogen

Aluminium

Water

Aluminium
hydroxide

hydrogen

Zinc

Water

Zinc
hydroxide

hydrogen

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


How Less Reactive Metals React With Water ?

Unreactive metals do not react with either


cold water or hot water / steam.

Example :
..............................................................................

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Experiment To Study The Reactivity Of Metal With Water
To Study The Reactivity Of Metal With Water
Aim : ____________________________________
Metals show different reactivity when reacting with water
Hypothesis : ____________________________________
Constant
: Volume of water / mass of metal
Variable : _____________________________________
Manipulated : Type of metal.
_____________________________________
Responding : Reactivity of metal.
_____________________________________
Magnesium / Aluminium / zinc / Copper reacts with water
Materials
_____________________________________
and apparatus : ____________________________________

Observation :

Conclusion :

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Reactivity Of Metals With Dilute Acid
Reactive metals react very..with dilute acids to produce .
and ..

Metal + acid

salt +

hydrogen

Example
Calcium + Dilute Hydrochloride Acid

...+ Hydrogen

Less reaction metal react . vigorously with dilute acids to produce salts and
hydrogen.

Example
Magnesium + Dilute Nitric Acid

.+ Hydrogen

Non-reactive metals such as.., and ..


do not react with dilute acids.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Experiment To Study The Reactivity Of Metals With Dilute Acid
To study the reactivity of metals with dilute acid.
Aim : ____________________________________
Metals show different reactivity when reacting with dilute acid.
Hypothesis : ____________________________________
Constant
: Volume and concentration of acid.
Variable : _____________________________________
Manipulated : Type of metal.
_____________________________________
Responding : Reactivity of metal.
_____________________________________
Magnesium, aluminium, zinc and copper (All in powder form).
Materials
_____________________________________
and apparatus : ____________________________________

Observation :

Conclusion :

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Reactivity Of Metals With Oxygen
Metals react with oxygen to form oxides of metals when burnt in air
Metal + Oxygen

Metal oxide

Reactivity of metals with oxygen is determined by the brightness of the flame that
is produced.
Reactive metals burn brightly with different coloured flames when react with oxygen.
Magnesium + Oxygen

Magnesium oxide

Less reactive metals glow dimly when react with oxygen.

Zinc + Oxygen

Zinc oxide

Non reactive metal do not react when burn in air.


Silver, gold and platinum
ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


To Study The Reactivity Of Metals With Oxygen
To study the reactivity of metals with oxygen.
Aim : _____________________________________
Different metals show different reactivity with oxygen.
Hypothesis : ____________________________________
Constant
: Mass / quantity of metal.
Variable : _____________________________________
_____________________________________
Manipulated : Type of metal.
_____________________________________
Responding : Reactivity of metal.

Magnesium, aluminium, zinc and copper (All in powder form).


Materials : _____________________________________

Apparatus : _____________________________________
Observation :

Object

Mass (g)

Density (gcm3)

Ability to sink / float

Iron
Plastic
Rubber
Lead
Wood

Conclusion :

ITeach Science Form 4

____________________________________

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Comparison Of Reactivity Of Metal With Water, Dilute Acid And Oxygen
Reactivity

Most
reactive

Metal

Reaction with
water

Reaction with
dilute acids

React
React vigorously violently
with cold water
dangerous
explode)

Reaction with
oxygen

very
and
(may Burn very vigorous
and brightly

React with hot React with dilute Burn steadily if


water or steam
acid
metal are strongly
heated
React slowly with
dilute acid

Least
reactive
ITeach Science Form 4

Do not react with


cold water or hot
water
Do not react with
dilute acid

Glow dimly

No reaction

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


The Reactivity Series Of Metals
is based on the reactivity of metal with oxygen

Potassium

Most reactive

Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium

Aluminium
Zinc
Iron
Tin

Lead
Copper
Silver
Gold
ITeach Science Form 4

Least reactive

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


Position Of Carbon In Reactivity Series Of Metals
Carbon is non-metallic element but it can reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.
Carbon + Oxygen
Carbon dioxide
Position of carbon in the reactivity series can be determined by comparing its reactivity
towards oxygen with other metals.
If carbon is . reactive than other metal, glow or bright flame will be seen when the
mixture of carbon and the metal oxide is heated. The metal loses its oxygen to carbon.
heated
Metal oxide + carbon
Metal + carbon dioxide
heated
Example : Zinc oxide + carbon
Zinc + carbon dioxide
Carbon is more reactive than zinc
If carbon is .. reactive than other metal, no glow or flame will be seen when
the mixture of carbon and the metal oxide is heated.
heated
Metal oxide + carbon
No sign of reaction
heated
Example : Aluminium oxide + carbon
No sign of reaction
Carbon is less reactive than aluminium
ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


To Determine The Position Of Carbon In The Reactivity
Series
To study the position of carbon in the reactivity series.
Aim : ____________________________________________
Carbon is placed in between aluminium and zinc in the reactivity series of metals.
Hypothesis : ____________________________________________
Constant
: Amount of carbon and metal oxide used.
Variable : ___________________________________________
____________________________________________
Manipulated : Type of metal oxide.
____________________________________________
Responding : Reactivity of reaction.

Copper oxide, iron oxide, zinc oxide, aluminium oxide and carbon (all in powder form).
Materials : ____________________________________________
Set up
Apparatus : ____________________________________________

Observation :

Object

Mass (g)

Density (gcm3)

Ability to sink / float

Iron
Plastic
Rubber
Lead
Wood

Conclusion :

ITeach Science Form 4

Carbon is placed between zinc and aluminium in the reactivity series of metal.
Hypothesis is accepted.
___________________________________________

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.4

ITeach Science Form 4

Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals


Aplikasi Siri Kereaktifan Logam

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals


Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals
Most metals in the Earths crust are in compounds form and in ores form
which consist of other impurities.
Metal

Ore

Composition

Iron

Iron oxide

Aluminium

Aluminium oxide

Tin

Tin oxide

Zinc

Zinc sulphide

Ores are separated from impurities by physical separation followed by


extraction of metal from the ores.
Extraction of metals can be carried out by two methods

. of molten ore of
metals for reactive metals which
are more reactive than carbon
ITeach Science Form 4

of metal ore
using carbon for less reactive
metals which are less reactive than
carbon.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals


Extraction Of Metals From Their Ores

Reactivity

Metal

Method Of Extration

More reactive
Electrolysis of molten ore.

Carbon

Extraction by heating mixture


of ore and carbon.

Less reactive

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Copper
Mercury

Extraction by heating the ore


in air.

Silver
Gold

Exist as free elements in the


Earths crust.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals


Extraction Of Tin From Its Ore
Blast Furnace
Tin ore is mined and washed to remove impurities by
floatation process.

Waste
gas

Tin ore is heated to remove sulphur and arsenic in it.

Tin core
+ coke
+ limestone

Tin ore is then mixed with coke (carbon) and limestone


at 1300C - 1400C in a blast furnace.

Carbon remove oxygen from ore [tin(IV) oxide].


Limestone is to react with impurities in the tin ore
to form slag.
Molten tin and molten slag flow to the bottom of the
furnace. Slag float on molten tin and both are removed
through an outlet pipe.
Molten tin is flowed into mould and left harden and
cool as ingots.
ITeach Science Form 4

Hot
air

Slag

Hot
air
Molten
tin

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Application Of Reactivity Series Of Metals


The Importance Of The Reactivity Series

Reactivity series of metal are arranged according to their reactivity with


oxygen.

To forecast the reactivity of particular metal, and able to


decide the method of storing the metal.

Importance

To predict whether reaction will take place between a metal


with an oxide of another metal.

To determine the method of extraction of certain metal from


its ore.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.5

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Electrolysis
Elektrolisis

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Electrolysis
Electrolysis is a reaction which uses electrical energy to break down chemical compound
(liquid state) into its elements.
Causes
Electricity

Chemical reaction

Apparatus set-up
+

Measure electric current.


.
Positive electrode is connected
to the positive terminal of
battery.

Supply electrical energy.


Rheostat
Controls the flow of electric
current.

.
- Substance in molten or aqueous
form which allow electrical current flows.
- Electrolyte consists of positively charged ion called cation
and negatively charged ion called anion.
ITeach Science Form 4

.
Negative
electrode
is
connected to the terminal of
the battery.

..
Conductor
which
flow
electrical current into and out
of electrolyte.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Electrolysis Of Molten Lead Bromide
During electrolysis :
Positively charged ions (cations) are attracted to the
cathod while negatively charged ion (anions) are attracted
to anode.

Ammeter

Batteries

At cathode
Cation (Lead ion) receive electrons from the cathode.
Lead ion + electron
Lead atom
At anode
Anion (bromide ion) release electrons to the anode.
Bromide ion

Bromine atom + electron.

2 Bromide atoms

Bromine molecule (gas).

A shiny silver solid is deposited at the cathode.


A brown vapour is given off at the anode.
Ammeter shows current flow by deflecting the pointer.

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Carbon rod
(Anode)

Heat

Carbon rod
(Cathode)
Molten lead
bromide
(electrolyte)

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Other Examples Of Electrolysis
Ions
Electrolyte
Cation

Zinc ion

Anode

Copper
ion
receives
electrons
from
the
cathode. Brown solid
copper deposited.

Chloride ions release


electrons to the anode.
Greenish vapour chlorine
gas is released.

Anion

Copper (II)
chloride

Zinc hydroxide

Cathode

Hydroxide
ion

Zinc ion receives electrons Hydroxide ions release


from the cathode.
electrons to the anode.
Shiny solid deposited.
Oxygen gas is released.

Silver bromide

Silver
ion
receives
electrons
from
the Bromide ions release
cathode.
electrons to the anode.
Shiny
silver
solid Bromine gas is released.
deposited.

Aluminium

Aluminium ion receive


Oxide ion release electrons
electrons
from
the
to the anode.
cathode.
Oxygen gas is released.
Shiny metal deposited.

ITeach Science Form 4

Aluminium
ion

Oxide ion

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Uses Of Electrolysis In Industry

Raw materials
in
Waste gases
out

Hot air in
Slag out
ITeach Science Form 4

Molten iron out

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Electroplating
.

electrical source
+

switch

rheostat

A
ammeter

anode

cathode

Electrolyte : Solution of a compound which contain


the plating metal ion.
Example : Copper sulphate because iron spoon is going to
plate with copper.
Cathode: Object to be electroplated.
Example : Iron spoon
Copper ions move to iron spoon and receive
electrons from cathode to form copper atom which
deposit on the iron key.
Copper iron + Electron Copper atom
Anode: Plating metal.
Example : Copper
Copper atom dissolves and forms positively charged
copper ions.
Copper Copper ion + Electron

Example : Electroplating an iron spoon with copper


ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis

Foods cans are made of iron and are


coated with layer of tins.
To prevent metal
from corrosion
Iron nails are coated with zinc to prevent
rusting.

To improve the
appearance of the
object

ITeach Science Form 4

Steel car bumpers are coated with


chromium to prevent rusting as well as
improve its appearance.
Costume jewellery and utensils are mostly
made of steel and coated with silver to
make them more attractive as well as
prevent rusting.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Purification Of Metals
Metals contain impurities can be purified by electrolysis

Electrolyte : Solution of a compound which


contain the metal ions to be purified.
Example : Silver nitrate solution.

electrical source

A ammeter

anode

rheostat

cathode

Cathode : Pure metal. Example: Pure silver


Silver ions are attracted to the pure silver rod and
receive electrons from cathode to form silver
atoms which deposited on the pure silver rod.
Silver ion + Electron Silver atom

impurities

Example : Purification of silver

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Anode: Impure silver rod.


Impure silver atom dissolves and forms positively
charged silver ion.
Silver atom silver ion + Electron
Impurities are settled at the base of the
container below anode

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrolysis
Extraction Of Metals
Metals placed above carbon in the reactivity series are extracted from its ores using the
electrolysis method.

Example : Extraction of aluminium from bauxite


industrially.
Graphite anodes
Graphite
cathode
Molten
aluminium
oxide dissolved
in cryolite
Molten aluminium

Electrolyte : Molten aluminium oxide.


Cathode
:
Graphite
cathode.
Aluminium ions are attracted to the
cathode and receive electrons from
cathode to form aluminium atom.
Aluminium ion + Electron Aluminium atom

Pure molten aluminium metal is then


channeled into moulds.

Anode : Graphite anodes.


Negatively charged oxide ions are
attracted to the anode and become
oxygen atom.

Bauxide (Aluminium oxide) has to be melted to


molten bauxite. It is mixed with cryolite to lower
bauxites melting point.

Oxide ion Oxygen atom + Electron

Aluminium oxide in molten state, aluminium ions


and oxide ions are free to move around.

Oxygen atom + Oxygen atom Oxygen


molecule (gas)

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.6

ITeach Science Form 4

The Production Of Electrical Energy From Chemical


Reactions
Penghasilan Tenaga Elektrik Daripada Tindak Balas
Kimia

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction


Chemicals reaction produce electricity

Voltmeter

Connecting
wire

e-

e-

Switch

e-

e-

v e-

Zinc

Copper
e-

Zn

2+

e2+

Cu

Copper sulphate
solution
Simple cell consist of two different electrodes
which immersed in an electrolyte.
No electron flow if both electrodes are
the same.
ITeach Science Form 4

Electrode : Zinc is more reactive than copper.


Negative / : More reactive metal is made the negative
Cathode electrode because it is more likely to release
electron to form ions.
Zinc Zinc ion + Electron
Positive / : Less reactive metal is made the positive
Anode electrode. Electrons released by zinc electrode
flow to copper plate through connecting wire,
thus produce electrical current. Positively
charged copper ions in electrolyte are
attracted to copper electrode to receive
electron and form copper atoms deposit on
the copper plate. Copper plate becomes
thicker.
Copper ion + Electron Copper atom
Electrolyte : The blue colour of copper sulphate
solution decrease as copper ion discharged at
electrode and the concentration of copper ions
decrease.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction


Types Of Cells

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction

(+) Terminal :
Carbon rod
Electrolyte :
Ammonium chloride paste
(-) Terminal :
Zinc case

Description
Most commonly used chemical cell.
Generates 1.5 volts of electrical energy.

Uses : Advantages and


Disadvantages
Used in radios, toys, remote control
and torch.
Advantages :
Portable, cheap, light, small.
Disadvantages:
Non-rechargeable, not lasting
Leakage may occur

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction

Electrolyte :
Sulphuric acid
(+) Terminal :
Lead plate covered with lead
oxide

Description

Uses : Advantages and


Disadvantages

Consists of six lead lead-acid cells


connected in series.

Usage : in vehicles.

Generates 12 volts of electrical energy.

Advantages :
High voltage, rechargeable,
lasting.
Disadvantages:
Heavy, expensive, acid may spill.

ITeach Science Form 4

long-

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction

Electrolyte :
Potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide

(+) Terminal :
Mixture of manganese (IV)
oxide and carbon
(-) Terminal :
Zinc powder
Description
Uses alkaline solutions as eletrolyte.
Similar to dry cell.

Generates 1.5 volts of electrical energy.

ITeach Science Form 4

Uses : Advantages and


Disadvantages
Usage :
Cameras, portable cassette
players, electronic toys.
Advantages :
Constant voltage, long lasting,
produce large current than dry cell.
Disadvantages:
Non-rechargeable,
more expensive.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction

(-) Terminal :
Zinc
(+) Terminal :
Silver oxide or mercury oxide

Electrolyte :
Potassium hydroxide

Description
Known as button.
Generates 1.2 volts.

Uses : Advantages and


Disadvantages
Usage :
Watch, cameras, hearing device.

Advantages :
Long-lasting.
Disadvantages:
Non-rechargeable.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Electrical Energy From Chemical Reaction

Electrolyte :
Potassium hydroxide

(+) Terminal :
Nickel oxide
(-) Terminal :
Cadmium

Description
Operates on the same principles as an
accumulator but uses different
material.

Uses : Advantages and


Disadvantages
Usage :
Mobile devices such as
mobile phone, camcorder emergency
light system.
Advantages :
Can be recharged, long-lasting.
Disadvantages:
Expensive.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.7

ITeach Science Form 4

Chemical Reactions That Occur In The Presence Of


Light
Tindak Balas Kimia Yang Berlaku Dengan Kehadiran
Cahaya

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Light and Chemical Reaction


Chemical Reactions Which Require Light
Photosynthesis process requires sunlight to carry out its reaction.
SUN

O2

CO2 is absorbed from


the air

CO2

Light energy

Water and mineral salts


are absorbed from the soil
by roots

+
ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Light and Chemical Reaction


Effect Of Light On Photosensitive Chemicals And Its Storage

Chemicals which changes when exposed to light is call photosensitive.

Example : Silver chloride, silver bromide, silver iodide and hydrogen peroxide

Reaction takes place when photosensitive chemical exposed to light

light

Silver +
(greyish black)

Bromide

Photosensitive Chemical is used in making photographic films.


Area exposed to light will form a dark area on the photographic film.

Storage
of
photosensitive
chemical

ITeach Science Form 4

Photosensitive chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide and silver


chloride are stored in dark bottles to avoid exposure to light.

Photographic paper and film are kept in black plastic and container
to avoid exposure to light.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Reactivity Series Of Metals


To Study The Effect Of Light On Silver Chloride
To study the effect of light on silver chloride.
Aim : _______________________________________________

Manipulated : Closing of the filter paper covered with silver chloride.


Variable : _______________________________________________
________________________________________________
Responding : Decomposition of silver chloride / changes of the colour of silver chloride
________________________________________________
Constant
: Presence of silver chloride

Procedure :

Result :

Conclusion :

________________________________________________
Silver chloride is photosensitive which will be decomposed by light to form silver atom (grayish
black) and chlorine.
________________________________________________

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical


Changes

5.8

Innovative Efforts In The Design Of Equipment Using


Chemical Reactions As Sources Of Energy
Kegunaan Tindak Balas Kimia Sebagai Sumber Tenaga

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Equipment Using Chemical Reaction As Energy


Equipment Using Chemical Reactions As Energy Source

Electrical energy comes from combustion of fossil fuels.

Chemical energy (Fuel).

Kinetic energy (Turning


of turbines and
dynamo).

Electrical energy

Fossil fuels are non-renewable and fast depleting, thus energy


should be use efficiently.

ITeach Science Form 4

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Equipment Using Chemical Reaction As Energy

Efficient use of energy

Use energy-saving electrical


appliance.

Set air conditioner


temperature at 25C or
higher and service regularly.

ITeach Science Form 4

Close the door of


refrigerator immediately
after taking things from it.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Proper Ways Of Disposing Of Electric Cells

Electric
corrosive
chemical,
hazardous
together
waste.

ITeach Science Form 4

cell
contain
and
toxic
thus they are
waste if dispose
with household

Electric cell should be


disposed in recycling bins at
mobile
phone
offices,
Department of Environment
offices, shopping malls and
Alam Flora recycling centre.

Topic 5 Energy And Chemical Changes

Equipment Using Chemical Reaction As Energy


New Ways Of Using Chemical Reactions As Sources Of
Energy

Hydrogen fuel cell uses


hydrogen as fuel to work like
a battery.
Hydrogen react with oxygen
to produce energy and water
which will not pollute
environment.

ITeach Science Form 4

Bro-diesel fuel can be


developed from palm oil to
be used in diesel cars,
lorries and buses.

The End

i - Teach