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WCDMA Load Control

Algorithm and
Parameters
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Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Foreword

The WCDMA system is a self-interfering system, so the


capacity, coverage, and QoS are mutually affected

The target of load control is to maximize the system


capacity while ensuring coverage and QoS, and provide
differentiated services for users

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

References

3GPP TS 25.133: Requirements for Support of Radio Resource


Management (FDD)

3GPP TS 25.215: Physical Layer - Measurements (FDD)

3GPP TS 25.304: UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures for


Cell Reselection in Connected Mode

3GPP TS 25.321: Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocol


Specification

3GPP TS 25.331: Radio Resource Control (RRC)

3GPP TS 25.413: UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signaling

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

Outline the principle of load control

Describe the realization method of load control

Perform the parameter adjustment of load control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page4

Contents
1. Load Control Overview
2. Load Control Algorithms

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Page5

Contents
1. Load Control Overview
1.1 Load Control Algorithms Overview
1.2 Load Measurement
1.3 Priorities Involved in Load Control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page6

Load Definition

Load: the occupancy of capacity

Two kinds of capacity in WCDMA system:

Hard capacity:

Cell DL OVSF code

Iub transport resource

NodeB processing capability (NodeB credit)

Soft capacity:

Cell power (UL and DL)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page7

Load Control Algorithms

The load control algorithms are applied to the different UE


access phases as follows:

PUC: Potential User Control

CAC: Call Admission Control

IAC: Intelligent Access Control LDB : Intra-frequency Load Balancing

LDR: Load Reshuffling

OLC: Overload Control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page8

Load Control Algorithms (Cont.)

Resources considered by different load control algorithms:

Load Control Algorithm

Resources
Power

Code

NodeB Credits

Iub Bandwidth

PUC

IAC

CAC

LDB

LDR

OLC

: not considered; : considered

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page9

Contents
1. Load Control Overview
1.1 Load Control Algorithms Overview
1.2 Load Measurement
1.3 Priorities Involved in Load Control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page10

Load Measurement

Load control function in the WCDMA system:

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Page11

Load Measurement Quantities

The major load-related measurement quantities are as follows:

Uplink Received Total Wideband Power (RTWP)

Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power (TCP)

Non-HSPA power: TCP excluding the power used for transmission on


HSPA channels

Provided Bit Rate (PBR) on HS-DSCH

PBR on E-DCH

Power Requirement for GBR (GBP) on HS-DSCH: minimum power


required to ensure the GBR on HS-DSCH

Received Scheduled E-DCH Power Share (RSEPS): power of the EDCH scheduling service

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Page12

Load Measurement Procedure

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Page13

Load Measurement Procedure (Cont.)

Layer 3 filtering on the NodeB side:


Parameters

Layer 1
filtering

Layer 3
filtering

Parameters

D
Measurement
evaluation

A is the sampling value of the measurement

B is the measurement value after layer 1 filtering

C is the measurement value after layer 3 filtering

C' is another measurement value (if any) for measurement evaluation

D is the reported measurement value after measurement evaluation on the


conditions of periodic measurement and event-triggered measurement

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Page14

Load Measurement Procedure (Cont.)

Smooth filtering on the RNC side:

After the RNC receives the measurement report, it filters the


measurement value with the smooth window

Assuming that the reported measurement value is Qn and that


the size of the smooth window is N, the filtered measurement
value is:

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page16

Contents
1. Load Control Overview
1.1 Load Control Algorithms Overview
1.2 Load Measurement
1.3 Priorities Involved in Load Control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page17

Priority

The QoS of the services or users with low priority will be


affected by the load control algorithms first

Three kinds of priorities involved in load control:

User priority

RAB integrated priority

User integrated priority

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Page18

User Priority

There are three levels of user priority:

gold (high priority), silver (middle priority) and copper (low


priority) users

User priority

Gold

Silver

Copper

Uplink

384kbps

128kbps

64kbps

Downlink

384kbps

128kbps

64kbps

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page19

gold
user

User Priority (Cont.)

The mapping relation between user priority and ARP is


configured in RNC by SET USERPRIORITY

Typical relation between user priority and ARP:

ARP

User
Priority

Gold

10 11 12 13 14 15

Silver

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Copper

Page20

RAB Integrated Priority

RAB integrated priority is mainly used in load control


algorithms

RAB integrated priority are set according to :

ARP

Traffic Class

Traffic Handling Priority (THP, only for interactive services)

Carrier types: HSPA or DCH

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Page21

An Example for RAB Integrated Priority


Based on ARP, HSPA priority is higher
Service
ARP Traffic Class
ID
Services attribution in the cell
Service
ARP
ID

Interactive

HSDPA

Interactive

DCH

Bear
type

Conversational

DCH

Background

DCH

Interactive

DCH

Interactive

HSDPA

Conversational

DCH

Traffic Class

Bear
type

Background

DCH

Based on Traffic Class, HSPA priority is higher


Service
ID

Traffic Class

ARP

Bear
type

Conversational

DCH

Interactive

HSDPA

Interactive

DCH

Background

DCH

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page23

User Integrated Priority

For single-RAB user, the user integrated priority is the same


as the RAB integrated priority

For multiple-RAB user, the user integrated priority is based


on the highest priority of RAB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page24

Parameters of Priority

PriorityReference

Parameter name: Integrate Priority Configured Reference

Recommended value: ARP

CarrierTypePriorInd

Parameter name: Indicator of Carrier Type Priority

Recommended value: NONE

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page25

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page26

PUC Principle

The Potential User Control (PUC) algorithm only controls


the Inter-frequency cell reselection of the potential UE, and
prevents UE from camping on a heavily loaded cell

Potential UE:

UE in idle mode

UE in Cell-FACH, Cell-PCH and URA-PCH

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page27

PUC Load Judgment

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Page28

PUC Procedure
Threshold

Cell TCP

Heavy?
Light?

Normal?

RNC

cell reselection
parameters

System
information

NodeB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

UE

Page29

PUC Procedure (Cont.)


Normal load

Light load
Freq1

Modify
System Info
SIB3,11

1. Sintersearch
2. Qoffset

Stay
System Info
SIB3,11

Heavy load
Freq2

Modify

1. Sintersearch
2. Qoffset

System Info
SIB3,11
Idle state

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

CCH state

Page30

Parameters of PUC

NBMLdcAlgoSwitch-PUC

Parameter name: Cell LDC algorithm switch for PUC

Recommended value: OFF

SpucHeavy

Parameter name: Load level division threshold 1

Recommended value: 70, namely 70%

SpucLight

Parameter name: Load level division threshold 2

Recommended value: 45, namely 45%

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Page32

Parameters of PUC (Cont.)

SpucHyst

Parameter name: Load level division hysteresis

Recommended value: 5, namely 5%

PucPeriodTimerLen

Parameter name: PUC period timer length

Recommended value: 1800, namely 1800s

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Page33

Parameters of PUC (Cont.)

OffSinterLight

Parameter name: Sintersearch offset 1

Recommended value: -2, namely -4dB

OffSinterHeavy

Parameter name: Sintersearch offset 2

Recommended value: 2, namely 4dB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page34

Parameters of PUC (Cont.)

OffQoffset1Light (for RSCP)

Parameter name: Qoffset1 offset 1

Recommended value: -4, namely -4dB

OffQoffset1Heavy (for RSCP)

Parameter name: Qoffset1 offset 2

Recommended value: 4, namely 4dB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page35

Parameters of PUC (Cont.)

OffQoffset2Light (for Ec/No)

Parameter name: Qoffset2 offset 1

Recommended value: -4, namely -4dB

OffQoffset2Heavy (for Ec/No)

Parameter name: Qoffset2 offset 2

Recommended value: 4 namely 4dB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page36

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

LDB Principle

Intra-frequency Load Balancing (LDB) is performed to adjust


the coverage areas of cells by modifying PCPICH power

LDB affect UEs in all states

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Page38

LDB Procedure

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Page39

Parameters of LDB

NBMLdcAlgoSwitch-INTRA_FREQUENCY_LDB

Parameter name: Cell LDC algorithm switch for LDB

Recommended value: OFF

IntraFreqLdbPeriodTimerLen

Parameter name: Intra-frequency LDB period timer length

Recommended value: 1800, namely 1800s

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Page40

Parameters of LDB (Cont.)

CellOverrunThd

Parameter name: Cell overload threshold

Recommended value: 90, namely 90%

CellUnderrunThd

Parameter name: Cell underload threshold

Recommended value: 30, namely 30%

PCPICHPowerPace

Parameter name: Pilot power adjustment step

Recommended value: 2, namely 0.2dB

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Page41

Parameters of LDB (Cont.)

PCPICHPower

Parameter name: PCPICH transmit power

Recommended value: 330, namely 33dBm

MaxPCPICHPower

Parameter name: Max transmit power of PCPICH

Recommended value: 346, namely 34.6dBm

MinPCPICHPower

Parameter name: Min transmit power of PCPICH

Recommended value: 313, namely 31.3dBm

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page42

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page43

Why We Need CAC?

WCDMA is an interference limited system, after a new


service is admitted, the system load will be increased

If a cell is high loaded, a new service will affect the QoS of


ongoing user, even result in call drop

CAC is used to determine whether the system resources


are sufficient to accept a new user's access request or not

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page44

CAC Procedure
Admission request

Code-based
admission successful?

No

Yes
Power-based
admission successful?

No

Yes
NodeB credit-based
admission successful?

No

Yes
Iub resource-based
admission successful?

No

Yes
Admission based on
the number of HSPA users
successful?

No

Yes
Resource-based admission
successful

Resource-based admission
unsuccessful

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page45

CAC Algorithm Switches

Power CAC

Uplink CAC algorithm switch: ALGORITHM_SECOND

Downlink CAC algorithm switch: ALGORITHM_FIRST

NodeB credit CAC

CAC algorithm switch: ON

Cell CAC algorithm switch-CRD_ADCTRL: ON

HSDPA user number CAC

Cell CAC algorithm switch-HSDPA_UU_ADCTRL: OFF

HSUPA user number CAC

Cell CAC algorithm switch-HSUPA_UU_ADCTRL: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page46

Code CAC

Code resource CAC is involved in:

RRC connection setup

Handover

R99 services setup

RRC connection setup and handover have higher priority

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Page47

Parameter of Code CAC

DlHoCeCodeResvSf

Parameter name: DL handover credit and code reserved SF

Recommended value: SF32

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page48

Power CAC

Power resource CAC is involved in:

RRC connection setup

Handover

Services setup

RRC connection setup and handover have higher priority

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Page49

Power CAC Procedure


Request initiation

Uplink call
admission decision

Admitted?

No

Yes
Downlink call
admission desicion

No
Admitted?
Yes
Request accepted

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Request rejected

Page50

Power CAC Algorithms

Algorithm 1: based on UL/DL load measurement and load


prediction (RTWP and TCP)

Algorithm 2: based on Equivalent Number of User (ENU)

Algorithm 3: loose call admission control algorithm

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page51

Power CAC for RRC Connection Setup

For the RRC connection request is, tolerance principles are


applied :

Emergency call, detach, registration:

Direct admission

RRC connection request for other reasons:

Based on UL/DL OLC switches and trigger threshold

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page52

Power CAC Algorithm 1

Power-based admission decision based on algorithm 1


consists of uplink power-based admission decision and
downlink power-based admission decision procedures:

Uplink admission decision:

R99 cell

HSPA cell

Downlink admission decision:

R99 cell

HSPA cell

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Page53

Algorithm 1 - Uplink for R99 Cell

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Page54

Parameters of Power CAC

UlCCHLoadFactor

Parameter name: UL common channel load reserved


coefficient

Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

UlNonCtrlThdForHo/UlNonCtrlThdForAMR/UlNonCtrlTh
dForNonAMR/UlNonCtrlThdForOther

Parameter name: UL threshold of handover/Conv AMR/Conv


non_AMR/other service

Recommended value: 80%, 75%, 75%, 60%

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Page55

Algorithm 1 - Uplink for HSPA Cell

After the RSEPS


measurement is introduced,

the UL RTWP is divided into


two parts: controllable part
and uncontrollable part

The controllable part is


generated by the E-DCH
scheduling service, and
others belong to the

uncontrollable part

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Page56

Algorithm 1 - Uplink for HSPA Cell


(Cont.)

Admission of DCH service is based on the following


formulas:

If formulas 1 and 2 are fulfilled, the RNC admits DCH


service. Otherwise, the RNC rejects the access request

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Page57

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

UlHsDpcchRsvdFactor

Parameter name: UL HS-DPCCH reserve factor

Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

UlCellTotalThd

Parameter name: UL total power threshold

Recommended value: 83, namely 83%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page58

Algorithm 1 - Uplink for HSPA Cell


(Cont.)

PBR-based application in HSUPA cell

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Page59

Algorithm 1 - Uplink for HSPA Cell


(Cont.)

The RNC admits the HSUPA scheduling services in either


of the following cases:

Formula 3, 4, or 5 is fulfilled

Formula 2 is fulfilled

For HSUPA non-scheduling services, the RNC admits the


HSUPA non-scheduling services in either of the following
cases:

Formula 3, 4, or 5 is fulfilled

Formulas 1 and 2 are fulfilled

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page60

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

HsupaLowPriorityUserPBRThd/HsupaEqualPriorityUser
PBRThdHsupaHighPriorityUserPBRThd

Parameter name: Low/Equal/High priority HSUPA user PBR


threshold

Recommended value: 100%, 100%, 100%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page61

Algorithm 1 - Downlink for R99 Cell

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Page62

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

DlCCHLoadRsrvCoeff

Parameter name: DL common channel load reserved


coefficient

Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

DlHOThd/DlConvAMRThd/DlConvNonAMRThd/DlOtherT
hd

Parameter name: DL threshold of handover/Conv AMR/Conv


non_AMR/other service

Recommended value: 85%, 80%, 80%, 75%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page63

Algorithm 1 - Downlink for HSPA Cell

Admission of DCH service is based on the following


formulas:

The RNC admits the DCH RAB in either of the following


situations:

Formulas 1 and 2 are fulfilled

Formulas 1 and 3 are fulfilled

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page64

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

DlCellTotalThd

Parameter name: DL total power threshold

Recommended value: 90, namely 90%

DlHSUPARsvdFactor

Parameter name: DL HSUPA reserved factor

Recommended value: 0, namely 0%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page65

Algorithm 1 - Downlink for HSPA Cell


(Cont.)

When the admission of the HSDPA RAB is implemented,


the following formulas apply:

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Page66

Algorithm 1 - Downlink for HSPA Cell


(Cont.)

The RNC admits the HSDPA streaming RAB in any of the


following situations:

Formula 1 is fulfilled

Formulas 3 and 4 are fulfilled

Formulas 3 and 5 are fulfilled

The RNC admits the HSDPA BE RAB in any of the following


situations:

Formula 2 is fulfilled

Formulas 3 and 4 are fulfilled

Formulas 3 and 5 are fulfilled

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page67

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

HsdpaStrmPBRThd

Parameter name: HSDPA streaming PBR threshold

Recommended value: 70, namely 70%

HsdpaBePBRThd

Parameter name: HSDPA best effort PBR threshold

Recommended value: 30, namely 30%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page68

Power CAC Algorithm 2

When the CAC function uses algorithm 2, the admission of


uplink/downlink power resources uses the algorithm
depending on the Equivalent Number of Users (ENU)

The 12.2 kbit/s AMR traffic is defined as one ENU. Thus,


the 12.2 kbit/s AMR traffic can be used to calculate the ENU
of all other services

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Page69

Power CAC Algorithm 2 Procedure


Admission request
N

ENU total ( N ) ENU i

Get current total ENU

i 1

Get the traffic characteristic, and


estimate the increment of ENU

ENU new

ENU total ( N 1) ENU total ( N ) ENU new

Calculate the predicted ENU

Smaller than
the threshold?

admitted

ENULoad ENU total ( N 1) / ENU max

rejected

End of UL/DL CAC


Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page70

Parameters of Power CAC (Cont.)

UlTotalEqUserNum

Parameter name: UL total equivalent user number

Recommended value: 80

DlTotalEqUserNum

Parameter name: DL total equivalent user number

Recommended value: 80

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page71

Power CAC Algorithm 3

Algorithm 3 is similar to algorithm 1. The difference is that


the estimated load increment in algorithm 3 is always set to
0

In accordance with the current cell load (uplink load factor


and downlink TCP), the RNC determines whether the cell
load will exceed the threshold, with the estimated load
increment set to 0. If yes, the RNC rejects the request. If not,
the RNC accepts the request

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page72

NodeB Credit CAC

CE is used to measure the channel demodulation capability


of the NodeBs. On the RNC side, it is referred to the NodeB

credit. On the NodeB side, it is the channel element

The resource of one equivalent 12.2 kbit/s AMR voice


service, including 3.4 kbit/s signaling, is defined as one CE

There are two kinds of CE, that is, uplink CE supporting


uplink services and downlink CE supporting downlink
services. Therefore, one 12.2 kbit/s AMR voice service

consumes one uplink CE and one downlink CE

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page73

NodeB Credit CAC (Cont.)

NodeB credit CAC is involved in:

RRC connection setup

Handover

Services setup

RRC connection setup and handover have higher priority

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page75

Parameter of NodeB Credit CAC

UlHoCeResvSf

Parameter name: UL handover credit reserved SF

Recommended value: SF16

DlHoCeCodeResvSf

Parameter name: DL handover credit and code reserved SF

Recommended value: SF32

HsupaCeConsumeSelection

Parameter name: HSUPA Credit Consume Type

Recommended value: MBR

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page76

Iub Resource CAC

Iub overbooking

The Iub overbooking feature considers the statistic multiplexing


of service activities and multiple users

Through the admission of more users, Iub overbooking


increases the resource utilization on the Iub interface

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page77

Iub Resource CAC (Cont.)

Activity factor

RT services, including conversational and streaming services,


are admitted at the Maximum Bit Rate (MBR):

Admission bandwidth = MBR x activity factor

NRT services, including interactive and background services,


are admitted at the GBR:

Admission bandwidth = GBR x activity factor

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page78

Iub Resource CAC Procedure

For handover of a user, the following requirements apply:

Load of the path + Bandwidth required by the user < Total


configured bandwidth of the path

For a new user, the following requirements apply:

Load of the path + Bandwidth required by the user < Total


configured bandwidth of the path - Bandwidth reserved for
handover

For rate upsizing of a user, the following requirements apply:

Load of the path + Bandwidth required by the user < Total


configured bandwidth of the path - Congestion threshold

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page79

Parameters of Iub Resource CAC

FWDHORSVBW/BWDHORSVBW

Parameter name: Forward/Backward handover reserved bandwidth

Recommended value: 0, namely 0Kbit/s

FWDCONGBW/BWDCONGBW

Parameter name: Forward/Backward congestion threshold

Recommended value: 0, namely 0Kbit/s

FWDCONGCLRBW/BWDCONGCLRBW

Parameter name: Forward/Backward congestion clear threshold

Recommended value: 0, namely 0Kbit/s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page81

HSPA User Number CAC

HSPA user number CAC is involved in:

Cell level

Maximum number of HSPA users in a cell

NodeB level

Maximum number of HSPA users in all the cells configured in one


NodeB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page82

Parameters of HSPA User Number


CAC

MaxHsdpaUserNum

Parameter name: Maximum HSDPA user number

Recommended value: 64

NodeBHsdpaMaxUserNum

Parameter name: NodeB Max HSDPA User Number

Recommended value: 3840

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Page83

Parameters of HSPA User Number


CAC (Cont.)

MaxHsupaUserNum

Parameter name: Maximum HSUPA user number

Recommended value: 20

NodeBHsupaMaxUserNum

Parameter name: NodeB Max HSUPA User Number

Recommended value: 3840

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page84

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page85

Why we need IAC?

The disadvantages of CAC:

For PS NRT (Non-Real Time) services, CAC is not flexible

No consideration about the priority of different users

No consideration about Directed Retry after CAC rejection

Intelligent means the algorithm can increase admission


successful rate

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page86

IAC Procedure
RRC connection processing
Access from another cell

RRC
connection
request

Servicebased RRC
redirection

Admission
algorithm

Access from
current cell

Fails

DRD

Succeeds

Fails

RAB processing

Lead UE to
the inter-RAT cell

Is there any
inter-frequency cell
not tried?
Fails

Lead UE to
another cell

Succeeds

RAB setup request


Yes

Redirection

No
Succeeds

Fails
Inter-RAT
DRD

Inter-frequency
DRD algorithm
Service steering
DRD
Load balancing
DRD

Target cell
selected

Rate
negotiation

Admission
algorithm

PS domain:
maximum rate

Code
admission

PS and CS
domains:
initial rate

Succeeds
Power
admission
Credit
admission

PS domain:
GBR of PS
RT service

Iub resource
admission

Target Rate
Negotiation

HSPA user
number admission

Fails or not supported


Succeeds

Preemption

Fails or not supported


Succeeds

Queuing

Fails or not supported


Succeeds

Low-rate
access

Fails or not supported

Succeeds

Service request
accepted
Service request
denied

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page87

IAC - RRC Connection Setup


UE

RNC
1. RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
No

Is the switch of
RRC redirection for service
steering ON?

Yes
May the UE
accesses the network from
the current cell?

No

Yes

Does the resource


request succeed?

Yes

No
Yes

Is any candidate
cell available?

No
RRC redirection
RRC DRD and redirection

2. RRC CONNECTION REJECT

2. RRC CONNECTION SETUP


3. RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page89

RRC Redirection for Service Steering

During the RRC connection setup, the RNC implements


service steering between inter-frequency or inter-RAT cells
according to the cause of RRC connection setup. In addition,
the RNC considers the load of the cell for access and the
redirection factors to control the degree of load balancing

Algorithm switch: DrSwitch-DR_ RRC_DRD_SWITCH

Triggering factor: RedirFactorOfNorm or RedirFactorOfLDR

Target cell: RedirSwitch

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page90

Parameters of IAC

DrSwitch-DR_ RRC_DRD_SWITCH

Parameter name: DRD switch for RRC connection

Recommended value: ON

RedirSwitch

Parameter name: Redirection Switch

Recommended value: OFF

RedirFactorOfNorm/RedirFactorOfLDR

Parameter name: Redirection Factor Of Normal/LDR

Recommended value: 0, 100

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page91

RRC DRD

Algorithm switch: DrSwitch-DR_ RRC_DRD_SWITCH

Target cell: intra-band inter-frequency neighboring cells,


which quality is large than threshold:

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page92

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

DRDEcN0Threshhold

Parameter name: Drd Ec/N0 threshold

Recommended value: -18, namely -18dB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page93

RRC Redirection after DRD Failure

Algorithm switch:

DrSwitch-DR_ RRC_DRD_SWITCH

ConnectFailRrcRedirSwitch

Target cell: intra-band inter-frequency neighboring cells or

inter-RAT neighboring cells

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page94

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

ConnectFailRrcRedirSwitch

Parameter name: RRC redirect switch

Recommended value: Only_To_Inter_Frequency

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page95

IAC - RAB DRD

The basic procedure of RAB DRD is as follows:

The RNC performs inter-frequency DRD. According to the


purposes of directed retry, Inter-frequency DRD is of the
following types:

Inter-frequency DRD for service steering

Inter-frequency DRD for load balancing

If all admission attempts of inter-frequency DRD fail, the RNC


performs an inter-RAT DRD

If all admission attempts of inter-RAT DRD fail, the RNC


selects a suitable cell to perform preemption and queuing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page96

Inter-Frequency DRD for Service


Steering

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page97

Inter-Frequency DRD for Service


Steering (Cont.)

Cell service priorities refer to the priorities of cells under the


same coverage accepting specific service types. These
priorities help achieve traffic absorption in a hierarchical way

Service
Priority
Group
Identity

Service
Priority of
R99 RT
Service

Service
Priority of
R99 NRT
Service

Service
Priority of
HSPA
Service

Service
Priority of
Other
Service

Cell

Cell

Service priority group identity

Cell B

Cell A

RT service

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page98

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

ServiceDiffDrdSwitch

Parameter name: Service differential drd switch

Recommended value: OFF

SpgId

Parameter name: Service priority group Identity

PriorityServiceForR99RT/R99NRT/HSPA/ExtRab

Parameter name: Service priority of R99 RT/R99


NRT/HSPA/Other service

Recommended value: 1, 1, 1, 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page99

Inter-Frequency DRD for Load


Balancing

Load balancing considers two resources, power and code:

The availability of power-based DRD for load balancing for


DCH service is specified by the LdbDRDSwitchDCH parameter

The availability of power-based DRD for load balancing for


HSDPA service is specified by the LdbDRDSwitchHSDPA
parameter

The availability of code-based DRD for load balancing is


specified by the CodeBalancingDrdSwitch parameter

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page100

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

LdbDRDSwitchDCH

Parameter name: Load balance DRD switch for DCH

Recommended value: OFF

LdbDRDSwitchHSDPA

Parameter name: Load balance DRD switch for HSDPA

Recommended value: OFF

CodeBalancingDrdSwitch

Parameter name: Code balance drd switch

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page101

Power-Based DRD for Load Balancing

Two algorithms are available for power-based load balancing:

Algorithm 1: DL non-HSDPA power and DL HS-DSCH GBP

Algorithm 2: DCH ENU and HSDPA ENU


Cell B

Cell A

Load
DCH service

HSDPA service

Load of HS-DSCH GBP


Load of non-HSDPA power

Cell B has a lighter load of non-HSDPA power than cell A. If the UE requests a DCH
service in cell A, preferably, the RNC selects cell B for the UE to access

Cell A has a lighter load of HS-DSCH GBP than cell B. If the UE requests an HSDPA
service in cell B, preferably, the RNC selects cell A for the UE to access

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page102

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

LdbDRDchoice

Parameter name: Load balance DRD choice

Recommended value: UserNumber, namely Alogrithm 2

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page103

Power-Based DRD for Load Balancing


(Cont.)
Receive a
service request

Does power of the current cell


meet DRD condition 1?

Yes

No
Does power of a
neighboring cell meet DRD
condition 2?
HSPA falls
back to DCH

No

Yes
No

Are there multiple


such cells available?
Yes

Select the cell meeting


the DRD conditions as
the target cell
Yes
Is the request
an HSPA one?

Select the cell with the


lightest power load as
the target cell

No
Yes

Are all
candidate cells
tried?

No

No
Initiate an interRAT DRD

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

CAC
successful?
Yes
Initiate a blind
handover

Page104

Select the
current cell as
the target cell

Power-Based DRD for Load Balancing


(Cont.)

DRD condition 1:

For algorithm 1:

For DCH bearer:

Thd

AMR , cutcell

Pnon H , cutcell Thd non H

For HSDPA bearer:

Thd

total , cutcell

PGBP ,cutcell Thd H

For algorithm 2:

For DCH bearer:

Thd

AMR , cutcell

For HSDPA bearer:

Thd

H ue ,cutcell

PD ENU ,cutcell Thd non H


PH ue,cutcell / Thd H ue,cutcell Thd H

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page106

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

Recommended values for power-based DRD condition 1:


Parameter

Recommended
value

Parameter name

DlConvAMRThd

DL threshold of Conv AMR


service

80%

LdbDRDLoadRemain
ThdDCH

Dl load balance DRD power


remain threshold for DCH

35%

DlCellTotalThd

DL total power threshold

90%

LdbDRDLoadRemain
ThdHSDPA

Dl load balance DRD power


remain threshold for HSDPA

100%

MaxHsdpaUserNum

Maximum HSDPA user number 64

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page107

Power-Based DRD for Load Balancing


(Cont.)

DRD condition 2:

Algorithm

Bearer

DCH
Algorithm 1
HSDPA

DCH
Algorithm 2
HSDPA

Formula

Thd
Thd
Thd
Thd

total , cutcell

Pload ,cutcell Thdtotal , nbcell Pload , nbcell Thd total ,loadoffset

Thd

AMR , nbcell

PD enu , nbcell Thd AMR,cutcell PD enu ,cutcell Thd D ,loadoffset

AMR , nbcell

Thd

Pnon H , nbcell Thd AMR ,cutcell Pnon H ,cutcell Thd D ,loadoffset

total , cutcell

Pload ,cutcell Thdtotal , nbcell Pload ,nbcell Thd total ,loadoffset

total ,nbcell

PGBP ,nbcell Thdtotal ,cutcell PGBP ,cutcell Thd H ,loadoffset

H ue ,nbcell

PH ue,nbcell / Thd H ue,nbcell Thd H ue,cutcell PH ue,cutcell / Thd H ue,cutcell

Thd H ,loadoffset

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page108

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

Recommended values for power-based DRD condition 2:


Parameter

Recommended
value

Parameter name

LdbDRDOffsetDCH

Load balance DRD offset


for DCH

10%

LdbDRDOffsetHSDPA

Load balance DRD offset


for HSDPA

10%

LdbDRDTotalPwrProThd

Load balance DRD total


power protect threshold

30%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page109

Code-Based DRD for Load Balancing


Start

Is the current cell in


candidate cells?

No

Yes

Minimum SF of the current cell <


CodeBalancingDrdMinSFThd?

Yes

No

Code load of the current cell <


CodeBalancingDrdCodeRateThd?

Yes

No

Is there a cell with the


lightest code load?

No

Yes

Select the cell with the lightest code


load as the target cell

Select the
current cell as
the target cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Select the cell with


the lightest code load
from the cells with the
same service priority
as the target cell

Page110

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

Recommended values for code-based DRD:


Parameter

Recommended
value

Parameter name

CodeBalancingDrdMinS
FThd

Minimum SF threshold for


code balance drd

SF8

CodeBalancingDrdCode
RateThd

Code occupied rate


threshold for code
balancing drd

13%

DeltaCodeOccupiedRate

Delta code occupied rate

7%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page111

Inter-Frequency DRD

Relation Between DRD for Service Steering and DRD for


Load Balancing:

When both DRD for service steering and DRD for load
balancing are enabled, the general principles of inter-frequency
DRD are as follows:

DRD for service steering takes precedence over DRD for load
balancing, that is, preferably considers service priorities

To services of the same service priority, load balancing applies

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page112

Inter-Frequency DRD Procedure


Receive a
service request

Is DRD for service


steering enabled?

No

Is DRD for load


balancing enabled?

No

Access the current


cell
Try another cell

Yes
Is DRD for load
balancing enabled?

No

Yes
No

No

CAC
successful?

Yes

Yes
Determine
candidate cells

Are all
cells tried?
Yes

Initiate a blind
handover

HSPA falls
back to DCH

Determine a target
cell in order
Yes

No
CAC
successful?

No

Are all cells


tried?

Yes

Is the request
an HSPA one?

No

Yes
Initiate a blind
handover

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page113

Initiate an
inter-RAT DRD

Inter-RAT DRD

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page115

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

DRDEcN0Threshhold

Parameter name: Drd Ec/N0 threshold

Recommended value: -18, namely -9dB

DRMaxGSMNum

Parameter name: Max inter-RAT direct retry number

Recommended value: 2, namely 2 times

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page116

IAC - Rate Negotiation

Rate negotiation includes:

MBR negotiation

GBR negotiation

Initial rate negotiation

Target rate negotiation

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page117

MBR Negotiation

If the IE "Alternative RAB Parameter Values" is present in


the RANAP RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST or the
RELOCATION REQUEST message when a PS service is
set up, reconfigured, or admitted, then the RNC and the CN
negotiate the rate according to the UE capability to obtain
the MBR while ensuring a proper QoS

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page118

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

PsSwitch-PS_STREAM_IU_QOS_NEG_SWITCH

Parameter name: PS rate negotiation switch for Streaming service

Recommended value: OFF

PsSwitch-PS_ BE_IU_QOS_NEG_SWITCH

Parameter name: PS rate negotiation switch for BE service

Recommended value: OFF

PsSwitch-PS_BE_STRICT_IU_QOS_NEG_SWITCH

Parameter name: PS rate negotiation switch for strict BE service

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page119

GBR Negotiation

During the setup, reconfiguration, or handover of a real-time


PS service, if the RAB assignment message carries multiple
alternative GBRs and
PS_STREAM_IU_QOS_NEG_SWITCH is set to 1, the RNC
selects the minimum rate as the GBR of this RAB and
sends it to the CN. If the IE "Type of Alternative Guaranteed
Bit Rate Information" in the message is set to unspecified,
the GBR is set to 8 kbit/s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page120

Initial Rate Negotiation

For a non-real-time service in the PS domain, the RNC selects an


initial rate to allocate bandwidth for the service before the

admission request based on cell resources in the following cases:

A service is set up

The UE state changes from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH

The negotiation is based on the cell load information, which


includes:

Uplink and downlink radio bearer status of the cell

Minimum spreading factor (SF) supported

HSPA capability

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page121

Initial Rate Negotiation (Cont.)

Initial rate definition for DCH services:

DCCC
Switch

PS BE Initial Rate Dynamic


Configuration Switch

Actual Initial Rate

ON

In the uplink, the initial rate is the smaller one


of the MBR and 384 kbit/s.
In the downlink, the initial rate is dynamically
set on the basis of Ec/No. For the specific
method, see the following description.

ON

OFF

In the uplink, the initial rate is the smaller one


of the MBR and the initial rate of the uplink
BE service.
In the downlink, the initial rate is the smaller
one of the MBR and the initial rate of the
downlink BE service.

OFF

MBR

ON

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page122

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

DraSwitch-DRA_DCCC_SWITCH

Parameter name: Dynamic resource allocation switch for


DCCC

Recommended value: ON

PsSwitch-PS_BE_INIT_RATE_DYNAMIC_CFG_SWITCH

Parameter name: PS rate negotiation switch for initial rate


reconfiguration

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page123

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

EcN0EffectTime

Parameter name: Ec/N0 effective time

Recommended value: 30000, namely 30000ms

EcN0Ths

Parameter name: Ec/N0 threshold

Recommended value: 41, namely -4dB

DlBeTraffInitBitrate

Parameter name: DL BE traffic Initial bit rate

Recommended value: D64, namely 64kbit/s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page124

Initial Rate Negotiation (Cont.)

Initial rate definition for HSUPA services:

If HSUPA_DCCC_SWITCH is set to 1, the actual initial rate is


the initial rate of the HSUPA BE service (HsupaInitialRate)

If the HSUPA DCCC function is disabled, the actual initial rate


is the MBR

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page125

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

DraSwitch-DRA_HSUPA_DCCC_SWITCH

Parameter name: Dynamic resource allocation switch for


HSUPA DCCC

Recommended value: ON

HsupaInitialRate

Parameter name: Initial rate of HSUPA BE traffic

Recommended value: D256, namely 256kbit/s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page126

Target Rate Negotiation

For a non-real-time service in the PS domain, if cell


resource-based admission fails, the RNC selects a target
rate to allocate bandwidth for the service based on cell
resource in following cases:

Service setup

Soft handover

DCCC rate upsizing

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page127

IAC - Preemption

After CAC fails, the RNC performs preemption firstly

Precondition of preemption and queuing:

According to RAB ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message,


preemption and queuing are supported

The related algorithm switches are set to ON

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page128

Preemption Procedure

Sorts the preemptable users by user integrated priority, or sorts the


preemptable RABs by RAB integrated priority

Only the users or RABs with priorities lower than the RAB to be established
are selected

Selects as many users or RABs as necessary in order to match the


resource needed by the RAB to be established

When the priorities of two users or RABs are the same, the algorithm selects
the user or RAB that can release the most resources

The RNC releases the resources occupied by the candidate users or


RABs

The requested service directly uses the released resources to access


the network without admission decision

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page130

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

PreemptAlgoSwitch

Parameter name: Preempt algorithm switch

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page131

IAC - Queuing

After preemption fails, UE can be put into the queue, then


admission attempts are made periodically till maximum
queuing time

The queuing function is triggered by the heartbeat timer that


equals 500 ms. Each time the timer expires, the RNC
selects the service that meets the requirement to make an
admission attempt

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page132

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

QueueAlgoSwitch

Parameter name: Queue algorithm switch

Recommended value: OFF

MaxQueueTimeLen

Parameter name: Max queuing time length

Recommended value: 5, namely 5s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page134

IAC - Low-Rate Access of the PS BE


Service

Low-rate access means access from the DCH at 0 kbit/s,


FACH, or enhanced FACH (E-FACH)

Low-rate access is used in the following scenarios:

RAB setup

Hard handover or relocation

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page135

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

PsSwitchPS_BE_EXTRA_LOW_RATE_ACCESS_SWITCH

Parameter name: PS rate negotiation switch for low rate


access

Recommended value: OFF

ZeroRateUpFailToRelTimerLen

Parameter name: Release 0 kbit/s Timer length for failed to


rate up

Recommended value: 180, namely 180s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page136

IAC for Emergency Calls

RRC connection setup process of emergency calls:

No admission on power resource

Admission is successful if the current remaining hard resources


are sufficient

If the hard resource admission fails preemption is performed


regardless of the preemption switch

RRC connection
setup request

Admission
algorithm

Fails

Succeeds

Fails
Preemption
Succeeds

Fails
DRD
Succeeds

RAB process

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page137

Redirection

IAC for Emergency Calls (Cont.)

RAB process of emergency calls:

For power resource admission:

When EMC_UU_ADCTRL is on, power admission fails if the


system is in overload. Otherwise, the admission succeeds

If the CAC algorithm switch is off, the emergency calls are directly
admitted

Admission is successful if the current remaining hard resources


are sufficient

If the hard resource admission fails preemption is performed

regardless of the preemption switch


Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page138

Parameters of IAC (Cont.)

EmcPreeRefVulnSwitch

Parameter name: Preemptvulnerability for Emergency call


switch

Recommended value: ON

NBMCacAlgoSwitch-EMC_UU_ADCTRL

Parameter name: Cell CAC algorithm switch for UU resource of


emergency call

Recommended value: ON

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page139

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page140

Load

LCC (Load Congestion Control)


100%
section A

Overload state: OLC

THOLC
section B

THLDR

Basic congestion state: LDR

section C

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Normal state

Page141

LDR Principle

Reason:

When the cell is in basic congestion state, new coming calls


could be easily rejected by system

Purpose:

Optimizing cell resource distribution

Decreasing load level, increasing admission successful rate

Triggering:

Power, code, Iub or NodeB credit

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page142

LDR Triggering - Power Resource


UL/DL load
Cell in the basic
congestion state

Basic congestion
relieved

LDR trigger
threshold

LDR release
threshold

Time
RNC periodic check
Hysteresis time: 1000ms
Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page143

Parameters of LDR

NBMLdcAlgoSwitch-UL_UU_LDR/DL_UU_LDR

Parameter name: Cell LDC algorithm switch for LDR

Recommended value: OFF, OFF

UlLdrTrigThd/DlLdrTrigThd

Parameter name: UL/DL LDR trigger threshold

Recommended value: 55%, 70%

UlLdrRelThd/DlLdrRelThd

Parameter name: UL/DL LDR release threshold

Recommended value: 45%, 60%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page144

LDR Triggering - Code Resource

Congestion control based on code resource can be enabled


through the CELL_CODE_LDR subparameter of the
NBMLdcAlgoSwitch parameter

If the SF corresponding to the current remaining code of the


cell is larger than the value of CellLdrSfResThd, code
congestion is triggered and the related load reshuffling
actions are taken

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page145

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

NBMLdcAlgoSwitch-CELL_CODE_LDR

Parameter name: Cell LDC algorithm switch for LDR

Recommended value: OFF

CellLdrSfResThd

Parameter name: Cell LDR SF reserved threshold

Recommended value: SF8

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page146

LDR Triggering - Iub Resource

Congestion control based on Iub resource can be enabled


through the IUB_LDR subparameter of the
NodeBLdcAlgoSwitch parameter

Iub congestion control in both the uplink and downlink is


NodeB-oriented. So for the basic congestion caused by Iub
resource, all UEs under the NodeB are the objects of
related LDR actions

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page147

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

NodeBLdcAlgoSwitch-IUB_LDR

Parameter name: NodeB LDC algorithm switch for LDR

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page148

LDR Triggering NodeB Credit


Resource

The basic congestion caused by NodeB credit resource is of


the following types:

Type A: Basic congestion at local cell level

Type B: Basic congestion at local cell group level (if any)

Type C: Basic congestion at NodeB level

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page149

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)


Parameter

Parameter name

Recommended value

Type A:
CELL_CREDIT_LDR

Cell LDC algorithm switch for LDR

OFF

Type A:
UlLdrCreditSfResThd

UL LDR credit SF reserved threshold

SF8

Type A:
DlLdrCreditSfResThd

DL LDR credit SF reserved threshold

SF8

Type B:
LCG_CREDIT_LDR

NodeB LDC algorithm switch for LDR

OFF

Type C:
NODEB_CREDIT_LDR

NodeB LDC algorithm switch for LDR

OFF

Type B/C:
UlLdrCreditSfResThd

UL LDR credit SF reserved threshold

SF8

Type B/C:
DlLdrCreditSfResThd

DL LDR credit SF reserved threshold

SF8

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page150

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

If the congestion of all resources is triggered in a cell, the


congestion is relieved in order of resource priority for load
reshuffling as configured through the SET LDCALGOPARA
command

Recommended setting is as follows:

The first priority for load reshuffling (LdrFirstPri) is set to IUBLDR

The second priority for load reshuffling (LdrSecondPri) is set to


CREDITLDR

The third priority for load reshuffling (LdrThirdPri) is set to CODELDR

The fourth priority for load reshuffling (LdrFourthPri) is set to UULDR

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page151

LDR Procedure

The RNC periodically takes actions if the basic congestion is


detected:

Inter-frequency load handover

Code reshuffling

BE service rate reduction

AMR rate reduction

Inter-RAT load handover in the CS domain

Inter-RAT load handover in the PS domain

Iu QoS renegotiation

MBMS power reduction

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page152

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

LdrPeriodTimerLen

Parameter name: LDR period timer length

Recommended value: 10, namely 10s

GoldUserLoadControlSwitch

Parameter name: Gold user load control switch

Recommended value: OFF

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page155

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

DlLdrFirstAction to DlLdrTenthAction

Parameter name: DL LDR first action to DL LDR tenth action

Recommended value: CodeAdj, InterFreqLDHO, BERateRed

UlLdrFirstAction to UlLdrEighthAction

Parameter name: UL LDR first action to UL LDR eighth action

Recommended value: InterFreqLDHO, BERateRed

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page156

LDR Actions - Inter-Frequency Load


Handover

Target cell:

Supporting inter-frequency blind handover

The current load is normal:

Power reason:
UlInterFreqHoCellLoadSpaceThd/DlInterFreqHoCellLoadSpaceThd

Code reason: LdrCodeUsedSpaceThd

Target user:

The UE with the lowest integrated priority

User selection algorithm switch:

NbmLdcBHOUeSelSwitch

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page157

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

UlInterFreqHoCellLoadSpaceThd/DlInterFreqHoCellLoa
dSpaceThd

Parameter name: UL/DL HO load space threshold

Recommended value: 20%, 20%

LdrCodeUsedSpaceThd

Parameter name: InterFreq HO code used ratio space


threshold

Recommended value: 13, namely 13%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page159

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

NbmLdcBHOUeSelSwitch

Parameter name: BHO Select User algorithm switch

Recommended value: NBM_LDC_MATCH_UE_ONLY

UlInterFreqHoBWThd/DlInterFreqHoBWThd

Parameter name: UL/DL HO maximum bandwidth

Recommended value: 200000bit/s, 200000bit/s

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page160

LDR Actions - BE Rate Reduction

Target RAB:

The RAB with the lowest integrated priority

The current rate is higher than GBR

Number:

UlLdrBERateReductionRabNum/DlLdrBERateReductionRabNum

The RNC sends a RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION


message to the UE

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page161

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

UlLdrBERateReductionRabNum/DlLdrBERateReduction
RabNum

Parameter name: UL/DL LDR-BE rate reduction RAB number

Recommended value: 1, 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page162

LDR Actions - QoS Renegotiation

QoS renegotiation function switch:

DRA_IU_QOS_RENEG_SWITCH

Target RAB:

The RAB with the lowest integrated priority

Number:

UlLdrPsRTQosRenegRabNum/DlLdrPsRTQosRenegRabNum

The RNC sends a RAB MODIFY REQUEST message to the

CN

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page163

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

DraSwitch-DRA_IU_QOS_RENEG_SWITCH

Parameter name: Dynamic resource allocation switch for IU


QoS RENEQ

Recommended value: OFF

UlLdrPsRTQosRenegRabNum/DlLdrPsRTQosRenegRab
Num

Parameter name: UL/DL LDR un-ctrl RT Qos re-nego RAB


num

Recommended value: 1, 1

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Page164

LDR Actions - Inter-RAT Handover

Target user:

The user with the lowest integrated priority

Service handover indicator:

HO_TO_GSM_SHOULD_BE_PERFORM

HO_TO_GSM_SHOULD_NOT_BE_PERFORM

GSM cell
WCDMA cell

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page165

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)


Parameter

Parameter name

Recommended
value

UlCSInterRatShouldBeHOUeNum

UL CS should be HO user number

DlCSInterRatShouldBeHOUeNum

DL CS should be HO user number

UlCSInterRatShouldNotHOUeNum

UL CS should not be HO user number

DlCSInterRatShouldNotHOUeNum

DL CS should not be HO user number

UlPSInterRatShouldBeHOUeNum

UL PS should be HO user number

DlPSInterRatShouldBeHOUeNum

DL PS should be HO user number

UlPSInterRatShouldNotHOUeNum

UL PS should not be HO user number

DlPSInterRatShouldNotHOUeNum

DL PS should not be HO user number

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page166

LDR Actions - AMR Rate Reduction

Target RAB:

The RAB with the lowest integrated priority

Number:

In uplink:

UlLdrAMRRateReductionRabNum/DlLdrAMRRateReductionRabNum

The RNC sends the TFC CONTROL command to the UE

In downlink:

The RNC sends the Rate Control Request message through the Iu

interface to the CN

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page167

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

UlLdrAMRRateReductionRabNum/DlLdrAMRRateReduc
tionRabNum

Parameter name: UL/DL LDR-AMR rate reduction RAB


number

Recommended value: 1, 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page168

LDR Actions - Code Reshuffling

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page169

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

CellLdrSfResThd

Parameter name: Cell LDR SF reserved threshold

Recommended value: SF8

MaxUserNumCodeAdj

Parameter name: Max user number of code adjust

Recommended value: 1

LdrCodePriUseInd

Parameter name: LDR code priority indicator

Recommended value: FALSE

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page170

LDR Actions - MBMS Power Reduction

Target RAB:

The RAB with the lowest integrated priority

The ARP is higher than MbmsDecPowerRabThd

The RNC sends a COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL

RECONFIGURATION REQUEST message to NodeB

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Page171

Parameters of LDR (Cont.)

MbmsDecPowerRabThd

Parameter name: MBMS descend power rab threshold

Recommended value: 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page172

Contents
2. Load Control Algorithms
2.1 PUC (Potential User Control)
2.2 LDB (Intra-Frequency Load Balancing)
2.3 CAC (Call Admission Control)
2.4 IAC (Intelligent Access Control)
2.5 LDR (Load Reshuffling)
2.6 OLC (Overload Control)

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page173

OLC Principle

Reason:

In overload congestion state, the system is not stable

Purpose:

Ensuring the system stability and making the system back to


the normal state as soon as possible

Triggering:

Power resource and interference

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page174

OLC Load Judgment


UL/DL load
Overload released

Cell in overload

OLC trigger
threshold

OLC release
threshold

time
RNC periodic check
State transition hysteresis threshold

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page175

Parameters of OLC

NBMLdcAlgoSwitch-UL_UU_OLC/DL_UU_OLC

Parameter name: Cell LDC algorithm switch for OLC

Recommended value: OFF, OFF

UlOlcTrigThd/DlOlcTrigThd

Parameter name: UL/DL OLC trigger threshold

Recommended value: 95%, 95%

UlOlcRelThd/DlOlcRelThd

Parameter name: UL/DL OLC release threshold

Recommended value: 85%, 85%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page176

OLC Procedure
Turn on the OLC algorithm switch
Mark "current OLC state = uncongested"
Start sending the OLC congestion indication

Mark "current action = first OLC action"


Send congestion
relief indication to
MAC (downlink
congestion)

Clear the "selected" mark of all UE OLC actions


Congestion
state indication

Yes

Wait for congestion state indication

Current OLC state = congested?


Performing
TF control

Successful?

No

Yes

No
Keep the
action
sequence
unchanged
and take
the current
action first

Switching BE
services to CCH

Adjusting Max
FACH TX power

Releasing
some RABs

Successful?
No
Successful?
No
Successful?

Yes

Yes

Mark
"current
action =
successful action"

Wait
for the
expiration
of the
OLC
period
timer

Yes

No
No OLC action is taken
or all actions fail

Mark "current action = first OLC action"

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page177

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

OlcPeriodTimerLen

Parameter name: OLC period timer length

Recommended value: 3000, namely 3000ms

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page178

OLC Actions - Performing TF Control of


BE Services

OLC algorithm for TF control in the downlink:

Select RABs with the lowest integrated priority

The RNC sends the TF control indication message to the MAC

The MAC restricts the TFC selection: TFmax(N+1) = TFmax(N) x


Ratelimitcoeff

OLC algorithm for TF control in the uplink:

Select RABs with the lowest integrated priority

the RNC sends a TRANSPORT FORMAT COMBINATION CONTROL


message to the UE

The UE restricts the TFC selection

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page179

Example of TF Control

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page181

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

DlDcccRateThd

Parameter name: Downlink Bit Rate Threshold For DCCC

Recommended value: D64, namely 64Kbit/s

DlOlcFTFRstrctRabNum

Parameter name: DL OLC fast TF restrict RAB number

Recommended value: 3

DlOlcFTFRstrctTimes

Parameter name: DL OLC fast TF restrict times

Recommended value: 3, namely 3 times

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page182

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

RateRstrctTimerLen/RateRecoverTimerLen

Parameter name: DL TF rate restrict/recover timer length

Recommended value: 3000ms, 5000ms

RateRstrctCoef/RecoverCoef

Parameter name: DL TF rate restrict/recover coefficient

Recommended value: 68%, 130%

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page183

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

UlDcccRateThd

Parameter name: Uplink Bit Rate Threshold For DCCC

Recommended value: D64, namely 64Kbit/s

UlOlcFTFRstrctRabNum

Parameter name: UL OLC fast TF restrict RAB number

Recommended value: 3

UlOlcFTFRstrctTimes

Parameter name: UL OLC fast TF restrict times

Recommended value: 3, namely 3 times

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page184

OLC Actions - Switching BE Services


to Common Channels

Target user:

Select users with the lowest integrated priority

The users with the DCH or HSPA BE services in PS domain

Execution:

The RNC sends RB Reconfiguration message to UE

The UE makes a response by RB Reconfiguration Complete

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page185

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

TransCchUserNum

Parameter name: Transfer Common Channel User number

Recommended value: 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page186

OLC Actions - Adjusting the Maximum


FACH TX Power

Target FACH channel:

During an OLC period, the OLC can adjust the power of only
one FACH. If multiple FACHs meet the conditions, the OLC
adjusts them one by one in different OLC periods

Execution:

The cell adjusts the maximum FACH TX power:

Pt arg et Pmax Delta

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page187

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

MaxFachPower

Parameter name: Max transmit power of FACH

Recommended value: 10, namely 1dB

FACHPwrReduceValue

Parameter name: FACH power reduce value

Recommended value: 0, namely 0dB

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page188

OLC Actions - Releasing Some RABs

Target user:

Select RABs with the lowest integrated priority

Select RABs with high bit rate, when the integrated priority of
some RABs are identical

Execution:

The RNC sends IU RELEASE REQUEST or RAB RELEASE


REQUEST message to CN, and sample call drop counter

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page189

Parameters of OLC (Cont.)

UlOlcTraffRelRabNum/DlOlcTraffRelRabNum

Parameter name: UL OLC traff release RAB number

Recommended value: 0, 0

SeqOfUserRel

Parameter name: Sequence of user release

Recommended value: MBMS_REL

MbmsOlcRelNum

Parameter name: MBMS services number released

Recommended value: 1

Copyright 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page190

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