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O2-

Mg2+

KMnO4

Redox reactions are a chemical reactions involving oxidation


and reduction occurring simultaneously.
Oxidation & reduction :
a addition (gain) or loss (elimination) of oxygen or hydrogen

accepting(receives) or donating of electrons


change in oxidation number
A

Redox Reactions :

Oxidation is the process of gaining oxygen & elimination of


hydrogen
reduction is the process of losing oxygen & addition of hydrogen
oxidising agent is the substance which experiences reduction &
receives electrons .
reducing agent is the substance which experiences oxidation &
donates electrons .

PbO oxidising
agent (experiences
reduction

Loss of oxygen ---- reduction

Mg

PbO

Gain of oxygen ---- oxidation

MgO

Pb

Cl2 oxidising agent


( undergoes reduction )
--- chlorine oxidises
hydrogen sulphide to
sulphur
Gain of hydrogen --- reduction

H2 S

+ Cl2

2HCl

Loss of hydrogen --- oxidation

H2S reducing agent


( undergoes oxidation)
--- hydrogen sulphide
reduces chlorine to
hydrogen chloride

+ S

Transfer of Electrons

oxidation involves the loss (releases) of electrons

reduction involves a gain (receives) in electrons


metals are oxidised & its loss their electrons to form cations

non- metal are reduced & its receive electrons to form anions .
Chlorine

oxidising
agent

2Na(s)
Na
Sodium
reducing
agent

Reduction Process
Cl2

+ 2e-

2Cl- (gain of electron)

Cl2 (g)
Na+

2NaCl(s)

+ e ( loss of electron)

Oxidation Process

Determine the oxidation and reduction process , oxidising and


reducing agent that occurs in the reactions below .
(a) Mg

+ PbO

(b) Anode : Cu
(c) 2CuO

+ C

(d) Fe2 O3
(e) Mg

+ 3C
+

Solution :

CuO

MgO
Cu2+

+ 2e2Cu

2Fe
MgO

Pb

; Cu2+
+ CO2

+ 3CO
+ Cu

+ 2e-

Cu

C : Change in Oxidation Number ( O.N )

oxidation is the increase in oxidation number


reduction is the decrease in the oxidation number
O.N of ions is same value to the charge of the ion.
Ex :

Na+, K+ , H+ is

Mg2+ , Ca+2
O2- , S2-

+1

is
is

+2
-2

O.N for atom or molecule in a neutral elements are zero ( 0 )


example : O2 , N2 , Na , Mg, Br 2 is 0 .
Oxidising agent
--- chlorine gas

Oxidation number decreases (0 -1)


reduction
0
+3 -1

O.N
+2 -1
2FeCl2
Reducing agent --iron (II) chloride

Cl2

oxidation
Oxidation number increases( +2 +3)

2FeCl3

(i) The total oxidation number of all the atoms is equal to the charge
on the ion .
(ii) the total oxidation numbers for all atoms in neutral compound is
zero .
Example : (i) ClO - , oxidation number of chlorine is X
3

X + 3(-2)
X

-6

= -1

The charge of
chlorate

= -1
X = +5

(ii) The oxidation number of S in MgSO4

+2

+ X + 4 (-2)

+2 + X - 8
X

= 0
Oxidation
number of S

=0
=+6

the total oxidation number for dichromate (VI) ion, Cr2O72- is -2 ,

manganate (VII) , MnO4-1

is -1

Test Yourself :
Calculate the oxidation number of the following elements :
(a) Manganese , Mn in potassium manganate (VII) , KMnO4

(b) Manganese, Mn in manganate(VII) ion, MnO4 (c) Chromium, Cr, in potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7
(d) Cromium, Cr,in chromate(VI) ion, CrO4 2(e) Iron in iron(II) chloride , FeCl2
(f) Iron in iron(III) chloride , FeCl3
(g) Carbon , C in sodium carbonate, Na2CO3

In each of the cases above, the oxidation number of each element is


represented by the value of X .

The oxidising agent is the substance that


receives electrons
experiences a reduction(pengurangan) in the oxidation number .

The reducing agent is the substance that :


loses electrons
experiences an increase (penambahan) in the oxidation number .

Example :
(i)

Fe 2+

Fe 3+

(O.N )

+2

+3

(ii)

Br2

(O.N)

+ 2e-

+ e-

2Br-1

Make sure that you add


the electron on the side of
the half equation that has
the bigger oxidation
number

Redox reactions need to shown in the form of :


half - equations
ionic equations
Example :
Half equation :
Fe2+
Br2

Fe3+
+

2e-

+ e-

-------- (1) X 2
2Br

Combined

-------- (2)

Ionic equation :

2Fe 2+

2Fe3+

Br2

Fe2+

Cr3+

Green solution

Fe3+

Br2

Brown solution

Cl2

I2

Yellow solution

Cl-

Br-

I-

Colourless solution

2Br-

MnO4 Cr2O7 2-

Cu2+

Purple solution
Orange solution
Blue solution

A . Redox Reaction ( The combustion of Magnesium in oxygen)


Oxygen oxidises magnesium to magnesium ion .
Magnesium releases electrons to form Magnesium ion .
Half equation :
O.Number

Mg2+

Mg
0

+2

2e-

------------(1)

(oxidation)

Magnesium reduces oxygen to oxide ion .


Oxygen atom receives electrons to form oxide ion .
Half- equation :

O.Number

O2

2e-

O2-

-2

The overall equation : (1) + (2)


2Mg

O2

2MgO

Observation : Combusts with a white shiny flame


A white solid is formed
Oxidising agent : Oxygen

Reducing agent : Magnesium

Reactants

------------(2)

(reduction )

B. The change of iron(II) ions to iron(III) ions ( Fe2+

Fe3+)

Bromine water oxidises iron(II) ion , Fe2+ to iron(III) ion , Fe3+


Iron(II) ion releases electron to form iron(III) ion.
Fe2+

Fe3+

O. Number

+2

+3

+ e-

------------(1)X 2
Combined

Half-equation :

( oxidation)

Iron(II) ion reduces bromine ,Br2 to bromide ion , Br Bromine receives electron to form bromide ion , Br-1
Half-equation :

Br 2

O.Number

2e-

2Br - ------------(2)

-1

( reduction )

Observation :
The green iron(II) sulphate solution changes to brown .
The brown coloured bromine water is decolourised .
Oxidising agent : Bromine water , Br2
Reducing agent : Iron(II) ion, Fe2+
Ionic Equation : 2 Fe2+

+ Br2

2Fe3+

2Br -

other oxidising agent : Cl2 ,KMnO4 ,K2Cr2O7 ,HNO3 concentrated,H2O2

C : The change of iron(III) ion, Fe3+ to iron(II) ion , Fe2+


Iron (III) ion oxidises Zn atom to zinc ion , Zn2+
Iron(III) ion receives electron to form iron(II) ion
The brown iron(III) chloride solution changes to green .
Half-equation : Fe3+
O.Number

+ e-

Fe2+ --------(1) X 2

+3

+2

( Reduction)

Iron(III) ion -------- oxidising agent ( oxidation number decrease) .


Zn reduces iron(III) ion to iron(II) ion .

combined

Zinc atom releases electrons to form zinc ion , Zn


Zinc powder dissolves .
Zinc metal -------- reducing agent ( oxidation number increase)
Half-equation :

Zn

O. Number

The ionic equation : 2Fe3+

Zn2+
+2
+ Zn

2e-

-------(2)

( oxidation )
2Fe2+

Zn2+

Other reducing agent : metals that are more electropositive than iron
// SO2 , H2 S gas // Na2 SO3 , SnCl2 solution

D : The Displacement (penyesaran) of Metal from its Salt Solution


The element is more electropositive in the E.S, the higher the tendency
(kecenderungan) to release electrons to form positive ions .
More electropositive , oxidised more easily & act as a reducing agent
The higher the position in the E.S. can displace other elements that are
lower in the E.S .

K, Na , Ca , Mg , Al , Zn , Fe , Sn , Pb , H , Cu , Hg , Ag , Au
Most electropositive

Least electropositive

The displacement reaction between Zn & CuSO4 solution .


Zn more electropositive than copper .
Zn releases two electron to form zinc ion , Zn2+
Zn reduces copper(II) ion ,Cu2+ to copper , Cu
Copper(II) ion oxidises Zn to zinc ion ,Zn2+

Observation :
Zn loses
electrons &
is oxidised
to Zn2+

The blue CuSO4 solution fades or becomes colourless .


A brown solid is formed .
The Zn piece is corroded or dissolves .

Copper is displaced by zinc from the copper(II) sulphate solution .


Half-equations :

Zn

Zn2+

O . Number

+2

O. Number

Ionic equation :

Cu

+2

Cu2+

Zn ------ reducing agent


Copper(II) ion ------- oxidising agent

----------(1)

( oxidation )

Cu2+ + 2e

Zn

+ 2e-

----------(2)

( reduction )

Zn2+

Cu2+
receives
electrons &
is reduced to
Cu Cu

E : Displacement of Halogens from Halide Solutions


Halogen

----- Group 17

examples : Cl2 ( chlorine)

------- yellow

Br2 ( bromine)

------- brown

I2 (iodine)

------- yellow or brown

Solution

can be differentiated by shaking the solution with a little CCl4


Halogens are reduced to halide ions
Halogen ----- oxidising agent
The more reactive halogen can displace less reactive halogens from
its halide solutions.

Group 17 :
Flourine
Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine

Reactivity decreases,
higher act as a
oxidising agent

Chlorine water react with sodium bromide solution

Chlorine water , Cl2 oxidises bromide ion, Br- to bromine ,Br2


Bromide ion , reduces chlorine , Cl2 to chloride ion , Cl Bromide ion, Br- releases electrons to form bromine ,Br2
Half-equation :

2Br -

Br2

-1

colourless

+ 2e-

------ (1)
oxidation

brown

Chlorine , Cl2 receives electrons to form chloride ion , Cl Half-equation :

Cl2

+ 2e-

2Cl-

-1

yellow

------- (2)
reduction

decolourised(colourless)

Ionic equation : (1) + (2)


Cl2

2Br-

Br2

2Cl-

Chlorine ----- oxidising agent


Bromide ion ----- reducing agent
Chlorine displaces bromine from the sodium bromide solution.

Confirmatory Test for the Bromine, Chlorine and Iodine


By adding and shaking the halogen solution in tetrachloromethane

(CCl4 ) liquid

Colour in water
Solution
Concentrated

Dilute

Colour in
CCl4

Iodine

Brown

Yellow

Purple

Bromine

Brown

Yellow

Brown

Chlorine

Light greenish
yellow

Colourless

Colourless

F:

Transfer of Electrons at a Distance

a) If two chemicals are separated at a distance by an electrolyte solution


in a U-tube
b) acts as a salt bridge .
c) used to separate two solutions but allows ions to pass (flow) through
to complete the circuit .
d) examples : H2SO4 , KNO3 , Na2SO4 solution

oxd

reduction

The electrons that are released from reducing agent (negative electrode) will
flow out through outer circuit to the oxidising agent ( positive electrode)

The Reaction Between Bromine Water and Iron(II) Sulphate solution

Iron(II) ion, Fe2+ releases electron & is oxidised to iron(III) ion , Fe3+

O. Number

Fe2+

Fe3+

+2

+3

+ e-1

---------- (1)
( oxidation)

The green solution ,(Fe2+) changes to brown, Fe3+


The electrons that are released collect at the carbon electrode that is
immersed in FeSO4
It act as the negative terminal .
Bromine ,Br2 receives electron & is reduced to bromide ion, Br-1
Half equation :

Br2

2e-

2Br-1

brown colour

O.Number

--------------(2)

decolourised

-1

(reduction)

the carbon electrode in bromine water act as the positive terminal


the ionic equation :O. Number

2Fe2+
+2

+ Br2
0

2Fe3+
+3

2Br-1
-1

oxidising agent ----- Bromine water , Br


reducing agent ----- Iron (II) ion, Fe
The galvanometer needle is deflected because the movement of
electrons from the negative electrode to the positive electrode produces an
electric current .

(Negative terminal)
(Positive terminal)

Oxidation

Reduction

Test Yourself

The figure shows a U-tube redox cell .

(a) Write a summary of the redox reaction for the reaction between Iron(II)
sulphate, FeSO4 solution and the acidified potassium manganate (VII) ,
KMnO4 solution.
(b) Can dilute sulphuric acid be replaced with dilute hydrochloric acid ?
Give the reason for your answer .

Solution :

(a) Observation :
Electrode (-) :
The green coloured iron(II) nitrate solution changes to brown
Electrode (+) :

The purple coloured acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution is


decolourised .
Half equation :
Electrode (-) :

Fe2+

Electrode (+) : MnO4Ionic Equation

Fe3+

+ e-

+ 8H+ + 5e-

5Fe2

-----------

Mn2+ +

+ MnO4 - + 8H+

( oxidation)

4H2O

Fe3+

(reduction)

+ Mn2+

Oxidising agent : manganate(VII) ion


Reducing agent :

Iron (II) ion .

Confirmatory test for the product( Fe ) that is formed.


Add sodium hydroxide solution, a brown precipitate is formed .

(b) Can . Hydrochloric acid also allows the transfer of ions to occur .

+ 4H2O

Redox Reaction in a simple voltaic cells


The porous pot ( pasu berliang) --- to separate the two solutions but allows the ions
to flow through it to complete circuit .
the transfer of electrons occur from reducing agent to the oxidising agent through
an outer circuit .
The negative electrode ( anode) ----- metal which is more electropositive in the E.S.
The positive electrode ( cathode) ----- metal which is less electropositive in the E. S.
electron flows from the negative electrode to the positive electrode .
two types of Daniell cell that uses a porous pot :

At the negative electrode( anode) :


Zn is more electropositive than copper
Zn has more tendency to releases two electrons to form zinc ion,Zn2+
Zn rod acts as the negative electrode .

Zn2+

Zn

2e

------

oxidation process occurs

The electrons will flows from the zinc rod to the copper rod through the
outer circuit
an electric current is produced .

At the cathode :
copper ion, Cu2+ receives two electrons to form copper atom, Cu &
undergoes reduction process .

Cu2+

+ 2e

Cu

------ reduction process

Copper(II) ion oxidises(mengoksidakan) zinc, Zn to zinc ion, Zn2+

Cu2+ -----------

oxidising agent

Zinc reduces(menurunkan) copper(II) ion,Cu2+ to copper atom, Cu

Zn

-------------

reducing agent

Overall Ionic Equation :


+2
Zn
0

Cu2+

Oxidation

Reduction
Zn2+

0
+

Cu

+2

Observation :
cathode the blue copper(II) sulphate
solution becomes fade/ colourless
--- a brown solid forms at the copper rod //
the copper rod thickens // the mass of the
copper will increases.
anode ---- the zinc rod dissolves /
corrodes/ becomes thinner(menipis)

Cell symbol :
Zn(s) / Zn2+(aq) // Cu2+ (aq) / Cu(s)

G . Corrosion of Metals
occur when a metal loses electrons & is oxidised to form the metal ion .
the metal is corroded
example : Iron loses electrons to form iron(II) ion , Fe2+

Fe

O. Number

Fe2+

+ 2e-1

------- oxidation

+2

Iron is corroded .

If magnesium loses electrons to form magnesium ion Mg2+ ,


magnesium is corroded.

Mg

Mg2+

+ 2e-

------- oxidation

The metals is more electropositive in E.S. , corrode much easier .

because the metals more tendency to release electrons to form metal ions
Example : Al corrodes more easily compared to copper .
because Al is more electropositive than copper .
the rusting requires water and oxygen

Metal corrosion

corrosion

RUSTING OF IRON

At the end of the water droplet ( Anode / negative terminal )


Stage 1

the iron , Fe loses electrons and is oxidised to iron(II) ion, Fe


Iron(II) ion dissolves in water

Iron is corroded .
Fe

Fe2+

+ 2e

-------

oxidation

The electrons flows to the edge(pinggir) of the water droplet through


the iron

Stage 2

At the edge of the water droplet ( cathode / positive terminal )

Electrons are received by oxygen & water to form OH ions through


reduction

Stage 4

Stage 3

O2

4OH-

+ 2H2O + 4e

------ Reduction

Iron(II) ion , Fe2+ & hydroxide ion , OH- combine to form iron(II)
hydroxide ( green solid )

Fe2+ (aq)

+ 2OH-1 (aq)

Fe(OH)2 (s)

Iron(II) hydroxide , Fe(OH)2 is then oxidised by oxygen to form


hydrated Iron(III) oxide, (brown solid ) or rust .
O2 in the air
equation : Fe(OH)
Fe O .3H O (rust)
2

Iron rusting

Example : Electrochemical Corrosion of Metals


is a process that occurs when two metals come into contact(bersentuhan)
with an electrolyte .
the more electropositive metal will donate(release) electrons & is corroded
If the iron comes into contact with metal that is more electropositive ,it will
not corrode .
the corrosion of iron can be accelerated by the presence of electrolytes
such as acid & salt solution.

Tendency for
corrosion increases

K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe
Sn
Pb
H
Cu
Hg
Ag
Au

More
easily
corroded

Difficult to
be corroded

Example : The effect of rusting when iron comes into contact with other metals
( Mg, Cu , Zn , Sn)
Hypothesis : Iron is protected from rusting when it comes in contact with more
electropositive metals, but rusts when it contact with less electropositive metals .

B
A

rusting

Potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) solution ---- to detect the presence of iron(II) ions .


Iron nail is corroded, the dark blue colour will be seen in the solid agar .

Phenolphthalein will turn pink in colour if OH- ions are present.


The gas bubbles formed are hydrogen gas .
The iron nail in test tube B is not corroded , while zinc is corroded because Zn is more
electropositive than iron .

In test tube A ,the iron nail is corroded because Iron more electropositive than copper .

Iron is alloyed with other


metals such as chromium
or nickel to produce
stainless steel

Huge iron construction structure such


as bridges protected from corrosion by
using sacrificial metals(logam korban)
such as Mg & Zn

PREVENTION THE
RUSTING OF IRON

Coating a layer of
metal such as Al or
Sn on food tins

Wrapping the iron with


a layer of plastic . Ex: hangers

Iron sheet used as house


roofs Are galvanised
with a layer of zinc

Applying a coat of Al
such as car bumpers
or water pipes

Applying paint,oil or grease


on surface such as engine

Reactivity Series (R.S) of Metals

A : Metals with Oxygen


Metal is heated in oxygen to produce
metal oxide .A more reactive metal will displace
a less reactive metal from its oxide.
Observation :
Mg

----- burn very rapidly & vigorously with a very bright flame
------ metal oxide colour : white powder ( Hot & cold )

Zinc ---- burns rapidly , glows brightly


----- metal oxide colour : yellow when hot & white when it is cold .
Iron ----- burns rapidly, glows less brightly than Zn
----- metal oxide colour brown when hot & cold
Cu

----- very slow reaction


----- metal oxide colour black ( hot & cold )

Pb

----- burns slowly

----- metal oxide colour : brown when hot & yellow when colour

The position of Carbon in the R. S.


K
Na
Ca

If carbon is more reactive than metal X , a flame or glows(baraan)


can be seen.
If carbon is less reactive than metal Y ,the flame or glows will not
be seen when carbon react with metal oxide Y is heated .

M
g
Al
C
Zn

Reactivity
decreases

Fe
Sn

Pb
Cu
Ag
Au

Example : The reaction between Lead(II) oxide with Carbon


Observation : burn brightly
: produces a grey solids
Inference

: Carbon is more reactive than Lead

Equation

: PbO + C

Pb

+ CO2