Anda di halaman 1dari 31

Quantum Mechanics

(In less than 20 minutes)

Parima Shah and Jasmine Wang

Quantum Mechanics?

Ugh.

Well, not anymore

What is Quantum Mechanics?


Well cover
Its a new way of looking at the
Orbitals and shells (an overview)
atomic world and understanding
our universe.Light (Waves and Particles)

In order to understand
Electromagnetic
chemistry
Spectrum
and science, we must start at the
Photoelectric Effect
fundamentals of physics.
Line Spectra
The Atom

Orbitals and Shells: A Quick Review


Quantum

Principal (n)

Shell
Integers

Angular momentum (l)

Subshell
[0,

n-1]

Magnetic (ml)

Numbers

Orbital
[-l, +l]

Spin (ms)

2 electrons
+/-

Pauli

Exclusion: no
two electrons have the
same four quantum
numbers
Aufbau: building up
Hunds: electrons
occupy separate
orbitals and share the
same spin, pairing up
only after all the
orbitals are full

Paramagnetic: unpaired electrons


Diamagnetic: paired electrons

The Nature of Light


Newton thought that light behaved like particles while Christian Huygens
believed it behaved like waves.

Waves:
A

pattern of matter, energy,


or both
Waves,

unlike particles can


be spread out over an
immense area
Frequency

is the amount of
times the wavelength occurs

Particles:
A

particle is a discrete object.

Occupies

a single, localized
volume of space
All

energy is concentrated in
that space
One

can tell where it is and


how it is moving

The anatomy of a Wavelength

Light as Electromagnetic Waves


Visible light
narrow bands of
frequencies
Light has a larger
spectrum of
electromagnetic
waves
All electromagnetic
waves travel at the
same speed:
300,000,000 m/s
Can move through a
vacuum

Lets see if this recipe actually works

Time to cook:
What is the wavelength
of a yellow sodium
emission of frequency
5.09 x 10-7/s?
Solution: =c/
3.00 10 8 m / s
5.09 10 7 / s

= 5.89 x 1014 m

The Blackbody Problem


The lowest possible frequency
of light cannot
has a wavelength
that
A blackbody
be built, but
it
the box exactly.
can be fits
approximated
by using an empty
box containing electromagnetic energy.
Each consecutive frequency fits
Energy must be at equilibrium
into the
between
wallsbox
anddepending
interior on its
wavelength (the next would be
Waves must fit inside the box
two wavelengths, &c. to
infinity)
At infinity, there is an infinite
amount of energy because each
wave carries energy
Led to discovery of UV light

Absorbs all possible


radiation

Emits all possible


radiation

Max Planck and the beginnings of Quantum


Mechanics
Max Planck: Each
quanta must have a
minimum of energy
that is some
proportion of the
overall energy of the
system

POUCH

Quanta of my
money is
falling out!

Max Planck and the beginnings of Quantum


Mechanics
Multiplied by a conversion
factor (Plancks constant
(h) = 6.6 x 10-34)
An atom at a particular
frequency could emit
energy only in integer
multiples of h, but nothing
less than 1h.

POUCH

radiation could be
absorbed/emitted
in small amounts
called quanta
packets of energy

Lenards Photoelectric
Experiments: Paradise.
(not really)

Lenards Photoelectric Experiments:


Paradise. (still not really)

Example: Waves on the Beach


Bigger waves dislodge more
sand than weak waves
Philip Lenard
The greater the intensity of
incoming light, the greater
number of electrons released

Lenards Photoelectric Experiments:


Paradise. (not getting realer)

The kinetic energy in each


escaping electron does not
increase with intensity. In
other words, intensity does
not matter on the speed of
the electrons.

More and more sand was being


dislodged, but no more violently
than the weaker waves

Lenards Photoelectric Experiments:


Paradise. (nope)

Doesofthis
make
Does this make sense in the world
physics?

world?

Doesin
that
Does this make sense
themake sense for waves?
world of physics?

sense in the

Nada, Goose egg, a cookie, etc. etc.

So what?
Light must not only
work as waves, but
as quanta of energy,
or particles

The Photoelectric Effect


The ejection of electrons from the surface of a metal from another
material when light shines on it.

Einstein adapted Plancks


quanta theory
Photons- Quanta of light

E= h where E is energy
and h is Planck's constant
of
6.63 1034 m/s
The amount of energy of
each photon is miniscule.

Electrons
ejected from
the surface

SODIUM METAL

Light on sodium metal in vacuum

Emission Line Spectra


Continuous Spectrum - all wavelengths

Line spectrum - only specific wavelengths

Bohrs Theory of the Hydrogen Atom


Energy Level Postulate: electrons can have
only specific energy values in an atom, called
energy levels.
Bohrs rule for the quantization of a electron in
the hydrogen atom :

R H 2.179 10 -18 J

RH
n 1,2,3... (For H atom)
2
n

Bohrs Theory of the Hydrogen Atom

Transitions between Energy Levels: An electron can


change energy by transferring one energy level to another
energy level. The emission of light from the atom occurs
when the electron in a higher energy level moves to a lower
energy level. The electron loses energy, which is emitted as a
photon.

Energy of emitted photon h -E -(E f E i )

Example Problem
RH
E 2 n 1,2,3... (For H atom)
n

R H 2.179 10

-18

What is the wavelength of light


emitted when the electron in a
hydrogen atom undergoes
transition from energy level
n=4 to n=2?

Energy of emitted photon h -E -(Ef E i )

Solution to Example Problem

R H 2.179 10 J
-18

RH
E 2 n 1,2,3... (For theH atom)
n
RH
RH
RH
RH
Ei 2
and E f 2
16
4
4
2
Use the formula from posulate two : E -(Ef E i )
R H R H 4R H 16R H R H 4R H 3R H
2 2

64
16
16
4 2
This equals to h (energy of the emitted photon).
Now divide by h (Planck's constant) to obtain .
3R H
3 2.179 10 18 J
14
v

6.17

10
/s
34
16h 16 6.63 10 J s
c 3.00 108 m/s
.-7

4.86

10
m
14
6.17 10 /s

Energy of emitted photon h -E -(E f E i )

The CD Player:
Energy Levels and the
good old days

Flame Test (demo)


Materials
0.50M solution Copper
Chloride (CuCl2)
0.50M solution Lithium
Chloride (LiCl)
Tyrrell Burner

0.50M solution Sodium


Chloride (NaCl)
0.50M solution
Potassium Chloride
(KCl)
4 wood splints
4 beakers

Flame Test (demo)

Safety Precautions

WEAR SAFETY GOGGLES


Tie up hair and loose clothing when using flame
Use care with Tyrrell burners and the flame

Flame Test (demo)


Procedure
1.
2.

3.
4.

Saturate a wood splint in each 0.50 solution of metal


Take splint from the NaCl solution and place in
hottest part of the flame
Observe and record the color
Repeat for LiCl, CuCl2, KCl

Flame Test (demo)


Flame Colors
Element
Na Sodium
Li Lithium
Cu Copper
K Potassium

Color
Yellow
Crimson
Green
Purple

Flame Test (demo)


Why does this relate?
The colors seen in the flame from each substance are a
demonstration of the excitement of electrons from
each element from their energy levels in order to emit
photons.

Works Cited
http://www.answers.com
http://www.hi.is/~hj/QuantumMechanics/quantum.html
http://www.800mainstreet.com/spect/emission-flame-exp.html
http://xmm.sonoma.edu/edu/lessons/activity-flame.html
http://www.kent.k12.wa.us/staff/carriewattles/chemistry/flametestlab_inst.htm
http://www.creative-chemistry.org.uk/activities/documents/flametests.pdf
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/light/absorption.html
How

mathematical models, computer simulations, and exploration can be


used to study the universe : an anthology of current thought/ edited by
Fannie Huang. 1st ed. New York : Rosen Pub. Group, 2006.
Bynum, Wf, Ej Browne, and Roy Porter, eds. "Quantum." Dictionary of the
History of Science.
1st ed. 1 vols. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1981.
Willett, Edward. The Basics of Quantum Physics: Understanding the
Photoelectric Effect and Line Spectra. 1st ed. Vol. 1. New York: The
Rosen Group, Inc., 2005. 6-19, 30-43.