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# ELASTICITY

## AIRYS STRESS FUNCTION

BY
VISWESWARA R MUDIAM
UNDER GUIDANCE OF
Dr. LARRY D. PEEL
(ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR)

## TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY, KINGSVILLE

MEEN 5330
CONTINUUM MECHANICS
NOV, 14 2005
1

INTRODUCTION
One of the main difficulties in solving elasticity problems is that we are
required to calculate a vector field or if we are solving for stress we need to
calculate a tensor field. This requires to solve at least three, possibly six
partial differential equations.
A promising approach is to find a way to reduce the coupled partial
differential equations to a single partial differential equations for scalar
valued function, which is then used later to deduce the stresses and strains.
This cant be done by 3D, but the Airy stress function is one way to do this
for a plane stress or strain problem[1].

Elasticity Definition
An elastic body is defined as one which regains its original dimensions
after the forces acting on it are removed.
Elasticity of a substance depends on the material possessing linear stress
and strain relations. The range of stress and strain for which the behavior is
linearly elastic will be known as elastic range.

## Stress in 1D, 2D & 3D

Stress is the internal distribution of forces within a body that balances and
react to the loads applied to it. It is a tensor quantity.
Stress in One Dimension
F

## The definition of Normal stress,

, is sometimes called engineering
A
stress
and is used for rating the strength of material loaded in one
dimensional.
Stress is a simplified definition of stress that includes the change in cross
sectional area.
Stress in Two Dimensions
Two dimensional state of stress is also know as Plane stress or plane strain.
This two dimensional state models with the state of stresses in a flat thin
plate loaded in the plane of the plate. shows the stresses on the x-and yfaces of a Differential element.
4

Stress in a plane

## Stresses normal and tangential to faces

Since moment equilibrium of the differential element show that the shear
stresses on the perpendicular faces are equal, the 2D of stresses is
characterized by three in depended stress components( x , y , xy).
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## Stress in Three Dimension

As the behavior of the body does not depend on the
coordinates used to measure it, stress can be described
by a tensor. The stress tensor is symmetric and can
always be resolved into the sum of two symmetric
tensors.
Generalized notation:
In the generalized stress tensor notation, the tensor
components are written as ij where i and j are in
{1, 2, and 3}.The first step is to number the sides of
Cube. When the lines are parallel to a vector base
Stress components in 3d
( e1 ,e2 ,e3 ), then:
1). The sides perpendicular to e j are called j and 11 12 13
j;

## 2). Point from the center of cube e points towards the j ij 21 22 23

j
side, the j is at the opposite.

31 32

33

## Components of stress tensor

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Strain
Stain is the deformation of a body when force or load is applied on it. It can be
measured by calculating the change in length of a line. The change in length of a
line is termed the stretch and may be given by

l0

where
(eq-1)

## l is the change in length.

l0 is the original undeformed length.
is elongation.

strain tensor
The strain tensor [ ] is a symmetric used to quantify the strain of an object
undergoing a 3-dimensional deformation.
The diagonal coefficients are the relative change in length in the direction of the ii
direction (along the -axis). The other terms ij (i j ) are the variation of the right
angle (assuming a cube before deformation).

Hookes Law

## It states that if a force (F) is applied to an elastic substance; its extension is

linearly proportional to its tensile stress and modulus of elasticity (E).

FL
L
AE

(eq-2)

where L is Length
A is Area
The law holds up to a limit, called elastic limit or limit of elasticity, after
which the metal will enter a condition of a yield and the substance will
suffer plastic deformation up to the plastic limit or limit of plasticity, after
which it will eventually break if the force is further increased .

## Hookes law Contd

In the three dimensional state, a 4 th order tensor ( C ijkl ) containing 81
elastic coefficients must be defined to link the stress tensor ( kl ) and the
strain tensor
( ij ).
ij = C ijkl kl
(eq-3)
where Cijkl are constants
But due to symmetry of the stress and strain tensor, only 36 elastic coefficient are independent.

10

## To solve a linear elasticity problem, we need to satisfy the following

equations:
Strain-Displacement relation
Stress-strain relation
Equilibrium Equation

1 ui u j
lij

2 x j xi

1 v
v
lij
ij kk ij
E
E
ij
x j

Fi 0

(eq-4)
(eq-5)
(eq-6)

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## Derivation of the Airy Function contd..

The Airys function is chosen so as to satisfy the equilibrium equations
automatically. For plane stress or plane strain conditions, the equilibrium
equations reduce to

11 12

F1 0
x1
x1

12 22

F2 0
x1
x2

eq-7 & 8

2 2
2
2

F2 0

2

F1 0;
2
2

x1 x1x x2 x1

x1 x2
x2 x1x2

eq-9 & 10

12

## Derivation of the Airy Function contd..

The straindisplacement relation is satisfied provided that the strains
obey the compatibility conditions
2
2 ij
2 ii jj

2
0
2
2
x j
xi
xi x j

(eq-11)

The last two of these equations are satisfied automatically by any plane
strain or plane stress field. We substitute into the first equation in terms of
stress to see that
2
1 v 2 11 2 22 v
2
1 v 2 12

(1 v) 2 2 ( 11 22 ) 2

0
2
2
E x2
x1 E
E x1x2
x1 x2

## where is a constant, if = 0 for plane stress

= 1 for plane strain

(eq-12)

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## Derivation of the Airy Function contd..

Finally, substitute into the equation for stress in terms of and rearrange
to get
2

4 2 4 2
v
2 2 2
4
2 4

(1 v) 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 0
4

x
1

x
x2 x2 x1
x1 x2
1
x1 x2 1 x2

(eq-13)
A few more algebra reduces this to which is the result we were looking
for

4
4
4
1 v 2 2 2
2 2 0
2 2 2 4
4
2
x1
x1 x2 x1 1 v 2v x1
x2
(eq-14)
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## Airy stress functions in Rectangular Coordinates

Consider a 2D region (plane strain or plane stress) subjected to a prescribed
distribution of traction t on its surface.
To compute the stress fields in the solid, begin by finding a scalar function
( x1 , x 2 ) known as the Airy potential which satisfies:
4
4
4

4 4 2 2 2 4 0
x1
x1 x2 x1

(eq-15)

Choose
so that it also satisfies the following traction boundary conditions
on the surface of the solid

2
2
n
n2 t1
2 1
x2
x1x2

2
2
n
n1 t2
2 2
x1
x1x2

## (eq-16 & 17)

Where (n1 , n2 ) are the components of unit normal to the boundary.

15

## The stress field within the region of interest is then given by

11 2
x2
2

22

2
2
x1

12 21

x1x2

If the strains are needed, they may be computed using the elastic stressstrain
relations. If the displacement field is needed, it may be computed by integrating
the strains.

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## Limitations of Airys Stress functions

The Airys Stress function is applicable only to plane strain or plane stress
problem [3].
The Airys Stress function can only be used if the body force has a special
form [3].

x1

F2

x 2

## where is a scalar function of position, F1 & F2 are body forces.

The Airys Stress function approach works best for problems where a solid
is subjected to prescribed tractions on its boundary, rather than prescribed
displacements [3].
17

## Home Work Problem

Determine the necessary relationship between the constants A and B if
Ax12 x23 Bx25 is to serve as an Airys stress function

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References
[1] Pie Chi Chou and Nicholas J.Pagano, Elasticity Tensor, dyadic, and
engineering Approaches, New York, Dover publications, Inc., 1992.
[2] Timoshenko and Goodier, Theory of Elasticity, New York, McGrawHill, 1970