Anda di halaman 1dari 54

Management Accounting:

Information That Creates Value

Chapter 1

Management Accounting Information

The institute of Management Accountants has
defined management accounting as:
A value-adding continuous improvement process
of planning, designing, measuring and operating
both nonfinancial information systems and
financial information systems that guides
management action, motivates behavior, and
supports and creates the cultural values
necessary to achieve an organizations strategic,
tactical and operating objectives

Management Accounting Information

Management accounting provides both
financial information and nonfinancial
The role of management information supports
strategic (planning), operational (operating)
and control (performance evaluation)
management decision making

In short, management accounting information is

pervasive and purposeful

Management Accounting Information

Examples of management accounting information
The reported expense of an operating department, such
as the assembly department of an automobile plant or
an electronics company
The costs of producing a product
The cost of delivering a service
The cost of performing an activity or business process
such as creating a customer invoice
The costs of serving a customer

Management Accounting Information

Management accounting also produces
measures of the economic performance of
decentralized operating units, such as:
Business units

These measures help senior managers assess

the performance of the companys decentralized

Management Accounting Information

Management accounting information is a key
source of information for decision making,
improvement, and control in organizations
Effective management accounting systems can
create considerable value to todays
organizations by providing timely and accurate
information about the activities required for their

Changing Focus
Traditionally, management accounting information has
been financial information
Denominated in a currency such as $ (dollars),
(pound sterling), (yen), or (euro)
Management accounting information has now expanded
to encompass information that is operational or physical
(nonfinancial) information:
Quality and process times
More subjective measurements, such as:
Customer satisfaction
Employee capabilities
New product performance

Financial v. Management Accounting

Financial Accounting
Communicates economic
information to individuals
and organizations that
are external to the direct
operations of the
Stresses the form in
which it is communicated
Is based on historical

Management Accounting
Provides information to
managers and employees
within the organization
Allows great discretion to
design systems that
provide information for
helping employees and
managers make
Forward looking

A Brief History
The earliest management accountants were
scribes whose job was to record the receipt and
disbursements of cash and to provide an
accounting of the current stock of wealth including
valuable ores and foods
The treasury role for management accountants
was virtually the same until medieval England

A Brief History
In medieval England, producers (the Guilds)
kept detailed records of raw materials and labor
costs as evidence of product quality
From 1400-1600, the rudiments of basic modern
management accounting practice emerged

A Brief History
In 19th century America, textile mill owners kept
detailed records of costs to direct efficiency
improvement activities and to provide a basis for
product pricing
But there was little or no standardized management
accounting practice

Then, in 1885, Henry Metcalf published Cost of


A Brief History
In the late 19th century, railroad managers
implemented large and complex costing systems
The railroads were the first modern industry to
develop and use broad financial statistics to
assess organization performance
About the same time, Andrew Carnegie was
developing detailed records of the cost of
materials and labor used to make the steel
produced in his steel mills

A Brief History
The emergence of large and integrated
companies at the start of the 20th century
created a demand for measuring the
performance of different organizational units
Managers developed ways to measure the
return on investment and the performance of
their units (more on this later)

A Brief History
After the late 1920s management accounting
development stalled
It was only in the 1970s that interest returned to
developing more effective management
accounting systems
During the latter part of the 20th century there
were innovations in costing and performance
measurement systems the focus of this text

A Brief History
The history of management accounting
comprises two characteristics:
1. Management accounting was driven by the
evolution of organizations and their strategic
When cost control was the goal, costing systems
became more accurate
When the ability of organizations to adapt and change to
environmental changes became important, management
accounting systems that supported adaptability were

A Brief History
2. Management accounting innovations have
usually been developed by managers to
address their own decision-making needs
Management accounting needs to be both pragmatic
and add value to the organization

Role of Financial Information

Financial information pervades our economy
It is the primary means of communication between
profit seeking organizations and their stakeholders
For this reason organizations use financial measures
internally as a broad indicator of performance

This financial information provides a signal that

something is wrong, but not what is wrong
Financial information summarizes underlying

Business Level Strategy and

the Value Proposition

What the organization tries to deliver to customers is

called its value proposition
Value propositions have four elements:
1. Cost the price paid by the customer, given the
product features and competitors prices
2. Quality the degree of conformance between what
the customer is promised and what the customer
For example a defect free automobile that
performs as promised by the salesperson

Business Level Strategy and

the Value Proposition
3. Functionality and features the performance of the
product, for example a meal in a restaurant that
provides the diner with the level of satisfaction
expected for the price paid
4. Service all the other elements of the product relevant
to the customer

For example, for an automobile service might include: how the

customer is treated as the automobile is purchased and the
degree and form of after sales service

Dell Computers value proposition is building to customer

requirements, quickly, and at a low price

Delivering the Value Proposition

Organizations use processes that they design
and manage to deliver the value proposition
Dell delivers its value proposition by providing
customers easy and accessible access to
ordering and insisting that suppliers locate close
to its assembly facilities
These steps enable Dell to minimize its
inventories and avoid the costs of holding
inventory and of obsolete inventory in a rapidly
changing industry

Management Accounting and Control

in Service Organizations
The major changes in the demand for
management accounting and control information
experienced by manufacturing companies in
recent years have also occurred in virtually all
types of service organizations
Service companies have existed for hundreds of
Their importance in modern economies has
increased substantially during the twentieth

Service Companies
Service companies differ from manufacturing
companies in several ways
Obvious difference: service companies do not
produce a tangible product
Less obvious: many employees in service
companies have direct contact with customers
Service companies must be especially sensitive to
the timeliness and quality of the service that their
employees provide to customers

Service Companies
Customers of service companies immediately
notice defects and delays in service delivery
The consequences from such defects can be severe
Dissatisfied customers usually choose alternative
suppliers after an unhappy experience
They also usually tell others about their bad

Service Companies Use of

Management Accounting Information
Managers in service companies have historically used
management accounting information far less intensively
than managers in manufacturing companies
Such a lack of accurate information about the cost of
operations probably occurred because many service
organizations operated in noncompetitive markets
Either highly regulated or government owned
Others, such as local retailers, were subject only to
local, not national or global, competition

Lack of Competition
In a noncompetitive environments, managers of service
companies were not under great pressure to:

Lower costs
Improve the quality and efficiency of operations
Introduce new products that made profits
Eliminate products and services that were incurring losses

Management accounting systems in most service

organizations were simple, designed to allow managers to:
Budget expenses by operating department
Measure and monitor actual spending against these functional
departmental budgets

Competitive Environment
The competitive environment has now become
far more challenging and demanding for both
manufacturing and service companies
Starting in the mid-1970s, manufacturing
companies in North America and Europe
encountered severe competition from Asian
companies that offered higher-quality products
at lower prices
A company could survive and prosper only if its
costs, quality, and product capabilities were as
good as those of the best companies in the

Competitive Environment (2 of 2)
The ground rules under which many service companies
operate have completely changed
The deregulation movement in North America and
Europe since the 1970s
The switch from centrally controlled socialist
economies to free market economies in much of the
Managers of service companies now require accurate,
timely information:
To improve the quality, timeliness, and efficiency of
the activities they perform
To make decisions about their individual products,
services, and customers

Government Agencies
Government and nonprofit organizations as well
as profit-seeking enterprises are feeling the
pressures for improved performance
Citizens are demanding more responsive and
more efficient performance from their local,
regional, and national governments
The U.S. Congress passed
The Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act of 1990
The Government Performance and Results Act
(GPRA) of 1993

The U.S. Congress, in 1990, passed the Chief
Financial Officers Act
Requires each major federal agency to have a
chief financial officer who is responsible for:
The development and reporting of cost information
The systematic measurement of performance

The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993
requires that each U.S. federal agency:
Establish top-level agency goals and objectives, as well as
annual program goals
Define how it intends to achieve those goals
Demonstrate how it will measure agency and program
performance in achieving those goals

In signing GPRA, President Clinton announced that the

act would:

Chart a course for every endeavor paid for by taxpayers money

See how well we are progressing
Tell the public how we are doing
Stop the things that dont work
Never stop improving the things that are worth investing in

Implementing CFO Act and GPRA

In response to the CFO and GPRA acts, the Financial
Accounting Standards Board issued a document of
Managerial Cost Accounting and Standards for the
Federal Government
This document stated, In managing federal government
programs, cost information is essential in the following
five areas:

Budgeting and cost control,

Performance measurement,
Determining reimbursements and setting fees and prices,
Program evaluations, and
Making economic choice decisions.

The demands for cost information in government will be

identical to those in for-profit manufacturing and service

In the Philippines:
The Financial Reporting Standards Council (FRSC) was
established by the Board of Accountancy (BOA or the Board)
in 2006 under the Implementing Rules and Regulations of
the Philippine Accountancy of Act of 2004 to assist the Board
in carrying out its power and function to promulgate
accounting standards in the Philippines. The FRSCs main
function is to establish generally accepted accounting
principles in the Philippines.
The FRSC is the successor of the Accounting Standards
Council (ASC). The ASC was created in November 1981 by
the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants
(PICPA) to establish generally accepted accounting
principles in the Philippines. The FRSC carries on the
decision made by the ASC to converge Philippine
accounting standards with international accounting
standards issued by the International Accounting Standards
Board (IASB).

The FRSC consists of a Chairman and members who are

appointed by the BOA and include representatives from the
Board of Accountancy (BOA), Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC), Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP),
Financial Executives Institute of the Philippines (FINEX),
Commission on Audit (COA) and Philippine Institute of
Certified Public Accountants (PICPA). The FRSC has full
discretion in developing and pursuing the technical agenda
for setting accounting standards in the Philippines. Financial
support is received principally from the PICPA Foundation.

The FRSC monitors the technical activities of the IASB and

invites comments on exposure drafts of proposed IFRSs as
these are issued by the IASB. When finalized, these are
adopted as Philippine Financial Reporting Standards
(PFRSs). The FRSC similarly monitors issuances of the
International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee
(IFRIC) of the IASB, which it adopts as Philippine
InterpretationsIFRIC. PFRSs and Philippine Interpretations
IFRIC approved for adoption are submitted to the BOA and
PRC for approval.

The FRSC formed the Philippine

Interpretations Committee (PIC) in August
2006 to assist the FRSC in establishing and
improving financial reporting standards in the
Philippines. The role of the PIC is principally
to issue implementation guidance on PFRSs.
The PIC members are appointed by the
FRSC and include accountants in public
practice, the academe and regulatory bodies
and users of financial statements. The PIC
replaced the Interpretations Committee
created by the ASC in 2000.

Nonprofit Organizations (1 of 2)
Nonprofit organizations are also feeling the
pressure for cost and performance
There has been explosive growth in
nongovernmental organizations dealing with:

Economic development
The environment
Hunger and malnutrition
Public and private health
Social services and the arts

Nonprofit Organizations (2 of 2)
These organizations compete for funds from
governments, foundations, and private
Increasingly the public and private donors are
demanding accountability from the organizations
they fund, including measures of effectiveness
Managers of all types of nonprofit organizations
are looking to adapt management accounting
procedures, developed in the private sector, to
meet the demands placed on them for
accountability and cost and performance

Financial & Nonfinancial Information

in Government and Not for Profit
The objectives of customers should be the
objectives of the organization
In innovative government and not-for-profit
organizations, managers use nonfinancial and
financial performance measures to evaluate how
well and how efficiently these organizations use
their funds to provide services to their customers

Financial & Nonfinancial Information

in Government and Not for Profit
Governments and not-for-profits need to look at
the processes they use to deliver services to
their customers to verify that these processes
meet customer requirements at the lowest
possible cost

Behavioral Implications
As measurements are made on operations and
especially on individuals and groups, their
behavior changes
People react when they are being measured, and
they react to the measurements
They focus on the variables and behavior being
measured and spend less attention on those not

Two old sayings recognize these phenomena:

What gets measured gets managed
If I cant measure it, I cant manage it.

Behavioral Implications
Employees familiar with the current system may
resist as managers attempt to introduce or
redesign cost and performance measurement
Employees have acquired expertise in the use of
the old system
Employees also may feel committed to the
decisions based on the information the old system

Behavioral Implications
Management accountants must understand and
anticipate the reactions of individuals to
information and measurements
When the measurements are used not only for
information, planning, and decision-making but
also for control, evaluation, and reward,
employees and managers place great pressure
on the measurements themselves

Behavioral Implications
Managers and employees may take unexpected
and undesirable actions to influence their score
on the performance measure
Managers seeking to improve current bonuses
based on reported profits may skip discretionary
expenditures that may improve performance in
future periods

Ethics & the Management Accountant

When management accounting information is
used for control, management accountants may
find themselves in complex situations
Pressure may be exerted to influence the
numbers to make a favored product, customer,
or line of business appear more profitable than it
actually is
Department managers may distort information
so that unfavorable factors are not revealed in a
management accounting report

Senior executives whose incentive compensation
is based on the reported financial numbers may
put pressure on accountants to manage earnings
Organizational leadership plays a critical role in
fostering a culture of high ethical standards

The way an individual responds to pressure
derives from inner values and beliefs, but
individuals are strongly influenced by their view of
organizational standards
If individuals see unethical or illegal behavior
practiced by the organizations leaders and
superiors or coworkers, they may feel that such
behavior is accepted and sanctioned
An individual without a strong set of personal
beliefs and values may find it difficult to withstand
the pressure to go along with the flow and
participate in this behavior when a difficult or
conflicting situation arises

Beyond the example set by senior executives,
companies may use two types of control systems
to foster high ethical standards among their
Beliefs systems
Boundary systems
A beliefs system is the explicit set of statements,
communicated to employees, of the basic values,
purpose, and direction of the organization

Ethics (5 of 9)
The statements in a beliefs system are intended
to inspire and promote commitment to the
organizations core values and its purpose for
being in business
Articulate and actionable beliefs systems may
inspire people to higher values and aim at higher
missions but they may not communicate clearly
what behavior and actions are unacceptable

Boundary systems are stated in negative terms,
or in minimal standards of behavior
Intended to constrain the range of acceptable
Boundary systems also include clear
communication of the laws under which the
company operates

Management accountants, like all employees,
must be aware of and be deeply committed to act
in ways that do not violate their organizations
code of conduct and societal laws governing
organizational behavior and actions
They have an additional obligation to ensure that
such boundary systems exist in their organization,
and that the boundary systems are clearly
communicated throughout the organization
They should also monitor that senior executives
act quickly and decisively when behavior in
violation of these standards is detected

Management accountants, as members of a profession,
also operate with an additional boundary system: the
code of behavior promoted or advocated by their industry
and professional association
In the United States, the Institute of Management
Accountants (IMA)
In the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the Chartered
Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA)

Professional organizations usually establish ethical
norms and codes of professional conduct for their
The professional association can monitor and police its
norms and codes through peer reviews
Many of the guidelines are phrased in terms of what
management accountants should not do, consistent with
how boundary systems operate

Meeting the Challenge

Management accounting has become an

exciting discipline that is undergoing major
changes to reflect the challenging new
environment that organizations worldwide now
Need to develop financial and nonfinancial
information that will:
1. Focus on aggregate, usually financial, measures of
performance in for-profit organizations that provide
an overall summary of performance, and the ability of
the organization to meet its financial objectives

Meeting the Challenge (2 of 3)

2. Focus on the organizations success in meeting its
customers requirements in for-profit organizations so
that the organization can react promptly to failures in
delivering the value proposition
3. Enable all organizations to identify process
improvements needed to improve the organizations
ability to deliver its value proposition

Meeting the Challenge (3 of 3)

4. Enable all organizations to identify the potential of
the organizations members to manage and improve
process performance
5. Enable the for profit organization to assess the
profitability and desirability of continued investment
in various entities such as products, product lines,
departments, and organization units
6. Enable the organization to motivate, monitor, and
detect noncompliance with inappropriate
organization behavior