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Fischer Projection - D,

L System Haworth

Fischer Projection
Molecule in nature is actually three-dimensional shape, but for ease of study, most of the
molecules described in terms of two dimensions.

The structure is a two-dimensional projection of a three-dimensional shape is called the Fischer

Discovered by a scientist named Emil Fischer (1852-1919) a German organic chemist whose
nation that received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1902 for his work on the chemical space
(stereochemistry) and structural formula of carbohydrates, using the projection formula to write
the structural formula carbohydrate.

Fischer Projection
Fischer projection is widely used in space systems carbohydrate molecules.
Basically, when we write the open-chain unsaturated organic compounds, indirectly we have used the
Fischer projection space.
In this case, the position of the molecule is not enforced, but resting. In the projection of this space,
usually a large group or substituent is placed in the position of the ends of the molecule (located on the
top and on the bottom). Bond line upright (vertical), especially those located at the ends of the chain, its
position is away from the observer, while the bond line is horizontal or horizontally, its position is closer
to the observer. Thus, the projection space is actually the same as the Fischer projection space wedge
line is positioned upright (vertical).

Fischer Projection
In the Fischer projection of a carbohydrate, the carbon chain is described in a vertical (upright)
with the aldehyde or keto clusters are at the peak of the formula.

D, L System
In a Fisher projection of the sugar, the determination of D or L based on the asymmetry of the
carbon atom molecule penultimate, which is a C-5 at a aldohexoses.
As in the formula for D-glyceraldehyde, written hydroxyl cluster to the right of the C-5 to show
the shape of D from glucose.
Enantiomers (mirror shadows isomers) of D-glucose are L-glucose, which has the opposite
configuration at each of the four asymmetric centers.

D, L System

Haworth Structure
Sir Walter Norman Haworth (1883-1950) an English chemist found, the glucose molecules into
the first five carbon atoms with oxygen atoms to form hexagonal rings. Therefore, he proposed
the formula is written as a form of carbohydrate structures furan ring and piran ring.

Haworth Structure

Haworth Structure

The form of and Sugar

Because the glucose ring of six similar to piran, then called the pyranose of glucose; its called
anomers and -D-glucopyranose. While, The glucose ring of five similar to furan, then called
furanosa of glucose.
In the structure of Haworth, form of sugar has a hydroxyl group that is written below the
anomeric carbon and forms of sugar has a hydroxyl group that is written above the anomeric

The form of and Sugar.

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Sinar Harapan.

Oktaviani. 2013. Struktur

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Karbohidrat. (

Tahirah, Rahmawati. 2012. KARBOHIDRAT. ( )accessed at 17th Oct

Zarmanaya. 2013. Struktur dan Fungsi Makromolekul Karbohidrat, Protein, Lipid, dan Asam
Nukleat di dalam Sel ( accessed at 17th Oct 2014