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Sistem Komunikasi Serat Optik

Oleh :
Moh. Farid Susanto
mfarids2003@yahoo.com

Politeknik Negeri Bandung

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Agenda

Pendahuluan (Terminologi)
Sejarah Perkembangan Serat Optik
Dasar Komunikasi Serat Optik
Kabel Tembaga & Serat Optik
Teknik penyambungan Serat Optik
Teknik Pengukuran Serat Optik

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Pendahuluan (Terminologi)

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Terminologi
1.

Decibels (dB): satuan level (pengukuran relative)

2.

Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt

3.

X mW is 10log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW,


17dBm = 50mW

Wavelength=Panjang gelombang (): panjang gelombang


pada bahan media. Satuannya : nanometers, 10-9m (nm)

4.

X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10 -.3 = 0.501


Standard satuan logaritmic untuk ratio dua besaran. Dalam Serat Optik,
Ratio adalah daya dan representasi Penguatan dan Redaman.

300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) adalah () cahaya tampak . Dalam SO


utama yang digunaka adalah 850, 1310, & 1550nm

Frequency (f ): jumlah gelombang yang dihasilkan dalam


satu perioda. Satuannya: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per detik
(Thz)

FARID, JUNI 2006


Panjang gelombangSKSO,
x frequency
= Kecepatan cahaya x f = C 4

Bit Error Rate ( BER)


BER adalah hal penting dari perencanaan
sistem komunikasi serat optik
Hasilnya data dari Tx (pengirim) ke Rx
(penerima) BER < BER threshold pada sisi
Rx
BER threshold tertulis pada Data sheets
Umumnya besar BER pada SKSO adalah
10 -12
SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm

R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget antara lain :


Fiber attenuation (Redaman pada Serat optik)

Splices (Sambungan)
Patch Panels/Connectors (sambungan konektor)
Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc)
Bends in fiber (lekukan)
Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
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Sejarah Perkembangan SO

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Penelitian pertama sistem Komunikasi Optik


Matahari

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Sejarah Perkembangan Teknologi


Telekomunikasi Optik
Tahun
1947
1951
1970
1976
1977
1988
1990

Perkembangan Teknik
Transistor ditemukan
Hubungan langsung jarak jauh
Penemuan sinar laser
Pemasangan sentral digital yang pertama
Pemasangan sistem optik yang pertama
Kabel serat optik transatlantik yang pertama
Demonstrasi link serat optik 2000 km
menggunakan amplifier optik tanpa repeater

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

Perkembangan SKSO
Tahun

Loss
(dB/km)

J arak
(km)

SO jenis

Panjang
Gel (nm)

1970

20

850?

1974

15

Multimode Step
indeks
SO Multimode
Graded indeks

1980

0,5

50

SO Monomode

1300

1991

0,2

100

SO Monomode

1550

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

850?

10

Glass Purity
Fiber Optics Requires
Very High Purity Glass
Window Glass

1 inch (~3 cm)

Optical Quality Glass

10 feet (~3 m)

Fiber Optics

9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the


Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)
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Fiber Fundamentals

Attenuation
Dispersion

Nonlinearity
Distortion
It May Be a Digital Signal, but Its Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform

Waveform After 1000 Km

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Analog Transmission Effects

Attenuation:

Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

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Dasar Sistem Komunikasi Serat Optik

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Generic Optical Comm. System


Input

Optical Transmitter

Format
Bandwidth
Protocol

Modulation
Characteristics
Power
Wavelength

Comm. Channel

Loss
Dispersion
4-Wave Mixing
Noise
Crosstalks
Distortion
Amplification

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Optical Receiver

Output

Bandwidth
Responsivity
Sensitivity
Noise
Wavelength

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Aplikasi sistem serat optik pada


sistem telekomunikasi

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Perbandingkan Kabel Tembaga & Serat Optik

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Media Transmisi
Saluran transmisi yang dipandu
coaxial cable
twisted pair cable
untwisted pair, including serial cables and power lines
fiber optic cable
Saluran transmisi yang tidak dipandu
infrared
radio wave
microwave: terrestrial and satellite links
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Spektrum Media Transmisi

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19

Perbandingan Bandwidth dan Range


Bandwidth
Voice quality twisted pair
with loading
Coax cable (broadband)
Category 5 twisted pair
Fiber optic cable

Range
0 to 1 MHz
0.3 - 3.4 kHz
1k - 1GHz
1k - 100 MHz
180-370 THz

SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

5 km
10 km
1-100 km
0.1-2 km
1-100 km

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Coaxial Cable

RG58 coax and BNC Connector

Karakteristik

Outer conductor berbentuk serabut (biasanya dihubungkan ke


ground)
Inner conductor (solid) digunakan untuk mengirimkan signal
Kebal thd noise EMI (Electromagnetic Interference ) dan RFI (Radio
Frequency Interference)

Coax digunakan pada LAN, termasuk ethernet:

Thick coax (0.4 in, RG8): tapped by coring


Thin coax (0.4cm, RG58): uses BNC connectors
Keduanya berimpedansi 50 ohm (menggunakan terminator 50 ohm)
Digunakan pada LANs (baseband)
berkecepatan
10 Mbps
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Twisted Pair

Balanced signaling (+V and -V on pair) reduces


cross-talk and increases ability to filter out noise.
Telephone cable has twist length 5-15 cm.
Cat-3 UTP is thicker cable (24 gauge) with twist
length 7.5-10cm
Cat-5 has twist length 2-4 cm.

Office telephone cable usually contain 2 pairs;


computer cable contains 4 pairs; also available in
20 - 100 pairs per cable (trunk cabling).
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Kabel Koax baseband vs broadband


Baseband transmission

Broadband transmission

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Twisted Pair Connectors


Computer cables use 8-pin RJ45 connectors.
In 10baseT ethernet and 100baseTX fast ethernet, one pair
(pins 1-2) is used to transmit and another pair (pins 3-6) is
used to receive.
100baseT4 (used for fast ethernet over Cat-3 cable) and
gigabit ethernet use all four pair for data transmission. Tw
o pair alternate in direction.

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Spektrum Optik
IR

UV

125 GHz/nm

Visible

Light
Ultraviolet (UV)
Visible

850 nm
980 nm
1310 nm

Infrared (IR)

Communication wavelengths

1480 nm
1550 nm
1625 nm

850, 1310, 1550 nm

C = x

Low-loss wavelengths

Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm

(nanometers)
Frequency: (terahertz)

Wavelength:
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Fiber Attenuation
Characteristics
Attenuation vs. Wavelength

S-Band:14601530nm
L-Band:1565
1625nm

2.0 dB/Km

Fibre Attenuation Curve

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km
800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)


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1500

1600
C-Band:15301565nm
26

Pemanfaatan Bandwidth SO

C L

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Fiber Optic Cable


A core made of pure fused silica, glass, or plastic transmits
light, surrounded by a glass or plastic cladding of a lower
refractive index, which reflects light back into core. Opaq
ue jacket absorbs light and protects the core/cladding.

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28

Hukum Snells & Reflection


t

n2
Media 2
For n1>n2

n2
n1
Media 1

1
2
3

n1

n1sin i = n2sin t
4

4
i = sin-1n2/n1

3
2

c = critical angle

= c

Light striking the surface at greater than the critical


angle is reflected. This is why light remains in fiber opti
c cable even though it may contain many loops and bends
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.

Propagation in Fiber
n2

n1

Cladding

Core
Intensity Profile

Light propagates by total internal reflections


at the core-cladding interface
Total internal reflections are lossless
Each allowed ray is a mode
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Different Types of Fiber


n2

Cladding

Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies

n1

Core

50 mm for step index


62.5 mm for graded index
Bit rate-distance product
>500 MHz-km

Single-mode fiber

n2

Cladding

Core diameter is about 9 mm


Bit rate-distance product
>100 THz-km

n1

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Core

31

Fiber Optic Cable Types

Step-index multimode. Used with 850nm, 1300 nm

source.

Graded-index multimode. Used with 850nm, 1300 nm

source.

SKSO,
JUNI
2006
Single mode. Used
withFARID,
1300 nm,
1550
nm

source.

32

Fiber Optic Cable Types


Single mode fiber has only one transmission path for
transmitted light, so signal pulses do not spread out as muc
h as in multimode fiber.
Fiber optic cable size is expressed as core/cladding size,
e.g. 62.5/125. Typical sizes:
Core diam.

Cladding diam.

Single mode fiber

3 - 10 m

100 - 125 m

Multimode

50, 62.5 m

100 - 125 m

62.5/125 is the most common size for multimode fiber.


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33

Transmission in Fiber Optic Cable

Silica glass transmits light best in infrared bands centered at 1.30 m and
1.55 m. The 0.85 m band is used because cost-effective GaAlAs light s
ources and electronics can be made to transmit in this band.
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Optical Attenuation
Pulse amplitude reduction limits how far
Attenuation in dB
Power is measured in dBm:

Pi

Examples
10dBm

10 mW

0 dBM

1 mW

-3 dBm

500 uW

-10 dBm

100 uW

-30 dBm

1 uW

P0
T

T
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Dispersion pada SKSO

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36

Types of Dispersion
Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds
Causes spreading of the light pulse

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Single-mode fiber supports two polarization
states
Fast and slow axes have different group
SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006
velocities

37

A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

Affects single channel and DWDM systems


A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber
Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to performance
impairments
Degradation depends on:
laser used (spectral width)
bit-rate (temporal pulse separation)
Different SM types
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Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion


Dispersion causes pulse distortion,
pulse "smearing" effects
Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less
robust to Chromatic Dispersion
Limits "how fast and how far
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28

t SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

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Light Sources
LEDs and injection laser diodes (ILD) are used as f/o light
sources. Lasers emit more directional, coherent light pulses t
han LEDs, suitable for longer distance transmission.

Available bandwidth
Wavelength (mm)
Lifetime
Temp. sensitivity
Cost
Used in

LED
~1 GHz
850
long
minor
low cost
multimode

Injection Laser Diode


up to 1000 GHz
1300, 1550
short
highly sensitive
high cost
single or multimode

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40

Fiber Optic Transmitters


Data transmission in fiber optic cable is analog using
amplitude shift keying (ASK).
LED source: LED is on for 1, off for 0.

Laser source: Laser is on high power for 1, low power for


0. Turning laser off (as with LED) is not practical for high
speed transmission.
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41

Light Receivers
The receiver in fiber optic systems is a photodiode, which
emits a current when struck by light. The typical response ti
me of a photodiode is 1 nanosecond, but faster photodiodes (d
own to around 0.1 ns) exist.
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SKSO, FARID, JUNI 2006

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Fiber Optic Cables


Several fibers are bundled per cable: 8-12 fibers is
common for LAN, several hundred for trunk lines.
Riser cables contain extra strength members to bear the
weight of the cable. Aerial cables (outdoor, strung on tele
phone poles) also contain a metal cable to bear weight and
for attachments.
Underground cables contain extra shielding and moisture
resistant cover.

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43

Fiber Optic Advantages


Fiber optic has several advantages over electrical cable:
Higher bandwidth and data transmission rates
Low attenuation: greater distance between repeaters
Immune to electromagnetic interference; no crosstalk
Resistant to corrosive damage by water and chemicals
More secure: difficult to tap cable and intercept signal
Lighter: 1 kg of fiber can replace 500 kg of copper cable
Uses less space (in many places, data conduits are full)
Compared to equivalent capacity of copper cables, easier to
install
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Other Cable Types


Serial cable: point-to-point connection at rates up to 39.2
kbps, 25 - 100 feet.
Parallel (printer) cable: point-to-point connection at rates up
to 2 Mbps over 8 meters.
Telephone lines (WAN): currently 1.5 Mbps using ADSL at
distances up to 5.5 km
Telephone lines (LAN): 10Mbps home LANs using IEEE
home network (e.g. Intel AnyPoint)
Power Lines: possible use for WAN at rates up to several
hundred Mbps ... many technical problems.
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Media Transmisi yang tidak terbimbing

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Microwave
1 - 40 GHz frequency range
transmission mostly in straight line (line of sight)
uses a focused beam: transmitter and receiving dish
antenna must be aligned
license required for use of most frequencies
not transmitted through solid objects (buildings)
terrestrial (earth-to-earth) and satellite applications

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Satellite Microwave
1 - 10 GHz is the optimal frequency range: below 1 GHz
there is interference from natural and man-made sources; abo
ve 10 GHz there is significant atmospheric absorption.
The C band is used for geosynchronous satellites (4-degree
spacing) and already crowded. RTT is 250-300 msec.
The Ku band is used by geosynchronous satellites (3-degree
spacing) but less crowded.
Band
Band(GHz)
(GHz) Name
Name
4/6
CC
4/6
7/8
7/8
11/14
11/14
20/30
20/30
20/44
20/44

XX
Ku
Ku

Uplink
Uplink
5.9
5.9- -6.4
6.4

Download
Use
Download
Use
3.7
3.7- -4.2
4.2 commercial
commercial
7.9
military
7.9- -8.4
8.4
military

7.9
7.9- -8.4
8.4
14.0
14.0- -14.5
14.5 11.7
11.7- -12.2
12.2 commercial
commercial
Ka
Ka 27.5
27.5- -30.5
30.5 17.7
17.7- -21.2
21.2 military
military
QQ 43.4
45.5
20.2
21.3
military
43.4 - 45.5 20.2 - 21.3
military
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Satellite Systems
Low and medium orbit systems have much lower delay.
They offer 2Mbps data channels (channels can be combine
d for higher data rates).
Non-stationary satellites use a system similar to cellular
telephones to pass connections from one satellite to the ne
xt.
System
Orbit
System
Orbit(km)
(km) No.
No.satellites
satellites Freq.
Freq.Band
Band
Geosynchronous
35,784
90
4/6
Geosynchronous
35,784
90
4/6(C)
(C)
Teledesic
1,350
288
Ka
Teledesic
1,350
288
Ka
Iridium
780
66
1.6
Iridium
780
66
1.6GHz
GHz

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Terrestrial Wireless
Microwave is used for commercial telecomm links, cellular
phones, and short-to-medium distance LANs.
IEEE 802.11 is an 11 Mbps wireless network at the 2.4 GHz
band. Lucents Orinoco (WaveLAN) products use this (see
www.wavelan.com).
Freq.
Use
Range
Data
Freq.Band
Band
Use
Range
DataRate
Rate
824
824- -894
894MHz
MHz Analog
Analogcell
cellphones
phones(AMPS)
(AMPS) 20
20km
kmper
percell
cell 13
13kbps/channel
kbps/channel
902-928
License
902-928MHz
MHz
Licensefree
freeininNorth
NorthAmerica
America
1.7
PCS
<<11km
1.7- -2.3
2.3GHz
GHz
PCSdigital
digitalcell
cellphones
phones
kmper
percell
cell
1.8
GSM
16
1.8GHz
GHz
GSMdigital
digitalcell
cellphones
phones
16kbps/channel
kbps/channel
2.400-2.484
2.400-2.484GHz
GHzglobal
globallicense
licensefree
freeband
band
2.4
802.11,
100
2.4GHz
GHz
802.11,Lucent
LucentWaveLAN
WaveLAN
100mm- -25
25km
km 22- -11
11Mbps
Mbps
2.45
Bluetooth
about
2.45GHz
GHz
Bluetooth
about10
10mm 11Mbps
Mbps
44- -66GHz
commercial
40
100
GHz
commercial(telecomm.)
(telecomm.)
40- -80
80km
km
100Mbps
Mbps
Infrared
short
55- -100
11Mbps
Infrared
shortdistance
distanceline
lineofofsight
sight
100mm
Mbps
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Teknik penyambungan SO

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Fiber Optic Links


Computer network links always use a pair of fibers: one to
transmit and one to receive.

The end of a fiber optic patch


cable using SC connectors.

Indoor 8 core fiber optic


cable (enough for 4 pair).

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Teknik Pengukuran SO

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Dasar Pengukuran LOSS pada SKSO

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TERIMAKASIH

Moh. Farid Susanto


mfarids2003@yahoo.com
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Pustaka
ONS 15454 MSTP WDM Networking Primer
October 2003, Sisco
a. Joseph C. Palais : Fiber Optic Communications.
b. Wayne Tomasi : Advanced Electronic
Communications Systems Chapter 10 hal. 324-364,
Prentice-Hall, Inc. New Jersey 07632, 1987
c. Lennart Lilja, : FOC Basic Theory Fiber-Optic
Communication, ERICSON, STOCKHOLM,
d. Telcom Report 6 special Issue (Optical
Communications), SIEMEN, 1983.
e. Upendra Dixit, Instalation & Maintenance of Optical
Communication Network, Hewlett-Packard Asia Pasific
LTD, Communications Test Symposium, 1993
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Perbandingan antara kabel tembaga dengan Fiber optik

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