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Coordinate Systems

Rectangular

(Cartesian)

Cylindrical
Spherical

Rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system is the


most convenient as it is easy to visualize and
associate with our perception of motion in daily
life. Spherical and cylindrical systems are
specifically designed to describe motions, which
follow spherical or cylindrical curvatures
1

Coordinate systems: Cartesian


An intersection of 3 planes:
x = const; y = const; z = const
Properties:

u x u x u y u y u z u z 1;
u x u y u x u z u y u z 0.
ux u y uz

u y uz ux

uz ux u y
An arbitrary vector:

A Axu x Ay u y Az u z

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

Coordinate systems: Cartesian


A differential line element:
dl = ux dx + uy dy + uz dz
Three of six differential surface
elements:
dsx = ax dydz
dsy = ay dxdz
dsz = az dxdy
The differential volume element
dv = dxdydz

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

Cylindrical coordinate system

Coordinate systems: Cylindrical


(polar)

An intersection of a
cylinder and 2 planes

Diff. length: dl d u d u dzu z


Diff. area:

ds d dzu d dzu d du z

Diff. volume: dv d d dz

An arbitrary vector: A A u A u Az u z
ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

Spherical coordinate system

Coordinate systems: Spherical

An intersection of a sphere of radius r, a plane that makes an angle to the x


axis, and a cone that makes an angle to the z axis.

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

Coordinate systems: Spherical


Properties:

ur u u

u u ur

u ur u

Diff. length: dl drur rd u rsin du


Diff. area:

ds r 2 sin d dur rsin drdu rdrd u

Diff. volume: dv r 2 sin drd d

An arbitrary vector: A Ar ur A u A u

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

System conversions
1. Cartesian to Cylindrical:

x 2 y 2 ; tan 1 ;z z
x

2. Cartesian to Spherical:

x2 y 2
y
; tan 1
r x y z ; tan

z
x

3. Cylindrical to Cartesian:
x cos ; y sin ;z z
2

4. Spherical to Cartesian:

x rsin cos ; y rsin sin ;z rcos

cart2pol, cart2sph, pol2cart, sph2cart


ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

INTRODUCTION

An electrostatic field
is produced by a
static charge
distribution.

A magnetostatic
field is produced by
the moving charges
or a constant current
flow (DC current)

AC current produced the


electromagnetic field.

Electro Static Field


Charge
Charges are measured in Coulombs (C).
The smallest unit of electric charge is found on the negatively
charged electron and positively charged proton.
The electron mass, qe= -1.602x10-19 (C).
So, 1 C would represent about 6x1018 electrons.
In real world, electric charges
can be found
at a point
along a line
on a surface
Inside a Volume
combination the above
distributions

POINT CHARGE
The concept of a point charge is used when the dimensions of
an electric charge distribution are very small compared to the
distance to neighboring electric charges.
A LINE CHARGE
A line charge denotes as the electric charge distribution along a
thin line.
Total charge along the line :

Q d

A SURFACE CHARGE
A surface charge is defined as charges distribution on a thin
sheet.
Total charge on the surface :
A VOLUME CHARGE

Q s ds
s

A volume charge means electric charges in a volume. This


volume charge can be viewed as a cloud of charged particles.
Total charge in the volume

Q v dv
v

COULOMB LAW

The formula:

QQ
F 1 2 a
(N)
2 4 R2 R
o 12 12

The units (SI):


Charge: coulomb (C)
Distance: meter
Force: Newton
The constants:
Ke, the Coulomb constant:
ke = 8.9876 x 109 N.m2/C2 = 1/(4 o)
o the permittivity of free space:
o = 8.8542 x 10-12 C2 / N.m2

If there are more than two point charges, the principle of superposition is
used. The force on a charge in the presence of several other charges is
the sum of the forces on that charges due to each of the other charges
acting alone.
The strength and direction of that electric field at a point in space is then
measured by the force of the electric field exerts on another charge
(often called the test charge) at that point.
Mathematically: E F
qo

Unit: Newton/Coulomb or N/C.

How to calculate the electric field


generated by a point source charge q

From the definition:


F
E
qo
Place the test charge q0. The force
on q0 is given by Coulombs law:

qqo
Fe ke 2 r
r

Then, the electric field will be

Q
Ft
1 a
E
(N/C, V/m)
R
Qt 4 R2
o 1t 1t

The electric field only depends on


the source charge, not the test
charge.

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO

LINE CHARGE

Q d

SURFACE CHARGE

VOLUME CHARGE

Q ds
S S

Q
vdv
v

E
a
4 R 2 R
0
ds

E S
a
2
s 4 R R
0

vdv

E
a
v 4 R 2 R
0

Line Charge using Coulombs law


A ring of charge in free space is characterized by a
uniform charge density of l. The ring has a radius b
and positioned in the x-y plane as shown in the figure.
Find the electric field intensity, E at a point P(0, 0, h)
along the axis of the ring at a distance h from its
center.
Solution:
Consider the electric field generated by a differential
segment of the ring, for example, at (b, , 0) as indicated by
segment 1 in the figure. This segment has a length,
dl = b d and contains charge dq = l dl = l b d. The
vector, R'1 from segment 1 to point P(0, 0, h) is

dE dE1 dE 2 z

l bh
1
d
32
2
2
2 0 b h

R1 br hz

Find the electric field intensity along z axis on a disc with a


radius a(m) which is located on xy plane with uniform charge
distribution s (C/m2 ) .

sds

E
s

R zz rr
E
a
s 4 R2 R R z 2 r 2
0
s (rddr)

zz rr
3/ 2

4 r 2 z 2

0
s rddr zz
s rddr rr

3/ 2 s
3/ 2
s
2

2
2
4 r z
4 r z

0
0

The

r component is cancel because the charge distribution is

symmetry.
Only z component exists.

The electric field is normal to the sheet and independent of


the distance between the sheet and the point.
In the parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing
between the two plates having equal and opposite charge is
given by

s
- s
s
E
n
(-n) n
2
2

The electric field is zero for both above and below plates.

Gauss Law

Gausss law states that:


The total electric flux passing through any
closed surface is equal to the total charge
enclosed by that surface.

Applying Gausss Law


Gausss law is useful only when the electric field is constant on a given
surface
1.

Select Gauss surface

2. Calculate the flux of the


electric field through the
Gauss surface
3. Equate = qencl/0
4. Solve for E

Spherical surface with point charge at center

E . ds = Q / 0
E . ds = E ds = E s
s = 4 r2
E s = E 4 r2 = Q /0

q
E
4 0 r 2
k = 1 / 4 0
0 = permittivity
0 = 8.85x10-12 C2/Nm2

Coulombs Law !

Infinite line charge using Gausss law


Consider an infinite line of uniform charge l (C/m) which lies along
the z-axis. Determine the expression of electric flux density, D at a
point, P.
Solution:
A cylindrical surface containing P is chosen to satisfy the symmetry
condition, as shown in the figure. D is constant and always normal
to the cylindrical Gaussian surface: D D
Applying Gausss law to an arbitrary length, l of the line,
Q l l D ds D ds

where ds 2 l is the surface area of the Gaussian surface


Therefore, Q D 2 l

Since D has no z component, D ds 0 on the top and bottom


surfaces of the cylinder.
Hence, D l or E l
2 0
2

Infinite sheet of charge using Gausss law


Find the electric flux density, D at a point, P for an infinite sheet of uniform charge s
(C/m2) lying on the x-y plane as shown in the figure.
Solution:
To determine D, a rectangular box that cut symmetrically by
the sheet of charge is chosen. Two of its faces are parallel to
the sheet. D will be normal to the sheet:

D Dz z

Infinite sheet of charge

Applying Gausss law, we obtain:

Q s ds D ds Dz ds
ds
top

bottom
D has no component along x
and y and D ds is zero on
the sides of the box. Assuming that the top and bottom area ofx
the box have an area, A,

Thus,

s
2

s A Dz ( A A)
z

or

s
z
2 0

y
Gaussian surface
Area A

Gaussian surface

Uniformly charged sphere


A sphere of radius a has a uniform charge of v
C/m3. Find the electric flux density, D by
constructing Gaussian surfaces for cases r a
and r a separately.

r
a

Solution:
The charge is spherically symmetrical and a spherical surface is an appropriate surface.
For r a, the total charge enclosed by the surface is

Q v dv v dv v

And

D ds Dr ds Dr

r 0

Hence, = Q gives D r r ,
v
3

r 2 sin dr d d v

4 3
r
3

r 2 sin d d Dr 4r 2

for 0 r a

For r a, the charge enclosed by the surface is the entire charge, which is,

Q v dv v dv v

while

D ds Dr 4r 2

Therefore,

a3
D 2 v r ,
3r

for r a

4 3
2
r
sin

dr
d

a
v
r 0
3
a

Coaxial cable

s<a
b

Q DS 2 L
s

Q 2 a S L

L
D
a
2

a Sa
Sb
b

a<s<b

s>a

Application of Gausss Law:

Q
Q

D dS

front

back


left

right


top

bottom

Dx Dy Dz
Q D dS

v
S
y
z
x

Dx Dy Dz

lim
y
z v0
x

div D lim
v 0

D dS
v

Q
lim
v 0 v

D dS
v

The divergence of the vector flux density D is the outflow of flux from a
small closed surface per unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.

Dx Dy Dz
div D

y
z
x

Cartesian

Cylindrical

1
1 D Dz
div D
( D )



z
Spherical

1 2
1

1 D
div D 2
(r Dr )
(sin D )
r r
r sin
r sin

Electric Scalar Potential

Electric force between two positive charges or two negative charges is


repulsive. Therefore, to bring two charges close together, work must be
done.
The voltage (or potential difference) V , between two points is the amount
of work, or potential energy, required to move a unit charge between
these two points.
The potential difference between any two points P2 and P1 (Figure 1) is
obtained by integrating along any path between them. Thus

V21= V2-V1=

P2

P1


E dl

where V1 and V2 are the electric potentials at points P1 and P2,


respectively. The result of the line integral on the right-hand side of does
not depend on which specific integration path taken between points P1
and P2. It depends only on the location of the points. (This is true for
28
electrostatic fields, and may not be true for time varying fields)

There is no absolute voltage value at a point in a circuit. There is no


absolute electric potential at a point in space as well.
Voltage of a point in a circuit is given with refer to a reference point
(which is ground with voltage value of zero).
For electric potential, zero reference potential point is chosen to be at
infinity.
The electric potential V at any point P in an electric field is defined as
the work done in bringing a unit charge (1 Coulomb) from zero
reference (an infinite distance away) to point P against the electric field,
and is given by

E dl

V=
(V)
Assume that V1 = 0 when P1 is at infinity in equation.
For a point charge q located at the origin of a spherical coordinate
system, the electric field intensity at a distance R is

E =R
4 R 2

q
q
.RdR
V= R
2
4 R
4 R
R

(V/m)

Provided that the infinite region is homogeneous with a constant value for29

Electric Potential due to


Continuous Distributions
These steps produce the following expressions:
1 l
V ( R)
dl '

(line distribution)
4 l ' R'

1
V ( R)
4

1
V ( R)
4

s'

v'

s
R'

v
R'

ds'

dv'

(surface distribution)
(volume distribution)

30

Electric Field as a Function of Electric Potential

Consider the differential form


V given by
of
dV = - E d l
For a scalar function V,

dV V.d l

By comparing equation
(12) and (13), we obtain

E = - grad V = - V
Where V is the gradient of V.
The electric flux lines are everywhere normal (perpendicular)
to the lines of equi-potential (or surfaces of equi-potential).

The relationship between


V and E in differential form allows

us to determine E for any charge distribution by first


calculating
V, and then taking the negative gradient of V to

31
find E .

Classification of Materials

A material is said to be homogeneous if its constitutive


parameters do not vary from point to point, and
It is isotropic if its constitutive parameters are independent of
direction.
The conductivity of materials is the measurement of how easily
electrons can travel through a material under the influence of an
external electric field.
Materials are classified as superconductor, conductor,
semiconductor, and insulator, according to the magnitudes of
their conductivities.
A conductor has a large number of loosely attached electrons in
the outermost shells of the atoms. These free electrons migrate
easily from one atom to another in the presence of an external
electric field.
The electrons movement is characterized by an average velocity
called the electron drift velocity, u e , which gives rise to a
conduction current.
32

The conductivity of most metals is in the range


from 106 to 107 S/m. Superconductor, is a perfect
conductor with = .
In an insulator, the electrons are tightly held to the
atoms. It is very difficult to remove them even under
the influence of an electric field. For good insulators,
the conductivity ranges from 10-10 to10-17 S/m.
A perfect insulator is a material with = 0.
Materials whose conductivities fall between those of
conductors and insulators are called semiconductors.
The conductivity of pure germanium, for example, is
2.2 S/m.
33

Conductors

Any conductor subjected to time-invariant electric field is an


equipotiential medium. The electric potential is the same at
every point in the conductor volume.
Electrostatic field induces a distribution of electric charge on
the surface of a conductor. This charge distribution is such that
the electric field at every point in the conductor volume, due to
the combined effect of applied electrostatic field and that due
to the induced surface charges, is zero.
If two or more conductors are present, though each is an
equipotential medium, but there can be a potential difference
between them.

34

Definition:
When there is no net motion of charge within a conductor, the
conductor is said to be in electrostatic equilibrium
When in electrostatic equilibrium, the properties:
The electric field is zero everywhere inside the conductor,
whether the conductor is solid or hollow
If an isolated conductor carries a charge, the charge resides on
its surface
The electric field just outside a charged conductor is
perpendicular to the surface and has a magnitude of /o, s is
the surface charge density at that point
On an irregularly shaped conductor, the surface charge
density is inversely proportional to the radius at that local
surface, so s is greatest at locations where the radius of
curvature is the smallest.

Resistance

The resistance R to any resistor of arbitrary shape is given by



E dl
V l E dl
R l
I
J ds E ds
s

(ohms, )

The reciprocal of R is called the conductance G, and the unit


of G is ( -1), or siemens (S).

Conductance of Coaxial Cable

The radii of the inner and outer conductors of a coaxial cable of length l
are, a and b, respectively (Fig. shown below). The insulation material
has conductivity . Obtain an expression for G, the conductance per unit
length of the insulation layer.

Let I be the total current flowing from the inner conductor to


the outer conductor through the insulation material. At any
radial distance r from the axis of the center conductor, the
area through which the current flows is A 2rl

I
I
J r
r
A
2rl

Hence,

E r

J E

Since


a
Vab E.dl
a

I
2 rl

ar.ardr
I
b

ln
2 l r
2 l a
I

G
1
I
2
G'

l
Rl Vabl
b
ln
a

(S/m).

A spherical shell of radius R has a uniform surface charge


density s. Determine the electric potential at the center of the
shell.
Solution: At a point P(R,,) on the shell, take an elementary
surface
ds = r2.sin().d.d,
Charge in this surface, dq = sds. Due to this charge potential at
the center of the shell:
R. sin .d .d
dq
s
dV = 4 o R
4 o
Therefore,

s R. sin .d .d s R
V

4 o
o
0 0

38

Properties of Conductors
In a conductor there are large number of electrons free to move.
This fact has several interesting consequences

Excess charge placed on a conductor moves to the exterior


surface of the conductor
The electric field inside a conductor is zero when charges
are at rest
A conductor shields a cavity within it from external electric
fields
Electric field lines contact conductor surfaces at right angles
A conductor can be charged by contact or induction
Connecting a conductor to ground is referred to as grounding

The ground can accept of give up an unlimited number of electrons

Dielectrics

Good dielectrics may not contain free charges.


This is because the atoms in these dielectrics have electrons that are
tightly bound to the nuclei.
Molecules of dielectric material can be divided into two categories:
Polar molecules and non-polar molecules.
A molecule, which does not have a permanent dipole moment, is a nonpolar molecule.
A non-polar molecule is a molecule where the centre of gravity of its
positive nucleus and of electrons is the same. When placed in electric field,
negative and positive charge of the molecule will shift in opposite direction
against their mutual attraction and forms a dipole, which is aligned with the
external electric field as shown in Figure 3 below. The dielectric is said to
be polarized. Examples: N2, O2 and H2.

40

40

A polar molecule is molecule that has permanent dipole moments.


A polar molecule is a molecule where the centre of gravity of its positive
nucleus, and of electrons is naturally displaced at different locations
which acts like a permanent dipole.
These permanent dipoles are randomly oriented throughout the interior of the
material. Under external electric field each of these dipole molecules will
experience a torque tending to align (rotates) its dipole moment parallel to the
electric field as shown in Figure 4 below. An additional charge displacement
may be produced if the field is sufficiently strong. Examples: H2O and N2O.

41
The molecules for both polar and non-polar dielectric materials will become
polarized under the influence of the electric field. Although it is not free to move
the electron, cloud surrounding the nucleus in an atom will distort in a manner .

Therefore, when a dielectric material is placed in the electric


field, the existence of induced surface charges will result in a
weaker field inside the dielectric material.

+
+
+
+
+
+

42

To analyze the large-scale effect of induced electric


dipoles in a dielectric material, we define a quantity
called the dipole moment per unit volume or
polarisation vector by:
n v

pk
=

C ).
(
lim
k

1
P v 0
m2

... ( 22)

In this expression n is the number of dipoles


(molecules) per unit volume, and p k is the dipole
moment of the kth dipole (molecule).
43

Dielectrics

The direction of P is from negative induced charge to positive


induced charge for each dipole.

The electric flux density (or electric displacement), D ,is


expressed as

D = o E + P ( mC )
... ( 23)
In a linear and isotropic material, the polarisation is directly
proportional
to the electric field intensity. Thus,

... (24)
P = o e E ,
2

where the quantity e is a dimensionless number called


the electric susceptibility of the material.
44

Dielectrics
If the electric susceptibility (e) is independent of the electric
field intensity the dielectric material is said to be linear, and if
it is independent of the spatial coordinates it is homogeneous.
Using this new quantity we rewrite the displacement as:

D = oE + P = oE + oe E ,

(1
+

)
=

... (25)
D
o
e E
o rE
E
The dimensionless quantity r is the relative permittivity or
the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. The quantity
o.r = is called the absolute permittivity and its units are
farads per meter (F/m).

45

Dielectrics

When we subject a dielectric to a strong electric field,


the forces applied on the electrons by the field can
reach a point where they overcome the forces binding
the electrons to the atomic nuclei.
Some electrons will then be removed from their
nuclei. This phenomenon is known as dielectric
breakdown.
The minimum electric field intensity at which
dielectric breakdown occurs is the dielectric strength
of the material.
46

Boundary conditions for static


electric fields

Figure 7

Conditions that exist at the interface of two media are


called boundary conditions.

47

Boundary conditions for static


electric fields

Construct a closed path denoted by abcd which traverses these

two media. The line integral of the electric field intensity E


over the closed contour is

E d = E2t E1t = 0,
c

where E1t and E2t are the tangential components of the electric
field intensities at the boundary, in medium 1 and medium 2
respectively.
The height of the contour bc = da is infinitely small so that
their contributions to the line integral can be ignored as the
contour approaches the boundary.
48

Boundary conditions for static


electric fields

The result gives us the first boundary condition for


the electric fields at the interface of two dielectric
media,
E1t = E2t
(V/m)
... (26)
The tangential component of electric field intensity
is continuous across an interface.
If these two media are dielectrics with permittivity 1
and 2, such that
D1t = 1 E1t and D2t = 2 E2t , than
(D1t / 1) = (D2t / 2)
... (27)

49

Boundary conditions for static


electric fields

The boundary condition for the normal component of the


electric fields is obtained by constructing a pillbox with top
and bottom surface area of S and height h. Again the height
h is assumed to be very small (which approximate zero).
Applying Gauss law we have:

D ds Q ( D1 n 2 D2 n1 )S ( D1 D2 ) n 2 S
s


D ds (D1n D 2n ).S s S Q
s

Therefore,
D1n - D2n = S

(C/m2)

... ( 28)
50

Boundary conditions for static


electric fields

D1n and D2n are the normal components of the


electric flux densities at the boundary, in medium 1
and medium 2 respectively.
The electric flux density is discontinuous across an
interface if a surface charge exists. The size of the
discontinuity is equal to the surface charge density.

The corresponding boundary condition for E is


1E1n - 2E2n = S
... (29)
51

Example: Application of
Boundary Conditions

The x-y plane is a charge-free boundary, separating two


dielectric media with permittivity 1 and 2, as shown in
Figure 8. If the magnitude of the electric field intensity
in dielectric 1 at a point on the boundary is E1. It makes
an angle 1 with the normal. Determine the magnitude
E2 and direction 2, of the electric field intensity at the
same point on the boundary, in dielectric 2.

Figure 8
52

Example: Application of Boundary


Conditions
Solution:
Equating the tangential component of the two electric
intensities at the interface we find:
E2 sin 2 = E1 sin 1.
Since the surface charge density at the interface is zero,
the normal component of the two electric flux densities
are also equal, i.e. :
2 E2 cos 2 = 1 E1 cos 1.
53

Example: Application of
Boundary Conditions

Dividing the first equation with the second we


arrive at:
tan 2 2

tan 1 1
The magnitude of the electric field intensity at the
same point on the boundary in dielectric 2:
E2 E22t E22n ( E2 sin 2 ) 2 ( E2 cos 2 ) 2

Therefore,
2

1

2
E 2 E1 sin 1 E1 cos1

1/ 2

1

2
E1 sin 1 cos1

1/ 2
54

Dielectric - Conductor Boundary

Let the medium 1 be a dielectric and medium 2 be a conductor.


For a conductor,
E2 = D2 = 0,
Thus the boundary conditions become
E1t = D1t = 0
... (30.1)
D1n = .E1n = s
... (30.2)
Where is the permittivity of the dielectric medium and s
indicates surface charge density induced by the electric field in
the dielectric. Therefore, E is always normal to the surface at
the conductor boundary.
55

Capacitance

A capacitor, constructed using two


pieces of conductors M1 and M2, of
arbitrary shape is shown in the
figure. A homogeneous dielectric
material is placed between these
two conductors
Assume that M1 and M2 carry equal
amount of charges but with
different polarity +Q and -Q. There
are no other charges present, and
thus the total charge of the system is
zero.
56

Capacitance

This capacitor can be characterized by the magnitude of the


charge, Q, on the conductor and the voltage difference, V,
between the two conductors, and is related by this equation:
Q = CV;
where C is the capacitance of the capacitor.
Capacitance is measured in Farads (F), where 1 Farad is
defined as 1 coulomb per volt.

Q s E ds
(F) ... (31)
C

V
- E d
l

57

Capacitance

Consider a capacitor constructed with two


pieces of conducting plates of surface area
A separated by distance d. Assuming
uniform distribution of electric field
between the two conducting plates, .
Gauss's Law can be used to calculate the
capacitance. A Gaussian surface with
height, h, and closed by two planes of area
size, A, is constructed as shown in the
figure below.
58

Capacitance
Cylindrical Capacitors
A coaxial cable of length L is an example
of a cylindrical
capacitor

2 0 L
C
ln( R2 / R1 )
R2
R1

Capacitors connected in parallel:

Potential difference at C1, C2, and C3 are the same. Knowing


that q = CV, then q1=C1V, q2=C2V, q3=C3V.
Total charge q = q1+q2+q3=(C1+C2+C3) V
Equivalent capacitance = q/V
Thus, C= (C1+C2+C3)

Capacitors connected in series

From q = CV, V1=q/C1, V2=q/C2, V3=q/C3


V=V1+V2+V3
Equivalent capacitance: C Vq 1 11 1
Therefore,

1
1
1
1

C C1 C 2 C 3

C1

C2

C3

60

Electrostatic Energy
Work is required to assemble a charge distribution

q2

q1

kq1
W2 q2V1 q2
a

q3
Total work done

kq1 kq2
W3 q3 (V1 V2 ) q3 (

)
a
a

kq1q2 kq1q3 kq2 q3


W W2 W3

a
a
a

Electrostatic Energy
The work dW required to add an element of charge dq
to an existing charge distribution is

dW dqV
dq
where V is the potential at the final
location of the charge element. The
total work required is therefore
Since the electric is
W dW Vdq conservative, the work is
stored as electrostatic energy,
U.

Energy Density of Electric


Field
The energy density uE

energy
uE
U /( Ad )
volume
1
2
uE 0 E
2

This expression
holds true for
any electric field

Electrostatic Potential Energy Stored in Capacitor

When a source is connected to a capacitor, it uses energy in charging up the


capacitor.
If the capacitor plates are made of a good conductor with zero resistance
and if the dielectric separating the two conductors has zero conductivity
and is hysteresis-free, then no power losses occur anywhere in the
capacitor.
The charging-up energy is stored in the electric field in dielectric medium
in the form of potential energy. Electric energy stored in a capacitor is the
same as the work required to charge it up. The amount of stored energy W
is related to Q, C and V.
The energy is stored in the dielectric medium in the form of electrostatic
potential energy.

64

Consider in t second, charge q'(t) is transferred from one plate to the other
plate through external circuit (not directly through the dielectric).
Potential
'
q (t )
difference between the two plates at that instant is:

v(t )

If charge dq' is further transferred in the interval dt, additional energy


needed is:
dq '
q'

dW v.

dt

.dt (

)dq '

If the process is repeated until a total charge Q being transferred, the total
'
Q q
work is:
1 Q2
1
'
2
W

dW

dq

2 C

CV ,

where
V Q/C

1
1 .A 2
1 .A
1
CV 2
V
( Ed ) 2 .E 2 .vol
2
2 d
2 d
2

Static Magnetic Filed


If charges are moving with constant velocity, a static magnetic (or magnetostatic)
field is produced. Thus, magnetostatic fields originate from currents (for instance,
direct currents in current-carrying wires).
Most of the equations we have derived for the electric fields may be readily used to
obtain corresponding equations for magnetic fields if the equivalent analogous
quantities are substituted.

Biot & Savart produced an equation that gives the magnetic


field at some point in space in terms of the current that
produces the field.
a wire carrying steady current I, the magnetic
field dB at some point P has the following
properties:
The vector dB is to both ds (direction of I)
& to the vector r directed from the element ds
to the point P.
The magnetic field wraps in circles around a wire.
The direction is found using the right-hand
rule.
Thumb of right hand in the direction of the
current, fingers curl in the direction of B. Field
at any point is tangent to curl
dl
I

Direction of Magnetic Field


1. Which drawing below shows the correct
direction of the magnetic field, B, at the point P?
A.
B.
C.
D.

I.
II.
III.
IV.

B into
page
i
P

B into
page

i
P

II

III

B
P

IV

B into
page

The magnitude of dB is inversely proportional


to r2, where r is the distance from the element ds
to the point P.
The magnitude of dB is proportional to the
current I and to the length ds of the element.
The magnitude of dB is proportional to sin q,
where q is the angle between the vectors ds and
r.
Biot-Savart law:
To determine the total magnetic field B at some
point due to a conductor of specified size, add up
contribution from all elements ds that make up the
conductor (integrate)!

dH

4 R

IdL R

IdL aR

4 R

I
4 R

dL a R

Magnetic Field Intensity A/m

Magnetic Field of a long straight


wire
Consider a thin, straight wire carrying

a constant current I along the y axis.


To determine the total magnetic field B
at the point P at a distance R from the
wire:
Let ds = dx, then dssin q becomes
dxsin q.
The contribution to the total magnetic
field at point P from each element of
the conductor ds is:

o I dx sin
dB

4
r2

B-S Law expressed in terms of distributed sources

The total current I within a


transverse Width b, in which there
is a uniform surface current density
K, is Kb.
For a non-uniform surface current
density, integration is necessary.

K d N Alternate Forms

K_x
H
dS aR

2
4 R

J_x
H
dv aR

2
4 R

71

Biot-Savart Law

The magnitude of
the field is not a
function of phi or z
and it varies
inversely
proportional as the
distance from the
filament.
The direction is of
the magnetic field
intensity vector is
circumferential.

H2

I
3

I
2

4 z1

H2

dz1 az a z1 az

z1

dz1 a

72

Biot-Savart Law

I
4

sin 2 sin 1 a

73

Example 8.1
H2 x

4 ( 0.3)

1 a

180

H2 x

4 ( 0.3)

1

180

sin 53.1

sin 53.1

H2 x 3.819

a must be ref ered to the x axis - w hic h becomes

1x 90

180

0.3
1y at an

0.4

2x at an

0.4

0.3

2y 90

H2 y

4 ( 0.4)

a
z
180

H2 y

4 ( 0.4)

180

1 sin 36.9

1 sin 36.9

H2 H2 x H2 y

az

H2 6.366

H2 y 2.547

az

180

74

Amperes Circuital Law

i1 i2

The magnetic field in space around an electric


current is proportional to the electric current which
serves as its source, just as the electric field in
space is proportional to the charge which serves
as its source.

75

Amperes Circuital Law

H_ do t_ dL

Amperes Circuital Law states that the line integral of H about any
closed path is exactly equal to the direct current enclosed by the
path.

We define positive current as flowing in the direction of the advance


of a right-handed screw turned in the direction in which the closed
path is traversed.
76

Amperes Circuital Law - Example

H_ dot _ dL

H d

1 d

I
2

77

Amperes Circuital Law - Example

2 a

I
2

2 b2

I I
2 2
c b

2 H

a b

b
c b

c b

78

Amperes Circuital Law - Example

79

Amperes Circuital Law - Example

80

Amperes Circuital Law - Example

81

CURL

The curl of a vector function is the vector


product of the del operator with a vector
function

82

CURL

H_ do t_ dL

( curl_H)aN

lim
SN 0

SN
83

CURL

curl_H =

x H

x H = J

Amperes Circuital Law


Second Equation of Maxwell

x E = 0

Third Equation
84

CURL

Illustration of Curl Calculation

CurlH

d H d H a d H d H a d H d H a

z
y x
x
z y
y
x z
d
y
d
z
d
z
d
x
d
x
d
y

ax

d
CurlH
dx
H
x

ay
d
dy
Hy

d
dz

Hz
az

85

CURL

Exam ple 1
In a certain conducting region, H is def ined by:

H1 x( x y x) y x x y
Determine J at:

x 5

H1 y( x y z) y x z
y 2

2 2

H1 z( x y z) 4 x y

z 3

d
d
DelXHx H1 z( x y z) H1 y( x y z)
dy
dz

DelXHx 420

ax

DelXHy

d
d
H1 x( x y z) H1 z( x y z)
dz
dx

DelXHy 98

ay

DelXHz

d
d
H1 y( x y z) H1 x( x y z)
dx
dy

DelXHz 75

az

86

CURL

Exam ple 2
H2 x( x y x) 0
x 2

y 3

H2 y( x y z) x z

H2 z( x y z) y x

z 4

d
d
DelXHx H2 z( x y z) H2 y( x y z)
dy
dz
d
d
DelXHy H2 x( x y z) H2 z( x y z)
dz
dx

d
d
DelXHz H2 y( x y z) H2 x( x y z)
dx
dy

DelXHx 16

ax

DelXHy 9

ay

DelXHz 16

az

87

Example 8.2

88

Stokes Theorem

The sum of the closed line


integrals about the
perimeter of every Delta S
is the same as the closed
line integral about the
perimeter of S because of
cancellation on every path.

H_ dot _ dL

( Del H)_dot _ dS

S
89

Hr r 6 r sin

Example 8.3

H r 0
H r 18 r sin cos

segment 1
r 4

0 0.1

r 4

0.1

segment 2
0 0.3

segment 3
r 4

dL

0 0.1

0.3

dr ar r d a r sin d a

First tem = 0 on all segments (dr = 0)


Second term = 0 on segment 2 ( constant)
Third term = 0 on segments 1 and 3 ( = 0 or constant)

H dL

H r d

since H=0

0.3

H r sin d

H r d

H r r sin d 22.249

90

Magnetic Flux and Magnetic Flux Density

0 H

B_dot _ dS

B_dot _ dS

4 10

permeability in f ree space

91

Express r in terms of R and x.

r R x
r R x 2
Express sin in terms of R and r.
2

R
R
sin
r
R2 x2

o I dx sin o I dx sin
dB 4 r 2 4 r 2
o I
dx
R
B

1
2
2
2
2 2
4 R x
R x

o I
R dx
B

4 R 2 x 2

o I R
dx

2
2
4
R x

From the table of integrals:


dx
x
2 2 3 2 2 2 2 12
R x R R x

o I R
x
B

4 R2 R2 x2

o I

4 R R 2 2

o I R

1
2
4 R2

R 2 x 2

1
2

o I

4 R 2 12 2 12

I
I
2 o I
B o
o
1 1
4 R 4 R
4R

1
2

o I
B
2 R

Find B for a conductor of length l

o I dx sin o I l dx sin
ldB l 4 r 2 4 l r 2
o I l
dx
R
B

1
2
2
2
2 2
4 l R x
R x
l

o I l
o I R l
R dx
dx
B

3
l
2
2
4 l R 2 x 2 2
4
R x
From the table of integrals:

dx
2

R R x
2

o I R
x
B

4 R2 R2 x2

o I
l

4 R R 2 l2

o I
l
B

4 R R 2 l2

o I 2 l
B

4 R a 2 l2

1
2

o I R

1
2
2
4R
l

l
2

R 2 x 2

1
2
l

1
2

1
a 2 l 2 2

o I l

2 R R l
2

B at Center of a Circular Arc of


Wire
Just add up all of the contributions ds to the
current, but now distance r=R is constant,

and r ds.

i
B dB 0 2 ds
0
4R 0
Notice that
. So the integral becomes
ds Rd

0i
4R 2

Rd

0i
4R

0i = 2, so
For a complete
B loop,
4R

0i
2R

B at center of a full circle

Find Magnetic Field on the Axis of a


Circular Current Loop

Consider a circular loop of wire of radius R in


the yz plane and carrying a steady current I:

Note: Each element of length ds is to


the r from ds to point P.

ds sin 90 ds

& the direction of dB


from ds is at an angle
with the x axis.

The direction of the net magnetic field is


along the x axis and directed away from
the circular loop.

dB dB

cos

o I
ds
dB 4 R 2 x 2 cos
o I
ds
dB 4 R 2 x 2 cos
o I
ds
R
dB 4 R 2 x 2 2 2
R x
o I R
B
ds
3
4 R2 x2 2

The sum of the elements of length ds


around the closed current loop is the
circumference; s = 2R
The net magnetic field B at point P is :

B
B
B

o I R

4 R x
2

2 o I R

4 R x
2

o I R

2 R x
2

2R
2

For large distances along the x axis from the


current loop, where x is very large in
comparison to R:

B
B

o I R

2 R x
2

o I R
2

2 3

o I R
B
3
2x

o I R

2 x

o I R
2 x

2
2

B
y=

f(x)

B field for Circular Loop

0i
2R

o I R 2
B
2 x3

o I R

2 R x
2

3
2

x=
2

Remember how to Calculate Electric Field

Either:

Coulomb's Law:

Gauss' Law

What are the analogous equations for the


Magnetic Field?

Calculation of Magnetic Field


Two ways to calculate the Magnetic Field:

Biot-Savart Law:
I

Ampere's Law
"High symmetry"

Amperes Law
Draw an amperian loop around a system of
currents (like the two wires at right). The
loop can be any shape, but it must be closed.

Add up the component of along


the loop, for
B
each element of length ds around this closed
loop.
The value of this integral is proportional to the
current enclosed:

B ds 0ienc
Amperes Law

Magnetic Field Outside a Long


Straight Wire with Current

We already used the Biot-Savart Law to show


that, for this case,
i.
B 0
2r
Lets show it again, using Amperes Law:
First, we are free to draw an Amperian loop of
any shape, but since we know that the
magnetic field goes in circles around a wire,
lets choose a circular loop (of radius r).
Then B and ds are parallel, and B is constant
on the loop, so


B ds B2r 0ienc

And solving for B gives our earlier expression.


i
B 0
2r


B ds 0ienc
Amperes Law

Magnetic Field Inside a Long


Straight Wire with Current

Calculate B inside the wire.


Draw a circular Amperian loop around the
axis, of radius r < R.
The enclosed current is less than the total
current, because some is outside the
Amperian loop. The amount enclosed is

J
i r 2
ienc
Aen
Atotal
R 2

r2
B ds B2r 0ienc 0i R 2

i
B 0 2 r
2R

inside a straight wire

B
~r

~1/r
R

Two cylindrical conductors each carry


current I into the screen as shown.
The conductor on the left is solid and
has radius R=3a. The conductor on
the right has a hole in the middle &
carries current only between R=a &
3a
R=3a.

3a

2a

1A

What is the relation between the magnetic field at R = 6a for


the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

(a) BL(6a)< BR(6a) (b) BL(6a)= BR(6a) (c) BL(6a)> BR(6a)


1B

What is the relation between the magnetic field at R = 2a


for the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

(a) BL(2a)< BR(2a) (b) BL(2a)= BR(2a) (c) BL(2a)> BR(2a)

1A

What is the relation


between the
magnetic field at R =
6a for the two cases
(L=left, R=right)?

a
3a

3a

2a

(a) BL(6a)< BR(6a) (b) BL(6a)= BR(6a) (c) BL(6a)> BR(6a)


Amperes Law can be used to find the field in both cases.
The Amperian loop in each case is a circle of radius R=6a in the plane of
the screen.
The field in each case has cylindrical symmetry, being everywhere
tangent to the circle.
Therefore the field at R=6a depends only on the total current enclosed!!
In each case, a total current I is enclosed.

1B

What is the relation between


the magnetic field at R = 2a for
the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

a
3a

3a

2a

(a) BL(2a)< BR(2a) (b) BL(2a)= BR(2a) (c) BL(2a)> BR(2a)


Once again, the field depends only on how much current is enclosed.
For the LEFT conductor:

( 2a ) 2
4
IL
I

I
2
9
(3a)

For the RIGHT conductor:

( 2a ) 2 a 2
3
IR
I

I
2
2
8
(3a) a

Solenoids
We saw earlier that a complete

loop of wire has a magnetic field at


its center:
0i
B

2R

We can make the field stronger by


simply adding more loops. A many
turn coil of wire with current is
called a solenoid.

The field near the wires is still circular, but


farther away the fields blend into a
nearly constant field down the axis.

The actual field looks more like this:

Solenoids
Compare with electric field in a capacitor.
Like a capacitor, the field is uniform inside (except near the ends), but the
direction of the field is different.
Approximate that the field is constant inside and zero outside (just like capacitor).

We can use Amperes Law to calculate B inside


the solenoid.
Characterize the windings in terms of number
of turns per unit length, n. Each turn carries
current i, so total current over length h is inh.


B ds Bh 0ienc 0inh
B 0in

ideal solenoid

only section that has nonzero contribution

Toroids

Notice that the field of the solenoid sticks out


both ends, and spreads apart (weakens) at the
ends.
We can wrap our coil around like a doughnut, so
that it has no ends. This is called a toroid.
Now the field has no ends, but wraps uniformly
around in a circle.
What is B inside? We draw an Amperian loop
parallel to the field, with radius r. If the coil has a
total of N turns, then the Amperian loop encloses
current Ni.

B ds B2r 0ienc 0iN

0iN
2 r

inside toroid

Force Between Two Parallel


Currents
Recall that a wire carrying a current in a magnetic
field feels a force.
When there are two parallel wires carrying current,
the magnetic field from one causes a force on the
other.
When the currents are parallel, the two wires are
pulled together.
When the currents are anti-parallel, the two wires are
forced apart.
To calculate the force on b due to a,
i
i
B 0 0a
2R
2 d

Fba

0iaib L
2d


Fba ib L Ba

Force between two parallel currents

FF


FB iL B

Two Current-Carrying Wires Exert


Magnetic Forces on One Another

To find the force on a current-carrying wire due to a


second current-carrying wire, first find the field due to
the second wire at the site of the first wire. Then find
the force on the first wire due to that field.
Parallel currents attract each other, and antiparallel
currents repel each other.

Forces on Parallel Currents


3. Which of the four situations below has the
greatest force to the right on the central
conductor?
F greatest?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

I.
II.
III.
IV.
Cannot
determine.

I.
II.
III.

IV.