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(Sikkim Manipal University)
Learning is a process that enhances KNOWLEDGE,
SKILL & ATTITUDE (KSA) of individuals, to increase
his/her willingness to adopt those newly acquired
KSA and to implement them at the workplace

“Any relatively permanent change in behavior that
occurs as a result of experience” (Robbins, 2003)

a. Learning involves change

b. Change must be relatively permanent
c. It is concerned with behavior
d. Some form of experience is necessary
1. Classical Conditioning ( Ivan Pavlov -1927)
2. Operant Conditioning ( B.F.Skinner - 1953)
3. Social Learning ( Bandura -1977)

A Conditioned Stimulus (CS) paired with an Unconditioned
Stimulus (US) evokes a Conditioned Response (CS).

Pavlov conducted study on dogs to teach them to salivate in response

to ringing of a bell. During the research, he used bells before giving meat
powder to dog. After several repetition of the process, he found that rather
than simply salivating in the presence of meat power (Unconditioned
Response), the dog started salivate in response to bell. Thus a neutral
stimuli became a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent
pairing with the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) . Pavlov called this learned
relationship as Conditioned Response.

 Learning is a function of change in overt behavior

 Change in behavior are the result of an individual’s
response to stimuli.
 When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is
reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to
 Reinforcement is the key element in S-R Theory


 Behavior is learned
 Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur
 Information in small amounts will help to reinforce the
response. Ie. Will help to “Shape” the behavior
 Stimulus generalization will produce secondary
 Rewards becomes effective if provided immediately
after the desired behavior
 Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling
 From observation, one learns how new behaviors are performed
 Later occasions, the coded information serves a guide of action
 Human behavior is a continuous reciprocal interaction between
cognitive, behavioral and environmental influences.
 There are four process for social learning. They are


 The highest level of observational learning takes place when the
principal organizes and rehearse the modeled behavior symbolically
and then enacting overtly.
 If the results in outcomes are valued high, individuals are more likely
to adopt modeled behavior
 If model is similar to the observer, has admired status and the
behavior has functional value, then individuals are more likely to
adopt it.
LEARNING – Shaping
When a systematic attempt is made to change
individual’s behavior by directing their learning
graduated steps, it is called shaping behavior.


1. Positive Reinforcement
2. Negative Reinforcement
3. Punishment
4. Extinction
Method of offering a reward to strengthen a desired

Method of taking away a reward as a consequence of
an undesired behavior

Creation of an unpleasant condition in an attempt to
eliminate an undesirable behavior

Elimination of any reinforcement that maintains a
LEARNING – Schedules of

1. Continuous Reinforcement
2. Intermittent Reinforcement

1. Continuous Reinforcement
When reinforcement is made for a desired behavior
whenever it is demonstrated, it is called as Continuous
This is a traditional method of reinforcement

2. Intermittent Reinforcement
Reinforcement is not given on every instance of the
desirable behavior, but it is given often enough to make
the behavior worth repeating.
Intermittent Reinforcement are of two types:
a. Fixed Interval Reinforcement
b. Variable Interval Reinforcement
LEARNING – Schedules of
1. Fixed Interval Reinforcement
Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals, then the
reinforcement is termed as Fixed Interval Reinforcement

2. Variable Interval Reinforcement

Rewards are not distributed in time so that reinforcements are
 The intermittent or varied form of reinforcement tends to
promote more resistance to extinction than does the continuous
 In general variable schedules tend to lead to higher performance
than fixed schedules
 Continuous reinforcement schedules may lead to early
satisfaction and the behavior may weaken when reinforcements
are withdrawn
 Continuous reinforcements are appropriate for newly desired,
unstable or low frequency responses.
 Intermittent reinforcers are appropriate for stable or high
frequency responses
 Variable interval schedules generate high rates of response and
more stable and consistent behavior because of high correlaton
between performance and reward
“a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally
or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct
or end state of existence”. (Rokeach – 1973)
When values are ranked in terms of their intensity, it is called as
value system
1. Content Attributes
Mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important
1. Intensity Attributes
How important is the attribute
1. Ranking Attributes
Ranking values in terms of intensity equals a person’s value system
Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) propose two sets of values. They are:
1. Terminal Values
2. Instrumental Values
Refers to desirable end state of existence. ie. the goals that a
person would like to achieve during his/her life time. RVS
proposes 18 end state of existence. They are:
1. Equality (brotherhood & equal opportunity for all
2. A comfortable life ( a prosperous life)
3. An exciting life ( stimulating, active life)
4. Family Security ( taking care of loved ones)
5. Freedom ( independence & free choice)
6. Health (physical and mental well-being)
7. Inner Harmony (freedom from inner conflict)
8. Mature Love ( sexual and spiritual intimacy)
9. National Security ( protection from attack)
10. Pleasure (enjoyable, leisure life)
11. Salvation ( saved, eternal life)
12. Self Respect ( self esteem)
13. A Sense of Accomplishment ( a lasting contribution)
14. Social Recognition (respect and admiration)
15. True Friendship (close companionship)
16. Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)
17. A World at Peace (a world free of war and conflict)
18. A World of Beauty (beauty of nature and arts)
Refers to preferable modes of behavior or means of
achieving the terminal values.
RVS proposes the following Terminal Values
1. Ambitious (hardworking and aspring)
2. Broadminded (open minded)
3. Capable (competent, effective)
4. Clean (neat and tidy)
5. Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
6. Forgiving (willing to pardon others)
7. Helpful (working for the welfare of others)
8. Honest (sincere and truthful)
9. Imaginative (daring and creative)
Terminal value (Continues)
10. Independent (self reliant, self sufficient)
11. Intellectual (intelligent and reflective)
12. Logical (consistent, rational)
13. Loving (affectionate and tender )
14. Loyal (faithful to friends or the group)
15. Polite (courteous and well mannered)
16. Responsible (dependable and reliable)
17. Obedient (dutiful, respectful)
18. Self Controlled (restrained, self disciplined)
Robbins proposes Contemporary Work Cohort to group US workforce is
grouped on the basis of value during the era they entered workforce. The
and their respective values are listed below:
1. VETEANS (1940 TO 1960)
> Influenced by Great Depression & WW II
> Believed in hard work
> Loyal to the employer
> Terminal Values – Comfortable Life and Family Security

2. BOOMERS (1960-1980)
> Influenced by J. F. Kennedy, Civil Rights and Feminist Movement,
Beatles, Vietnam War, Baby Boom
> Distrusted Authority, but high emphasis on achievement and
material success
> Organizations are treated as vehicles for careers
> Terminal Values : Sense of Accomplishment & Social Recognition.
XERS ( From Mid 80s to mid 90s)
> Shaped by globalization, two career parents, MTV, AIDS and Computers.
> Value is given for flexibility, life options, achievement of job satisfaction
> Family and relationships are important and enjoy team oriented work
> Money is important but ready to make trade off for increased leisure
> Less willing to make personal sacrifice for employers than previous
> Terminal Values – True Friendship, Happiness and Pleasure
4. NEXTERS ( Recent Entrants)
> Grew up prosperous times, have high expectations, believe in themselves,
and confident in their ability to succeed.
> Never ending search for ideal job, see nothing wrong in job hopping
> Always seek financial success
> Enjoy team work but highly self reliant
> Terminal Values – Freedom and Comfortable Life
1. Hofstede’s Research
2. GLOBE Research


Collected data from 116000 respondents working in IBM in 70 different
countries around the world. On the basis of this, he developed four dimensions
in the relationship. They are:
This measures the “social inequality’, ie. the degree to which society accepts
unequal distribution of power in families, institutions and organizations.
Measures the tolerance of a society for uncertainty and risk. Countries that
score high in uncertainty avoidance discourage risk taking behavior and
Individualism measures to what extent individuals in a country consider
themselves as distinctive entities rather than members of a group. Collectivism
emphasizes on social ties on bonds between individuals. In individualistic
societies self interest is more important than the group goal
This refers to the extent to which importance is given to masculine values such
as work ethics expressed in terms of money, achievement, recognition as
opposed to feminine values such as concern for people and quality of life
Later Hofstede added a fifth dimension. It is :
LONG TERM ORIENTATION (Confusion Dynamism). This
measures employees devotion to work ethic and respect for tradition.


Hofstede further explains different layers of culture in a person.
1. Learning of basic values by a child. This sort of values are deepest
and most difficult to change and will vary according to the culture in
which he grow up. This is based on fundamental assumptions
2. Learned or programmed culture in the course of education. This
culture depends upon the conventions and ethics in the profession of a
person. This is based on doing things or practices followed.
This research study integrates the above culture attributes and
variables with managerial behavior in organization. GLOBE identified
nine cultural dimensions on the basis of four questions. The nine
cultural dimension are:
1. Uncertainty Avoidance
Extent to which a society or organization tries to avoid uncertainty
by depending on prevalent norms, rituals and bureaucratic practices.
2. Power Distance
Extent to which power is unequally shared in society or orgn.
3. Collectivism I (Social Collectivism)
Degree to which society promotes collective performance
4. Collectivism II (In-group Collectivism)
Degree to which individuals take pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in
their orgn and families.
5. Gender Egalitarianism
Extent to which a society or orgn minimizes gender
differences and discrimination
6. Assertiveness
Degree to which individuals are assertive and
7. Future Orientation
Degree to which individuals are encouraged in long term
future and develop behavior such as planning, investing
8. Performance Orientation
Encourages and rewards group members for performance
9. Human Orientation
Degree to which society encourages fair, altruistic,
friendly, generous and caring
Work Behavior Across Cultures
Important Points
> Managerial behavior differs across different cutlures
> Managers from Specific Culture focus only on behavor that
takes place at work.
> Managers from Diffused Culture focus all aspects of
behavior both in work place as well as in private life
> Major study conducted on work behavior across culture is
the study conducted by Laurent in 1983 with managers across
Europe, US, 3 Asian Countries.
TOPICS (BR) (Page No:68 & 69)
 Attitudes are evaluative statements that are favorable or
unfavorable concerning objects, people or events.
 There are 3 components to attitude. They are:
 Cognition
 Affect
 Behavior
Mental process of gaining knowledge and comprehension
including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging etc
Emotional or feeling segment of the attitude
Intention to behave in a certain way towards someone
There are three types of attitude in OB. They are:
Individuals general attitude towards job.
High level of job satisfaction equals positive attitude
Low level of job satisfaction equals negative attitude
Degree to which a person identifies psychologically with
his/her job and considers performance level is important.
Degree to which an employee identify himself with the
organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership
in the organization.
Attitude and behavior is always consistent. If there arises an
inconsistency, forces will be generated in a person’s personality
so that the individual reaches an equilibrium position where
attitude becomes consistent to behavior after a change.
This relationship is explained by COGNITIVE DISSONENCE
THEORY by Festinger (1957)
> Any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals
will attempt to reduce the dissonance.
> The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by:
a. Importance of the elements creating dissonance
b. The degree of influence the individual believes he/she has
over the elements.
c. Rewards involved in dissonance.
> Relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables
in behavior.
 The moderating variables are:
 Importance
Refers to fundamental values, self interest or identification
with individuals or groups that a person values
 Specificity
More specific the attitude and behavior, the stronger will be
the link between the two
 Accessibility
Attitudes that are more easily remembered are more
likely to predict behavior
 Social Pressures
When social power is more, then the discrepancy
between attitude and behavior are more likely to occur
 Direct Experience
Attitude-behavior relationship is stronger if attitude
refers to an individuals direct personal experience.
Definition of ‘Emotions’
“ A state of consciousness having to do with the
arousal of feelings”.
(Webster’s New World Dictionary)

“any of the subjective reactions, pleasant or
unpleasant that one
may experience in a situation”.
Subjective emotional responses are the result of psychological
changes within human bodies. Brain perceives an event and
sends messages to neural circuitry which evokes an emotional
response that is perceived by the brain. So it becomes a cyclical
process. The theory argues that psychological behaviors
precede the emotions.
Emotion provoking events induce the subjective emotional
experience and psychological arousal simultaneously. Through
experience, individuals develop expectation about every events.
These expectations work as a filter to process every event.
During this process, brain produces the emotion and
corresponding psychological behaviors at the same time.
According to this theory, both feedback from peripheral
responses and cognitive appraisal of what caused those
responses produce emotions. How one interprets
peripheral responses will determine the emotion.
Individuals label the emotional response depending on
what we think is causing the response.
An individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious
cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide whether any
threat exist or not. When the individual makes a closer
look at the situation and identifies the emotions he or she
is feeling.
Certain attributions produce specific emotions. After the
initial evaluation, the individual looks at what caused the
event. These attributions of causality can modify the
emotions felt. It is the interaction of the perceived
internal and external causes, controllability and
outcome that will determine the emotional
Ortony and Turner (1990) conducted a through research
on the studies conducted by experts on basic emotions
and proposed the reasons for inclusion of those emotions
in each category. (Ref Page No: 97)
Similar way another study was conducted by Parrot. W.
(2001) (Book : “Emotions in Social Psychology”.) (Ref.
Page No:98)
Felt emotions are the actual emotions of an individual. Displayed
emotions are those emotions which are organizationally required
and considered to be appropriate in a given job.


a. Universality
Based on cross-cultural research, Ekman (1999) has found six
emotions that are universally recognized and applicable. They
1. Anger
2. Fear
3. Sadness
4. Happiness
5. Disgust
6. Surprise

b. Cultural Specificity
 Culture influences our personality, social and emotional development.
 Each culture has a unique set of emotions and emotional responses.
 The emotions shown in a particular culture reflects the norms, values,
practices and language of that culture.
The difficulty of a person in expressing his emotions and understanding
the emotions of others is called as alexithymia.
These people are not able to discriminate between different emotions
that they feel. Such people are suited to those jobs where little or no
emotional labor is needed. Alexithymia is found under following
1. Post-traumatic stress disorder
2. Certain brain injuries
3. Eating disorders
4. Use of drugs
5. Depression
6. Other mental health problems
4. Relationship between Gender & Emotions
Studies conducted by Broverman, Vogel, Clarkson,
Resenkrantz, Widiger etc proves that women are
more emotional than men. Men are emotionally
inexpressive. But research proves that it is more
appropriate for adults rather than children as males
learn to control their emotions as they get older
(Fabes and Martin). This happens because of
Socialization (Geer & Shields)
 Emotional Intelligence is an aggregate of individuals’ cognition of
own and others’ emotions, feeling, interpretation and action as
per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence which
in turn result in superior performance and better human
relationship (Bhattacharya -2003)
 Emotional Intelligence is a measure of the degree to which a
person makes use of his/her reasoning in the process of
emotional responses (both positive and negative) in a given
situation. So a person with high EI does not mean that he/she
never panics or loses temper. It implies that he/she controls it.
 The ability to bring out-of-control emotions to normal track is
called as Emotional Maturity.
 EI is the total of personal and social competencies.
 Personal Competence determines how we manages
 Social Competence determines how we handle our
interpersonal relationship.

Personal Competence Social


Social Skills
Process by which we collect information, process
information and
retrieve it whenever needed.
It is a three-phase process of selecting, organizing
and interpreting
Organi Interpr
ze et
Factors in the Perceiver

Factors in the Experience

Situation Expectation

Work Setting PERCEPTION

Social Setting
Factors in the Target
Theories of Perception
When we observe the behavior of an individual, we attempt to
determine whether the behavior was caused internally or externally.
Internally caused behavior are within the control of the individual.
Externally caused behavior is not under the control of an individual
as it is caused by external factors.
The above behavior is caused by three different factors. They are:
1. Distinctiveness
2. Consensus
3. Consistency
1. Distinctiveness
Refers to whether an individual displays different
behaviors in different situations. What people
attempt to know is whether the observed behavior is
unusual or not. If it is unusual, the observer is likely
to give the behavior an external attribution.
If it is not unusual, it will probably be judged as
internal attribution.
2. Consensus
If everyone who is faced with a similar situation
responds in the same way, we say that consensus
occurs in behavior. If consensus is high, people give
external attribution and if consensus is low, people
give internal attribution.
3. Consistency
Refers to the pattern that is reflected regularly in a
person’s actions and behavior. Does the person
responds the same way over time? The more
consistent in behavior, people assume internal


Explains the tendency of human beings to
underestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the influence of internal factors.
Because of this, individual attribute to their
successes to internal factors and failure for external
factors. This is called as “ SELF SERVING BIAS”. Due
to this feedback provided to a person will be
distorted by the recipients.
Study on Self Serving Bias (Criticism)
An empirical study conducted on self serving bias gives
the following insights.

> Contrary to self serving bias, Koreans managers shows

the courage to take responsibility for group failures
> Attribution theory was developed on experiments with
Americans and Europeans
> Korean study suggest that the information imparted by
the study is insufficient to explain the behavior of
managers in those countries with strong collectivist
While judging others, we use different short cuts. They are:
1. Selective Perception
The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw
unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. Any
characteristics that makes a person, object or event stand
out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.
Selectivity helps us to “speed” read others
2. Halo Effect (Murphy and Anhalt)
The tendency to draw a general impression on the basis of a
single characteristic is called as Halo Effect in perception.
The tendency is most extreme when the traits to be
perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits
have moral overtones and when the perceiver is judging
traits with which he/she has had limited experience.
3. Contrast Effects
We evaluate an individual, object or situation by
comparing it with similar individuals, objects or situations.
This is called as contrast effect.
4. Projection
Tendency to attribute ones own characteristics to other
people is called as projection in perception. Projection
makes a tendency to see people as more homogeneous
that they really are.
5. Stereotyping
Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the
group to which he or she belongs. This helps us to
simplify a complex world and permits us to maintain
Application of Perception in Organizations
1. Employment Interview
Interviewers make perceptual judgments about
candidates during interview. Interviews often make
early judgments and rarely change their decisions
after four or five minutes of the interview.
2. Performance Expectations
Performance expectation of a manager affect the real
performance of the individuals. One of the example is
Self Fulfilling Prophecy. It is the tendency for
someone’s expectations about another to cause that
person to behave in a manner consistent with those
There are two types of Self Fulfilling Prophecy. They are:
a. Pygmalion Effect (Positive Instance of SFP)
People holding high expectations of another tend to improve
that individual’s performance.
b. Golem Effect (Negative Instance of SFP)
People holding low expectations of another tend to lower
that individual’s performance.
3. Performance Evaluation
Although performance appraisal is objective, many jobs are
evaluated in subjective terms. When an evaluation is made
which either positive or negative about an individual affects
his/her performance
4. Employee Effort
An individual’s future and effort depends upon subjective
judgments of the superiors.
Perception & Decision
Decision Making
 Decision making is a process whereby an alternative is selected
out of so many alternative to achieve a predetermined goal.
 Decision making is affected by the perception of the person who
takes the decision because decision making occurs as a reaction
to a problem and a problem is defined as the discrepancy
between current state of affairs and desired state. The
awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be
made is a perceptual issue.
 The perception of the decision maker will address two issues
during DM process. They are:
 Collection of data from multiple sources
 Selection of relevant data and rejection of irrelevant data
 Decision making exists at all levels of management – Higher
Level, Middle Level, Lower Level
 Decision making exists even at non-management level in an
Decision Making Process - Models
Step:1: Defining the problem
Defining the problem help us to segregate problem and symptom
Step:2: Identify the decision criteria important for solving the problem
a. Decision maker determines what is relevant in decision making
Factors that are not identified are considered irrelevant
b. Identification of DM criteria is affected by the decision maker’s interest,
values , attitudes and personal preferences
Step:3: Prioritize the identified criteria
Step:4: Generate alternative solutions to select the best
Step:5: Rate each alternative on each criterion
a. Critically evaluate each alternative
b. Strength and weaknesses of each alternative will be clear at this stage
Step:6: Selection the optimal alternative that gives the best result
Decision Making Process -Models
According to March, he rational decision making model works well
on the basis of the following assumptions:
a. Problem Clarity : The decision maker should have complete
information about the decision situation
b. Known Options: Decision maker should be aware of all the
possible consequences of each alternative
c. Clear Preference: Criteria and alternatives should be ranked
and weighted clearly on the basis of its importance
d. Constant Preference: The decision criteria are constant and
the weights given to them are stable over time.
e. No Time or Cost Constraints: There should be sufficient time
available to the decision maker and there should not be any cost
f. Maximum Payoff: The decision maker should select that
alternative which yields the highest perceived value.
Decision Making Process - Models
According to this model, creativity plays a major role in decision making. It
is the ability to produce novel and useful ideas. People differ in their
inherent creative capabilities. A study conducted on creativity of 461 men
and women, it was found that less than 1% were exceptionally creative,
10% were highly creative, 60% was somewhat creative.
This model states that creativity requires following elements:
1. Expertise
Creativity depends on expertise which in turn depends on abilities,
knowledge, proficiencies etc.
2. Creative Thinking Skills
This comprises personality characteristics associated with creativity, the
ability to use analogies, talent to see the familiar in a different way
3. Intrinsic Task Motivation
If a task is interesting, exciting, satisfying and challenging, then the level of
creativity will be quite high for such tasks
Decision Making Process - Models
This is one of the ways by which decisions are taken in organizations.
When faced with a problem, many of the people respond it by reducing
the problem to a level at which it can be readily understood. This is
because of the limited information processing capability of the person. In
limited information processing, a person tend to select a satisfactory
solution rather than an optimum solution. This method of processing
limited information and arrive of decision making on the basis of
satisfactory result is called as Bounded Rationality by Simon.
Intuition is an unconscious process created out distilled experience and
rational analysis. Some people consider it as extrasensory power or sixth
Decision Making Model - Intuition
Intuitive Decision Making Situations
 When high level of uncertainty exists
 When there is little precedents to draw on
 When variables are less scientifically predictable
 When “facts” are limited
 When facts do not clearly point the way to proceed
 When analytical data are of little use
 Where are so many equally attractive alternative solutions
 When time is limited and pressure is high to make a decision
1. Problem Identification
2. Development of Alternatives
3. Making Choices
For making choices, individuals resort to heuristic ideation or
judgmental shortcuts. Heuristic ideation is a psychological
process whereby our mind probes the past for resolving any
solutions and find out a solution based on what had
happened in the past.
Decision Making Process
There are two categories of heuristics:
a. Availability Heuristics
Tendency for people to base their judgments on
information that is readily available to them.
b. Representative Heuristics
Process of assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by
trying to match it with a pre-existing category.
4. Escalation of Commitment
Tendency to involve an increased commitment to a
previous decision in spite of negative information abut
the previous decision.
5. Individual Differences : Decision Making Styles
People differ along two dimensions in decision making.
a. Way of thinking
b. Tolerance for ambiguity
Decision Making Process
a. Way of thinking
1. Logical & rational way of thinking
2. Intuitive & creative way of thinking
b. Tolerance for ambiguity
1. Need to minimize ambiguity
2. Process many thoughts at a time
Based on the above, there are four decision making styles.
1. Directive
a. Low tolerance for ambiguity and seek rationality
b. Efficient and logical
c. Decisions made with minimum information and
d. Faster decisions with short term perspective
Decision Making Process
2. Analytic
a. Greater tolerance for ambiguity
b. Desire for more information and consideration of more a
c. Careful decision makers adaptable with new situations
3. Conceptual
a. Broad minded and consider many alternatives
b. Focus is on long range and good in finding creative solutions to
4. Behavioral
a. These are decision makers who work well with others
b. Concerned with the achievement of peers and subordinates and
relying heavily on meetings for communicating.
c. Tries to avoid conflict and seek acceptance
Decision Making Process
6. Organizational Constraints
The decision making process is affected
the organizational constraints. The major
constraints are:
a. Performance evaluation
b. Reward system
c. Programmed routines
d. Time constraints
e. Historical precedents
f. Cultural differences
Ethics in Decision Making
Ethical Decision Criteria:
1. Utilitarian Criteria
Decisions are made solely on the basis of its outcome.
The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest
good for the greatest number.
2. Focus on Rights
Decision should be made consistent with fundamental
liberties and privileges. Emphasis on rights means
respecting and protecting the basis rights of individuals
3. Focus on Justice
Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially
Physical, mental or emotional response to events which
cause mental or bodily tension.
In organization, stress should be utilized as productive force
rather than as a deterrent that can cause imbalance in an
Types of Stress
Stress can be categorized based on the suddenness of an
event to be dealt with and the types of stressors to be
handled by an individual.
1. Physical
Physical stress takes place when the body is affected due to
stress. Symptoms such as headache, digestive problems,
ulcers, insomnia, fatigue, high BP, nervousness etc are
examples of physical response to stress
2. Emotional
These responses are due to stress affecting the mind which
include anxiety, anger, depression, irritability, frustration,
overreaction to every day problems, memory loss, lack of
concentration on any task etc.
3. Psychological
Long term stress cause psychological problems. Symptoms are
social isolation, phobias, compulsive behaviors, eating
disorders, night terrors etc.
Classification of Stress (by Selye 1974)
1. Eustress (Positive Stress)
Moderate and manageable levels of stress can lead to positive
emotions which are called as Eustress by Selye. EU meaning
2. Distress ( Negative Stress)
Overload of stress leading to over arousal or under arousal of
feeling which in turn leads to negative emotions are called as
Distress by Selye. Dys meaning bad.
Sources of Stress
The following are the potential sources of stress
1. Environmental Factors
2. Organizational Factors
3. Individual Factors

1. Environmental Factors
 Environmental uncertainty
 Economic uncertainty due to business cycles
 Political uncertainty
 Technological uncertainty
2. Organizational Factors
 Pressure to avoid errors, pressure to complete task in
a limited period of time, work overload, demanding
and insensitive boss, unpleasant coworkers etc
causes stress
Sources of Stress
 Task demands. This include design of the individuals job
such as autonomy, task variety, degree of automation
etc, working conditions and physical work layout
 Role demands. This includes
a. Role Conflict
b. Role Overload
c. Role Ambiguity
d. Interpersonal Demands
e. Organizational Structure which includes level of differentiation,
degree of implementation of rules and regulations etc. Excessive
rules and lack of participation in decisions might be a potential
source. Organizational leadership also can be a source of stress
among the employees.
Sources of Stress
3. Individual Factors
 Personal problems
 Family problems
 Economic problems
 Nature of a person
Individual Differences
Individual differences affect the relationship between potential
stressors and experienced stress. The differences are:
1. Perception
Moderates the relationship between potential stress condition
and an employees reaction to it. Stress potential lies in
interpretation of the conditions and not on objective conditions.
2. Job Experience
Job experience is negatively related to work stress. Job
experience and work stress is displayed by the following
mechanism in an organization.
a. Selective withdrawal: A more experienced person withdraws
from different stress situations in a tactical way. Voluntary
turnover is displayed by these people when the level of stress
Sources of Stress
b. Coping mechanism: Develops different types of techniques
to cope with the stress
c. Collegial relationship: Develops goods relationship with
coworkers and supervisors to avoid the impact of stress.
3. Locus of Control
Locus of control is the psychological phenomenon that makes a
person to think that the outcome of an action is the result of an
internal control system or external control system. There are two
types of locus of control. They are internal locus of control and
external locus of control.
Internal Locus of Control
Those who are in internal locus of control believe that they control
own destiny. They perceive job as less stressful.
External Locus of Control
Thos who are in external locus of control believe that their destiny
is controlled by outside or external forces. These people are more
passive and feel helpless in stress situations.
Sources of Stress
4. Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy measures the confidence of a person
upon own abilities. If self-efficacy is more, less
stress is felt.

5. Hostility
People who are quick to anger, maintain
persistently hostile outlook and project a cynical
mistrust are more likely to experience high stress
in situations.
Consequences of Stress
Consequences of stress are :
1. Physiological Symptoms
2. Psychological Symptoms
3. Behavioral Symptoms

1. Physiological Symptoms
Is a major concern and research topic in health and medical
science. This has got less relevance in OB
2. Psychological Symptoms
a. Job related dissatisfaction. According to Robbins, this is the
most simplest and obvious psychological effect of stress.
b. Multiple and conflicting demands, lack of clarity regarding
duty, authority and responsibility can increases stress
c. If we have got less control over the pace of our work, we feel
greater stress and dissatisfaction
3. Behavioral Symptoms
a. Changes in productivity, absence, turnover, change in eating
habits, increased smoking, consumption of alcohol, rapid speech,
sleep disorders etc are behavioral symptoms.
Managing Stress
There are two approaches to managing stress.
1. Individual Approaches
2. Organizational Approaches
1. Time management techniques. They are:-
a. Preparing daily list of activities to be accomplished
b. Prioritizing activities according to its importance
c. Scheduling activities according to its importance
d. Knowing our daily cycle and perform the most important
activity at peak cycle time.
2. Non competitive physical exercises
3. Use relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis
and biofeedback.
4. Develop social networking through family, friends,
Managing Stress
a. Improved personnel selection and job placement
according to right person-job-fit.
b. Use realistic goal setting and redesigning of job to
align the individual goals with the organizational goals
c. Training is stress management techniques
d. Increased employee involvement that improves
morale, motivation, commitment etc.
e. Improved organizational communication that
enhances transparency in organization
f. Establish corporate wellness programs that
rejuvenate and refresh people
Suggested Framework for Stress
 Managing stress should be given importance than eliminating stress
 Goal should be to find optimal level of stress that can be handled
effectively by an individual which in turn will motivate the individual.
The framework for handling stress focus on two major areas.
1. How can we find out the optimal stress level of an individual?
2. How can we manage stress better?

1. How can we find out the optimal stress level of an individual?

The level of stress that can be handled by a person varies from person to
person depending upon factors such as culture, age, mental health,
upbringing etc.
Researchers have given the following points regarding capabilities to
handle stress.
Suggested Framework for Stress
a. A person who enjoys arbitrating disputes and
moves from job site to job site would be much
stressed in a job which is stable and routine.
b. Our personal capability to handle stress varies
from age to age
c. Many illness are related to unrelieved stress. If
stress go beyond optimal level, it should be
brought down to the normal level.

2. How can one manage stress better?

Identification and being aware of stress will not
help us to manage stress. There are many ways of
managing it. The best options are (1) Either
change the source of stress (2) Change the
reaction to stress.
Suggested Framework for Stress
For managing stress in a better way, the following factors
should be
taken into consideration.
1. Become aware of the stressors and the emotional
and physical reactions.
2. Recognizing what can be changed. The following
questions need to be asked.
a. Is it possible to change the stressors by avoiding or
eliminating them completely?
b. Can their intensity be reduced?
c. Is it possible to shorten an individual’s exposure to
d. Can one devote time and energy necessary to make
Suggested Framework for Stress
3. Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to stress.
The stress reaction is triggered by our perception of danger:
Physical danger and emotional danger. Ask the following questions
to reduce the intensity of emotional reaction.
a. Are we viewing stressors in an exaggerated terms?
b. Are we trying to please everyone?
c. Are we overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical
and urgent
d. Do we feel that we must always prevail in every situation?
Always adapt moderate view to reduce the intensity of the
emotional reaction to stress.
Suggested Framework for Stress
4. Learning to moderate our physical reaction to
Deep breathing, relaxation techniques, electronic
bio-feedback, medications etc can help us to
moderate our physical reaction to stress
5. Build our physical reserves.
Exercise, eating well balanced diet, maintaining ideal
weight, avoid stimulants, mixing leisure with work,
take breaks from routine work and relax, getting
adequate sleep etc will help us to build our physical
reserves to manage stress
6. Maintaining our emotional reserves
Develop mutually supportive friendship, stable
relationships, pursuing realistic goals, develop an
expectation that frustration, failures and sorrows are
inevitable part of our life etc will help us to maintain
emotional reserves.
Crisis Management
A crisis is a major, unpredictable event that threatens harm
an organization and its stakeholders.

Crisis Management
Systematic attempt to avoid organizational crisis or manage
those crises events that do not occur (Pearson & Clair – 1998)

Features of Crisis ( Seeger, Sellnow & Ulmer – 1998)

1. A threat to the organization
2. Element of surprise
3. Short decision time
Types of Organizational Crisis
There are four types of organizational crisis.
1. Sudden Crises
Crisis that takes place suddenly such as fires, explosions,
natural disasters, work place violence etc.
2. Smoldering Crises
Problems or issues that start out small and could be fixed or
averted if some was paying attention or recognized the
potential for trouble.
3. Bizarre Crises
Problems that erupts once in a life time but hampers the
4. Perceptual Crises
Problem that has been running for quite a long period of time.
e.g.. P & G’s logo
Benefits of Crisis Management
1. Helps the organization to assess the situation from outside and inside
the organization as all stake holders might perceive it
2. Develop techniques to direct actions to confront the perceived damage
3. Effective way to trigger business continuity management
4. Better organizational resilience for all stakeholders
5. Helps to comply with regulatory and ethical requirements
6. Better management of serious incidents
7. Improves staff awareness about their role and expectations
8. Increased ability, confidence and morale within the organization
9. Enhanced risk management helps to identify and mitigate the risks
10. Protect and enhance the reputation of the organization by saving it
from post event litigation.
UNIT -14

Organizational Change
Adoption of a new idea or a behavior by an organization ( Daft -1995)

For survival, an organization should adapt to changing environment. So

the organization should change to adapt to external changes.

Forces of Change
1. Internal Forces
2. External Forces

Internal forces are those forces that exists inside an organization. The
most important internal forces are:
1. Change in the top management
2. Change in the size of the organization
3. Identification of performance gap
4. Changing employee needs and values
Forces of Change
External forces are exogenous forces that operate outside the sphere
of an organization,

The major external forces are:

1.Change in technology
2. Change in business scenario
3. Changes in environmental factors
Economic, political and demographic factors

The members of an organization always resist changes. The resistance
to change may be of two types:
1.Individual Resistance
2.Organizational Resistance
Resistance to Change
Individual Resistance to Change
 Fear of unknown

 New dimensions of work relationship

Organizational Resistance to Change

 Potential threat to organizational power of certain people

 Structural inertia in a bureaucratic organization

 Resource constraints

Response to change depends upon the perception of the employees
about the change. So the important task of the management is to
understand and create a positive attitude among employees
regarding change.
Response to Change
There are three major reactions to change.

1. Anger
After passing over the shock of the new situation, many
employees view change as having a negative impact on their
personal situation and blame the management. If this situation is
not handled properly, it will lead to active non-cooperation and
passive resistance.

2. Denial
Many people go through a denial phase. Such people will make up
excuses and shows non accountability of actions. This may lead to
alienation of the individual from the group

3. Acceptance
Once an individual accepts change, he will rationalize his/her role
in the new situation. Acceptance may lead to continuation of the
service or resignation from the service. Both the situation, an
individual accepts the fact that the new environment exists.
Overcoming Resistance to Change
According to Schermerhorn, Hunt & Osborn, the following
are the methods to overcome resistance to change.

1. Education and communications

2. Employee participation and involvement
3. Facilitation and support
Empathetic and considerate listening to can reduce
employees fear and anxiety towards change
4. Negotiation and agreement
Characteristics of Organizational Change
 Deliberate, systematic and well thought of
 Velocity of change depends upon degree of significance
 Status quo is challenged by change
 Reaction to change can be both positive or negative
 Focuses on long term change

Forces of Organizational Change

1. Organizational-Environment Relationship
This happens through merger, strategic alliance etc where
organizations attempt to redefine their relationship with changing
social and political environment.
2. Organizational Life Cycle
Changes in culture and structure of organization from the time of
its birth through growth towards maturity
3. Political Nature of Organization
This happens when the internal control structure of the
organization changes to deal with shifting political current
Theories of Change
1. Force Field Analysis Theory ( Kurt Lewin -1951)
2. Action Research Model

1. Force Field Analysis Theory

Change involves three sequential steps. They are:
a. Unfreezing b. Moving/Changing c. Refreezing
a. Unfreezing
Reduction of the status quo in the organizational behavior by refuting the
present attitude and behavior to create a perceived need for something
new. This is caused mainly because of factors such as increased
competition, declining productivity, performance etc.
b. Moving/Changing
Organization behavior shifts by modifying system process, technology
and people. This stage is characterized by three elements such as
Compliance, Identification and Internalization.
Theories of Change
When individuals are forced to change by rewards or by punishment, it is
called as compliance

When individuals are forced to encounter a situation that calls for new behavior
, it is called as internalization

When individuals recognize one among various models provided in the
environment that is most suitable to their personality, it is called as

C. Refreezing
Actions are taken to sustain the drive for change and to facilitate the
institutionalization process of the change even in a day to day routine of the
Theories of Change
2. Action Research Model
 Planned change is a cyclical process
 Initial research about organization provides the data to guide
the subsequent action to bring the required changes
 Data collection and diagnosis is very important

The above cyclical change takes place in 8 different

steps. The steps are:
1. Problem identification
2. Consultation with the expert for ideas of improvement
3. Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis
Done by expert with the help of organizational members. The
four methods of data collection are interview, observation,
questionnaires and organizational data.
Theories of Change
4. Feedback to key client or group
5. Joint diagnosis of the problem
6. Joint action planning
This is the beginning of the moving process in Lewin’s
model. At this stage actions are taken based on
culture, technology and environment of organization
7. Action
This stage involves actual change of the organization
from one state to another
8. Data gathering after action
Dimensions of Planned Change
In the opinion of Cummings and Worley, planned change can be
contrasted against situations of two key dimensions. The dimensions
1. Magnitude of change
2. Degree of organization

1. Magnitude of change
Magnitude of change from incremental change to quantum leap such as
fundamental change in organizational operations including structure,
culture, reward system, information process etc.
2. Degree of organization
In a mechanistic and bureaucratic structure , all the organization
dimensions are too rigid and inflexible. On the other hand, in a flexible
organization, tasks are loosely defined, communication is fragmented,
and job responsibilities are ambiguous.
Strategies of Change Management
Four strategies can be adopted to manage change (Bennis,
Benne & Chin (1969).
1. Empirical Rational
 People are rational and follow their self interest once a
change is revealed to them
 Change is based on the communication of information
and the offering of incentives
2. Normative Re-educative
 People are social beings and adhere to cultural norms
and values
 Change is based on redefining and reinterpreting existing
norms and values and developing people’s commitment
to new ones
Strategies of Change Management
3. Power Coercive
 People are basically complaint and will generally do
what they are told or can be made to do.
 Change is based on exercise of authority and the
imposition of sanctions

4. Environmental – Adaptive (Nicklos – 2004)

 People oppose loss and disruption, but they adapt
readily to new circumstances.
 Change is based on building a new organization and
gradually transferring people from the old one to new
Toolkit for Managing Change
According to Nicklos (2004), some of the factors to select an effective change strategy and
some tips to manage change are described as follows:
1. Degree of resistance
If there is strong resistance, then a mix up of power coercive and environmental
adaptive strategies are adopted. If resistance is weak, then a combination of
empirical rational and normative re-educative strategies are used.
2. Target Population
Large population argues for a mix up of four strategies
3. The Stakes
High stakes argues for a mix up of four strategies as when stakes are high, nothing
can be left to chances
4. The Time Frame
Short time frame argue for a power-coercive strategy. Longer time frame argue for a
mix up of empirical rational, normative re-educative and environmental-adaptive
5. Expertise
Adequate expertise calls for a mix up of all the strategies outlined above. If expertise
is less, it argue for reliance on the power coercive strategy
6. Dependency
This is a double edged sword. If organization is dependent on its people,
management ability to command or demand is limited. If people are dependent on
organization, their ability to oppose or resist change is limited.
Unit 11

Power and Politics in

Power & Politics
Power is the ability to make things happen in the way an
wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of
power is
control over the behavior of others (French & Raven).

Power can be Position Power or Personal Power. Position

Power is
derived from organizational sources whereas he Personal
Power is
derived from individual sources.

Power is a function of dependency (Robbins)

Bases of Power
Power can be broadly categorized into two types:
1. Formal Power
2. Informal Power or Personal Power

1. Formal Power
 Formal power is based on the position of an
individual in an organization
 It is derived from formal authority vested in the
individual due to his/her strategic position in the
organizational hierarchy
 It varies across the organization
 This power base is weakened by the presence of
unions and organizational policies on employee
Types of Formal Power
Formal Power may be categorized into four.
1. Coercive Power
 This power base is dependent on fear
 Based on threat of applications such as infliction of pain, the
generation of frustration through restriction of movement, or
the controlling by force of basic psychological or safety needs
2. Reward Power
 Reward power is the extent to which a manger can use
extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people.
E.g. money, promotions, compliments etc. Reward power
varies according to the skill of the manager
3. Legitimate Power
 Refers to formal authority.
 It makes subordinates to feel that the boss has a right to
 Lack of legitimacy implies a situation where authority is not
being accepted by subordinates.
Types of Formal Power
Elements of Legitimate Power
a. It represents power of a person receives as a
result of his/her position in the organization
b. Position of authority include coercive and reward
c. Not limited to the power to coerce and reward. It
includes the acceptance of the authority of a
position by members of an organization.
4. Information Power
This power is derived from access to and control
over information. When a person controls needed
information, other become dependent on them.
Types of Power
2. Personal Power or Informal Power
 It resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s
position in the organization.
Types or Bases of Personal Power
1. Expert Power
 Ability to control another person’s behavior by virtue of possessing
knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person lack, but
 It is relative and not absolute. In technology driven world, this is
absolutely true as a boss has to depend upon the subordinate for
technology support
2. Rational Power or Persuasion
It is the ability to control another’s behavior, since through the
individual’s efforts, the person accepts the desirability of an offered
goal and a viable way of achieving it.
3. Referent Power
It is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants
to identify with the power source. In this case, a subordinate obeys
the boss because he/she wants to behave, perceive, or believe as the
boss does.
4. Charismatic Power
It is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s
personality and interpersonal style. Others follow because they can
articulate attractive visions, takes personal risks, demonstrate
follower sensitivity etc.
Dependency – Key to Power
 Power is a function of dependency. The greater the dependency
of a person on the other, the greater will be the power of the
person upon the dependent.
 Dependency is inversely proportional to the alternative sources of
 Three factors are responsible for dependency. They are:
1. Importance
For creating dependency, the things that a person control must
be perceived as being important. Such people can avoid
uncertainty and hence can command greater power.
2. Scarcity
A resource should be scarce to create dependency. It is also
important in the power of occupational categories also. Where
supply of personnel is low in relative to demand, such personnel
can command better salary and benefit packages.
3. Non-substitutability
If a resource has got less substitute, then it command more
Power Tactics
The most common power tactics are:
1. Reason
Use of facts and data to make a logical and rational
presentation of ideas
2. Friendliness
Use flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble and friendly
3. Coalition
Getting the support of other people
4. Bargaining
Use negotiation through exchange of benefits and favors
5. Assertiveness
Use direct and forceful approach
6. Higher authority
Gaining support of higher level in the organization to back up
7. Sanctions
Use organizationally derived rewards and punishments
Power Tactics
The manager’s relative power influences the selection of tactics in two
1. Managers who control resources that are valued by others, or who
are perceived to be in positions of dominance, use a greater
variety of tactics than do those with less power
2. Managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency
than do those with less power.

The influencing tactics of the managers vary depending upon their

1. When seeking benefits from superiors, they use friendliness
2. When they want to make superior to accept new ideas, they rely
upon reason
3. Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to
obtain favors
 Empowerment is the process by which managers help others to
acquire and use the power required to make decisions affecting
both themselves and their work
 Empowerment is a part of the decentralized structure.
 Empowerment is used to make faster decision
 Empowerment makes the organization more flexible
 Empowerment reduces the number of managers in organization
 For implementing empowerment, the power in the organization
show change. The following things are important in
1. Changing Position Power
2. Expanding the Zone of Indifference
Power in Groups: Coalitions
When individuals fail to increase their power alone, they find an
alternative method which is called as coalitions. Coalition is an
informal group bound together by the active pursuit of a single
1. Coalition in organization often seek to maximize their size.
2. More coalitions are likely to be created where there is a
great deal of task and resource interdependence
3. Coalition formation will be influenced by the actual tasks
that workers perform. The more routine the task of a group,
the greater the likelihood that coalition will form
Politics – Power in Action
Those activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in
the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the
distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.

The above definition points out the following:

1. Political behavior fall outside the ambit of one’s specified job
2. It includes efforts to influence the goals, criteria or processes
employed for decision making
3. It includes a variety of political behaviors such as withholding vital
information from decision makers, whistle blowing, spreading
rumors, leaking confidential information etc
Categorization of political behavior
Political behavior can be broadly categorized into two:
1. Legitimate Political Behavior
Refers to normal everyday politics such as
complaining to superior, bypassing the chain
command, forming coalition etc. Vast majority of
organizational political activities are legitimate
1. Illegitimate Political Behavior
Refers to those activities that violate the implied
rules of the game such as sabotage, whistle blowing,
symbolic protests etc
Views on Politics in
1. The first approach is based on Machiavelli’s
philosophy and defines poliics in terms of self
interest and the use of non-sanctioned means.
From this point of view, organizational politics is
views as the managemen of influence to obtain
ends not sanctioned by the organization or to
obtain sacntioed ends through non-sanctioned
influence means.
2. The second approach treats poliics as a
necessary function resulting from differences in
the self interset of individula. Here
organizational politics is viewed as the art of
creative compromise among competing
Factors Contributing to Political
1. Individual Factors
a. Employees who are high self monitors and
possess an internal locus of control are more likely to
engage in poliical behavior
2. The high self monitor is more sensitive to social cues
and in all probabilty be more likely to be skilled in
political behavior than the low self monitor
3. Individuals with an internal locus of control are more
prone to take proactive stance and attempt to
manipulate situtiona in their favor
4. The Machiavellina personality is comfortable using
politics as a means to improve he/her self interest and
does not see it as an unethical actio,mn.