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# Lecture 21 Columns

## July 25, 2003

CVEN 444

Lecture Goals
Columns Interaction Diagrams
Using Interaction Diagrams

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Consider an square column (20 in x 20 in.) with 8 #10
(r = 0.0254) and fc = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. Draw the
interaction diagram.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in2) and fc = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi

## Ast 8 1.27 in 2 10.16 in 2

Ag 20 in. 400 in 2
2

Ast 10.16 in
r

0.0254
2
Ag
400 in

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Given 8 # 10 (1.27 in2) and fc = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi

2

60 ksi 10.16 in

1935 k
Pn rP0

[ Point 1 ]

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, cb.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Determine where the balance point, cb. Using similar
triangles, where d = 20 in. 2.5 in. = 17.5 in., one can
find cb
cb
17.5 in.

0.003

cb
17.5 in.
0.003 0.00207
cb 10.36 in.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Determine the strain of the steel

cb 2.5 in.
10.36 in. 2.5 in.
s1
cu
0.003
cb
10.36 in.

0.00228
cb 10 in.
10.36 in. 10 in.
s2
cu
0.003
cb
10.36 in.

0.000104

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Determine the stress in the steel

## fs1 Es s1 29000 ksi 0.00228

66 ksi 60 ksi compression
fs2 Es s1 29000 ksi 0.000104
3.02 ksi compression

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column
Cc 0.85 f cb 1c

598.8 k

215.6 k

0.97 k neglect

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

Ts As fs 3 1.27 in

60 ksi

228.6 k
Pn Cc Cs1 Cs2 Ts
599.8 k 215.6 k 228.6 k
585.8 k

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center
h
h a
h

M Cc Cs1 d1 Ts d3
2
2 2
2

599.8 k

2
2

20 in.

215.6 k
2.5 in.
2

20 in.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(585.6 k, 556.9 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

M 6682.2 k-in
e

11.41 in.
P
585.8 k
[ Point 2 ]

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Now select a series of additional points by selecting
values of c. Select c = 17.5 in. Determine the strain
of the steel. (c is at the location of the tension steel)

c 2.5 in.
17.5 in. 2.5 in.
s1
cu
0.003
c
17.5 in.

c 10 in.
17.5 in. 10 in.
s2
cu
0.003
c
17.5 in.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

## Cc 0.85 f cb 1c 0.85 4 ksi 20 in. 0.85 17.5 in.

1012 k
Cs1 As1 fs1 0.85 f c 3 1.27 in 2 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
216 k
Cs2 2 1.27 in 2 37.3 ksi 0.85 4 ksi
86 k

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

Ts As fs 3 1.27 in

0 ksi

0 k
Pn 1012 k 216 k 86 k
1314 k

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center
h a
h

M Cc Cs1 d1
2 2
2

1012 k

2
2

20 in.

216 k
2.5 in.
2

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(1314 k, 351.1 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

M 4213 k-in
e

3.2 in.
P
1314 k
[ Point 3 ]

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Select c = 6 in. Determine the strain of the steel, c =6 in.

c 2.5 in.
6 in. 2.5 in.
s1
cu
0.003
c
6 in.

c 10 in.
6 in. 10 in.
s2
cu
0.003
c
6 in.

c 17.5 in.
6 in. 17.5 in.
s3
cu
0.003
c
6 in.

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column
Cc 0.85 f cb 1c

346.8 k

180.4 k C

147.3 k T

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the forces in the column

Ts As fs 3 1.27 in

60 ksi

228.6 k
Pn 346.8 k 180.4 k 147.3 k 228.6 k
151.3 k

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Compute the moment about the center
h
h a
h

M Cc Cs1 d1 Ts d3
2
2 2
2

0.85 6 in.

346.8 k 10 in.

## 180.4 k 10 in. 2.5 in.

228.6 k 17.5 in. 10 in.
5651 k-in 470.9 k-ft

## Example: Axial Load Vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
A single point from interaction diagram,
(151 k, 471 k-ft). The eccentricity of the point is
defined as

M 5651.2 k-in
e

37.35 in.
P
151.3 k
[ Point 4 ]

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Select point of straight tension. The maximum tension
in the column is

Pn As f y 8 1.27 in

60 ksi

610 k
[ Point 5 ]

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Point

c (in)

Pn

Mn

1548 k

20

1515 k

253 k-ft

2 in

17.5

1314 k

351 k-ft

3.2 in

12.5

841 k

500 k-ft

7.13 in

10.36

585 k

556 k-ft

11.42 in

8.0

393 k

531 k-ft

16.20 in

6.0

151 k

471 k-ft

37.35 in

~4.5

0k

395 k-ft

infinity

-610 k

0 k-ft

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Use a series of c
values to obtain the
Pn verses Mn.

Column Analysis
2000
1500

P (k)

1000
500
0
0

100

200

300

-500
-1000

M (k-ft)

400

500

600

## Example: Axial Load vs. Moment

Interaction Diagram
Max. compression
Column Analysis
1200
1000

Location of the
linearly varying f.

800

fPn (k)

600

Cb

400
200
0
-200

100

200

300

-400

Max. tension

-600
-800

fMn (k-ft)

400

500

## Behavior under Combined

Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )

Concrete crushes
before steel yields
Steel yields before
concrete crushes

Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.

## Design for Combined Bending

Column Types
3) Tied Column - Bars in 2 faces (furthest from axis
of bending.

## - Most efficient when e/h > 0.2

- rectangular shape increases efficiency

Spices

## Typically longitudinal bars spliced just above

each floor. (non-seismic)
Type of lap splice depends on state of stress (ACI
12.17)

## Design for Combined Bending

Spices
All bars in compression

(ACI 12.16)

## 0 f s 0.5 f y on tension face

f s 0.5 f y

( 1 / 2 bars splice)

Class B
ACI 12.15
( 1/2 bars spliced)
Class B tension lap splice

Column Shear
Recall

Nu

Vc 21
f c bw d
2000 A
g

ACI 11 - 4

( Axial
Compression )

ACI Sec. 7.10.5

## Recall 0.01 r 0.08 ACI 10.9.1

(ACI 10.8.4 ) For cross-section larger than required for
Min. reinforcement may be computed for
reduced effective area, Ag, ( 1/2 Ag (total) )

## Provided strength from reduced area and

Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams
Pn
f c Ag

versus

Pn
or K n
f c Ag

Mn
f c Ag h

versus

Pn e
Rn
f c Ag h

## See Figures B-12 to B-26

or ACI Common 340 Design Handbook Vol 2
Columns (ACI 340.2R-91)

Non-dimensional Interaction
Diagrams

## Design using Non-dimensional

Interaction diagrams
1.) Calculate factored loads (Pu , Mu ) and e for
2.) Select potentially governing case(s)

case(s)

## Design using Non-dimensional

Interaction diagrams
4.) Use appropriate chart (App. A) target rg
Pn
f c Ag

Pf
Calculate Ag u c
required
f Pn

f c Ag
(for each governing case)

## Design using Non-dimensional

Interaction diagrams
6.) If dimensions are significantly different from
estimated (step 3), recalculate ( e / h ) and redo
steps 4 & 5.
Revise Ag if necessary.
7.) Select steel

Ast r Ag

## Design using non-dimensional

interaction diagrams
8.) Using actual dimensions & bar sizes to check all
load combinations ( use charts or exact:
interaction diagram).

## Example: Column design using

Interaction Diagrams
Determine the tension and compression
reinforcement for a 16 in x 24 in. rectangular tied
column to support Pu= 840 k and Mu = 420 k-ft. Use
fc = 4 ksi and fy = 60 ksi. Using the interaction
diagram.

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Compute the initial components
Pu

840 kips
Pn

1292 k
f
0.65

12 in.
420 k-ft

Mu
ft

6.0 in.
en

Pu
840 k

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Compute the initial components

19.0 in.
g
0.79
24 in.

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Compute the coefficients of the column

Pn
1292 k
Kn

0.84
1292 k 6 in.

Pn e
Rn

0.21

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Using an interaction
diagram, B-13

Rn , Kn 0.21, 0.84
g 0.7
f c 4 ksi f y 60 ksi

r 0.042

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Using an interaction
diagram, B-14

Rn , Kn 0.21, 0.84
g 0.9
f c 4 ksi f y 60 ksi

r 0.034

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Using linear interpolation to find the r of the column

r r0.7

r0.9 r0.7

g 0.7

0.9 0.7
0.034 0.042

0.042
0.79 0.7
0.9 0.7
0.0384

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Determine the amount of steel required

14.75 in

2

Ast 14.75 in

2
Ab 1.56 in

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

The areas of the steel:

Ast 15.6 in 2
As1 7.8 in 2 ,

At 7.8 in 2

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

The compression components are

## Cs1 As1 f y 0.85 f c 7.8 in 2 60 ksi 0.85 4 ksi

441.5 k
Cc 0.85 f cba 0.85 4 ksi 16 in. 0.85 c
46.24c

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

The tension component is

T As1 fs 7.8 in fs
2

d c
21.5 in. c
fs Es
cu 29000 ksi
0.003
c
c

21.5 in. c
87 ksi

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Take the moment about the tension steel

Pn e Cs1 d d Cc d
2

15.5 in.

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

The first equation related to Pn

0.85c

## 8388.5 k-in. 994.2c 19.65c 2

Pn 541.2 k 64.14c 1.27c 2

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

The second equation comes from the equilibrium
equation and substitute in for Pn

Pn Cs1 Cc T
541.2 k 64.14c 1.27c 441.5 k 46.24c 7.8 fs
2

2

2

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Substitute the relationship of c for the stress in the
steel.
21.5 in. c
2
87

0.1628
c
2.282c 12.782

c
15
in.
19
in.
19.5 in.
20.0 in.
19.98 in.

fs
37.7
11.45
8.92
6.52
6.62

RHS
-10.38
2.64
4.63
6.70
6.62

Compute Pn

1313.7 k 1292 k

h a
h
h

M n Cs1 d Cc T d
2
2

2 2

0.85 19.98 in.

## 4194.25 k-in. 3241.4 k-in. 490.54 k-in.

7926.2 k-in. 660.5 k-ft.

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Check that Mn is greater than the required Mu

## f M n 0.65 660.5 k-ft.

429.33 k-ft. 420 k-ft.
Check the Pn is greater than the required Pu

f Pn 0.65 1313.7 k
853.9 k 840 k

## Example: Interaction Diagrams

Determine the tie spacing using #4 bars

16d b

spacing smallest
48dstirrup
smallest dimension

Use 16 in.
16 in.