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Diunggah oleh LakshmiKoteswarama

Electromagnetic field

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Anda di halaman 1dari 115

Rectangular

(Cartesian)

Cylindrical

Spherical

most convenient as it is easy to visualize and

associate with our perception of motion in daily

life. Spherical and cylindrical systems are

specifically designed to describe motions, which

follow spherical or cylindrical curvatures

1

An intersection of 3 planes:

x = const; y = const; z = const

Properties:

u x u x u y u y u z u z 1;

u x u y u x u z u y u z 0.

ux u y uz

u y uz ux

uz ux u y

An arbitrary vector:

A Axu x Ay u y Az u z

Fall 2007

A differential line element:

dl = ux dx + uy dy + uz dz

Three of six differential surface

elements:

dsx = ax dydz

dsy = ay dxdz

dsz = az dxdy

The differential volume element

dv = dxdydz

Fall 2007

(polar)

An intersection of a

cylinder and 2 planes

Diff. area:

ds d dzu d dzu d du z

Diff. volume: dv d d dz

An arbitrary vector: A A u A u Az u z

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

axis, and a cone that makes an angle to the z axis.

Fall 2007

Properties:

ur u u

u u ur

u ur u

Diff. area:

An arbitrary vector: A Ar ur A u A u

Fall 2007

System conversions

1. Cartesian to Cylindrical:

x 2 y 2 ; tan 1 ;z z

x

2. Cartesian to Spherical:

x2 y 2

y

; tan 1

r x y z ; tan

z

x

3. Cylindrical to Cartesian:

x cos ; y sin ;z z

2

4. Spherical to Cartesian:

ELEN 3371 Electromagnetics

Fall 2007

INTRODUCTION

An electrostatic field

is produced by a

static charge

distribution.

A magnetostatic

field is produced by

the moving charges

or a constant current

flow (DC current)

electromagnetic field.

Charge

Charges are measured in Coulombs (C).

The smallest unit of electric charge is found on the negatively

charged electron and positively charged proton.

The electron mass, qe= -1.602x10-19 (C).

So, 1 C would represent about 6x1018 electrons.

In real world, electric charges

can be found

at a point

along a line

on a surface

Inside a Volume

combination the above

distributions

POINT CHARGE

The concept of a point charge is used when the dimensions of

an electric charge distribution are very small compared to the

distance to neighboring electric charges.

A LINE CHARGE

A line charge denotes as the electric charge distribution along a

thin line.

Total charge along the line :

Q d

A SURFACE CHARGE

A surface charge is defined as charges distribution on a thin

sheet.

Total charge on the surface :

A VOLUME CHARGE

Q s ds

s

volume charge can be viewed as a cloud of charged particles.

Total charge in the volume

Q v dv

v

COULOMB LAW

The formula:

QQ

F 1 2 a

(N)

2 4 R2 R

o 12 12

Charge: coulomb (C)

Distance: meter

Force: Newton

The constants:

Ke, the Coulomb constant:

ke = 8.9876 x 109 N.m2/C2 = 1/(4 o)

o the permittivity of free space:

o = 8.8542 x 10-12 C2 / N.m2

If there are more than two point charges, the principle of superposition is

used. The force on a charge in the presence of several other charges is

the sum of the forces on that charges due to each of the other charges

acting alone.

The strength and direction of that electric field at a point in space is then

measured by the force of the electric field exerts on another charge

(often called the test charge) at that point.

Mathematically: E F

qo

generated by a point source charge q

F

E

qo

Place the test charge q0. The force

on q0 is given by Coulombs law:

qqo

Fe ke 2 r

r

Q

Ft

1 a

E

(N/C, V/m)

R

Qt 4 R2

o 1t 1t

the source charge, not the test

charge.

LINE CHARGE

Q d

SURFACE CHARGE

VOLUME CHARGE

Q ds

S S

Q

vdv

v

E

a

4 R 2 R

0

ds

E S

a

2

s 4 R R

0

vdv

E

a

v 4 R 2 R

0

A ring of charge in free space is characterized by a

uniform charge density of l. The ring has a radius b

and positioned in the x-y plane as shown in the figure.

Find the electric field intensity, E at a point P(0, 0, h)

along the axis of the ring at a distance h from its

center.

Solution:

Consider the electric field generated by a differential

segment of the ring, for example, at (b, , 0) as indicated by

segment 1 in the figure. This segment has a length,

dl = b d and contains charge dq = l dl = l b d. The

vector, R'1 from segment 1 to point P(0, 0, h) is

dE dE1 dE 2 z

l bh

1

d

32

2

2

2 0 b h

R1 br hz

radius a(m) which is located on xy plane with uniform charge

distribution s (C/m2 ) .

sds

E

s

R zz rr

E

a

s 4 R2 R R z 2 r 2

0

s (rddr)

zz rr

3/ 2

4 r 2 z 2

0

s rddr zz

s rddr rr

3/ 2 s

3/ 2

s

2

2

2

4 r z

4 r z

0

0

The

symmetry.

Only z component exists.

the distance between the sheet and the point.

In the parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing

between the two plates having equal and opposite charge is

given by

s

- s

s

E

n

(-n) n

2

2

The electric field is zero for both above and below plates.

Gauss Law

The total electric flux passing through any

closed surface is equal to the total charge

enclosed by that surface.

Gausss law is useful only when the electric field is constant on a given

surface

1.

electric field through the

Gauss surface

3. Equate = qencl/0

4. Solve for E

E . ds = Q / 0

E . ds = E ds = E s

s = 4 r2

E s = E 4 r2 = Q /0

q

E

4 0 r 2

k = 1 / 4 0

0 = permittivity

0 = 8.85x10-12 C2/Nm2

Coulombs Law !

Consider an infinite line of uniform charge l (C/m) which lies along

the z-axis. Determine the expression of electric flux density, D at a

point, P.

Solution:

A cylindrical surface containing P is chosen to satisfy the symmetry

condition, as shown in the figure. D is constant and always normal

to the cylindrical Gaussian surface: D D

Applying Gausss law to an arbitrary length, l of the line,

Q l l D ds D ds

Therefore, Q D 2 l

surfaces of the cylinder.

Hence, D l or E l

2 0

2

Find the electric flux density, D at a point, P for an infinite sheet of uniform charge s

(C/m2) lying on the x-y plane as shown in the figure.

Solution:

To determine D, a rectangular box that cut symmetrically by

the sheet of charge is chosen. Two of its faces are parallel to

the sheet. D will be normal to the sheet:

D Dz z

Q s ds D ds Dz ds

ds

top

bottom

D has no component along x

and y and D ds is zero on

the sides of the box. Assuming that the top and bottom area ofx

the box have an area, A,

Thus,

s

2

s A Dz ( A A)

z

or

s

z

2 0

y

Gaussian surface

Area A

Gaussian surface

A sphere of radius a has a uniform charge of v

C/m3. Find the electric flux density, D by

constructing Gaussian surfaces for cases r a

and r a separately.

r

a

Solution:

The charge is spherically symmetrical and a spherical surface is an appropriate surface.

For r a, the total charge enclosed by the surface is

Q v dv v dv v

And

D ds Dr ds Dr

r 0

Hence, = Q gives D r r ,

v

3

r 2 sin dr d d v

4 3

r

3

r 2 sin d d Dr 4r 2

for 0 r a

For r a, the charge enclosed by the surface is the entire charge, which is,

Q v dv v dv v

while

D ds Dr 4r 2

Therefore,

a3

D 2 v r ,

3r

for r a

4 3

2

r

sin

dr

d

a

v

r 0

3

a

Coaxial cable

s<a

b

Q DS 2 L

s

Q 2 a S L

L

D

a

2

a Sa

Sb

b

a<s<b

s>a

Q

Q

D dS

front

back

left

right

top

bottom

Dx Dy Dz

Q D dS

v

S

y

z

x

Dx Dy Dz

lim

y

z v0

x

div D lim

v 0

D dS

v

Q

lim

v 0 v

D dS

v

The divergence of the vector flux density D is the outflow of flux from a

small closed surface per unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.

Dx Dy Dz

div D

y

z

x

Cartesian

Cylindrical

1

1 D Dz

div D

( D )

z

Spherical

1 2

1

1 D

div D 2

(r Dr )

(sin D )

r r

r sin

r sin

repulsive. Therefore, to bring two charges close together, work must be

done.

The voltage (or potential difference) V , between two points is the amount

of work, or potential energy, required to move a unit charge between

these two points.

The potential difference between any two points P2 and P1 (Figure 1) is

obtained by integrating along any path between them. Thus

V21= V2-V1=

P2

P1

E dl

respectively. The result of the line integral on the right-hand side of does

not depend on which specific integration path taken between points P1

and P2. It depends only on the location of the points. (This is true for

28

electrostatic fields, and may not be true for time varying fields)

absolute electric potential at a point in space as well.

Voltage of a point in a circuit is given with refer to a reference point

(which is ground with voltage value of zero).

For electric potential, zero reference potential point is chosen to be at

infinity.

The electric potential V at any point P in an electric field is defined as

the work done in bringing a unit charge (1 Coulomb) from zero

reference (an infinite distance away) to point P against the electric field,

and is given by

E dl

V=

(V)

Assume that V1 = 0 when P1 is at infinity in equation.

For a point charge q located at the origin of a spherical coordinate

system, the electric field intensity at a distance R is

E =R

4 R 2

q

q

.RdR

V= R

2

4 R

4 R

R

(V/m)

Provided that the infinite region is homogeneous with a constant value for29

Continuous Distributions

These steps produce the following expressions:

1 l

V ( R)

dl '

(line distribution)

4 l ' R'

1

V ( R)

4

1

V ( R)

4

s'

v'

s

R'

v

R'

ds'

dv'

(surface distribution)

(volume distribution)

30

V given by

of

dV = - E d l

For a scalar function V,

dV V.d l

By comparing equation

(12) and (13), we obtain

E = - grad V = - V

Where V is the gradient of V.

The electric flux lines are everywhere normal (perpendicular)

to the lines of equi-potential (or surfaces of equi-potential).

V and E in differential form allows

calculating

V, and then taking the negative gradient of V to

31

find E .

Classification of Materials

parameters do not vary from point to point, and

It is isotropic if its constitutive parameters are independent of

direction.

The conductivity of materials is the measurement of how easily

electrons can travel through a material under the influence of an

external electric field.

Materials are classified as superconductor, conductor,

semiconductor, and insulator, according to the magnitudes of

their conductivities.

A conductor has a large number of loosely attached electrons in

the outermost shells of the atoms. These free electrons migrate

easily from one atom to another in the presence of an external

electric field.

The electrons movement is characterized by an average velocity

called the electron drift velocity, u e , which gives rise to a

conduction current.

32

from 106 to 107 S/m. Superconductor, is a perfect

conductor with = .

In an insulator, the electrons are tightly held to the

atoms. It is very difficult to remove them even under

the influence of an electric field. For good insulators,

the conductivity ranges from 10-10 to10-17 S/m.

A perfect insulator is a material with = 0.

Materials whose conductivities fall between those of

conductors and insulators are called semiconductors.

The conductivity of pure germanium, for example, is

2.2 S/m.

33

Conductors

equipotiential medium. The electric potential is the same at

every point in the conductor volume.

Electrostatic field induces a distribution of electric charge on

the surface of a conductor. This charge distribution is such that

the electric field at every point in the conductor volume, due to

the combined effect of applied electrostatic field and that due

to the induced surface charges, is zero.

If two or more conductors are present, though each is an

equipotential medium, but there can be a potential difference

between them.

34

Definition:

When there is no net motion of charge within a conductor, the

conductor is said to be in electrostatic equilibrium

When in electrostatic equilibrium, the properties:

The electric field is zero everywhere inside the conductor,

whether the conductor is solid or hollow

If an isolated conductor carries a charge, the charge resides on

its surface

The electric field just outside a charged conductor is

perpendicular to the surface and has a magnitude of /o, s is

the surface charge density at that point

On an irregularly shaped conductor, the surface charge

density is inversely proportional to the radius at that local

surface, so s is greatest at locations where the radius of

curvature is the smallest.

Resistance

E dl

V l E dl

R l

I

J ds E ds

s

(ohms, )

of G is ( -1), or siemens (S).

The radii of the inner and outer conductors of a coaxial cable of length l

are, a and b, respectively (Fig. shown below). The insulation material

has conductivity . Obtain an expression for G, the conductance per unit

length of the insulation layer.

the outer conductor through the insulation material. At any

radial distance r from the axis of the center conductor, the

area through which the current flows is A 2rl

I

I

J r

r

A

2rl

Hence,

E r

J E

Since

a

Vab E.dl

a

I

2 rl

ar.ardr

I

b

ln

2 l r

2 l a

I

G

1

I

2

G'

l

Rl Vabl

b

ln

a

(S/m).

density s. Determine the electric potential at the center of the

shell.

Solution: At a point P(R,,) on the shell, take an elementary

surface

ds = r2.sin().d.d,

Charge in this surface, dq = sds. Due to this charge potential at

the center of the shell:

R. sin .d .d

dq

s

dV = 4 o R

4 o

Therefore,

s R. sin .d .d s R

V

4 o

o

0 0

38

Properties of Conductors

In a conductor there are large number of electrons free to move.

This fact has several interesting consequences

surface of the conductor

The electric field inside a conductor is zero when charges

are at rest

A conductor shields a cavity within it from external electric

fields

Electric field lines contact conductor surfaces at right angles

A conductor can be charged by contact or induction

Connecting a conductor to ground is referred to as grounding

Dielectrics

This is because the atoms in these dielectrics have electrons that are

tightly bound to the nuclei.

Molecules of dielectric material can be divided into two categories:

Polar molecules and non-polar molecules.

A molecule, which does not have a permanent dipole moment, is a nonpolar molecule.

A non-polar molecule is a molecule where the centre of gravity of its

positive nucleus and of electrons is the same. When placed in electric field,

negative and positive charge of the molecule will shift in opposite direction

against their mutual attraction and forms a dipole, which is aligned with the

external electric field as shown in Figure 3 below. The dielectric is said to

be polarized. Examples: N2, O2 and H2.

40

40

A polar molecule is a molecule where the centre of gravity of its positive

nucleus, and of electrons is naturally displaced at different locations

which acts like a permanent dipole.

These permanent dipoles are randomly oriented throughout the interior of the

material. Under external electric field each of these dipole molecules will

experience a torque tending to align (rotates) its dipole moment parallel to the

electric field as shown in Figure 4 below. An additional charge displacement

may be produced if the field is sufficiently strong. Examples: H2O and N2O.

41

The molecules for both polar and non-polar dielectric materials will become

polarized under the influence of the electric field. Although it is not free to move

the electron, cloud surrounding the nucleus in an atom will distort in a manner .

field, the existence of induced surface charges will result in a

weaker field inside the dielectric material.

+

+

+

+

+

+

42

dipoles in a dielectric material, we define a quantity

called the dipole moment per unit volume or

polarisation vector by:

n v

pk

=

C ).

(

lim

k

1

P v 0

m2

... ( 22)

(molecules) per unit volume, and p k is the dipole

moment of the kth dipole (molecule).

43

Dielectrics

induced charge for each dipole.

expressed as

D = o E + P ( mC )

... ( 23)

In a linear and isotropic material, the polarisation is directly

proportional

to the electric field intensity. Thus,

... (24)

P = o e E ,

2

the electric susceptibility of the material.

44

Dielectrics

If the electric susceptibility (e) is independent of the electric

field intensity the dielectric material is said to be linear, and if

it is independent of the spatial coordinates it is homogeneous.

Using this new quantity we rewrite the displacement as:

D = oE + P = oE + oe E ,

(1

+

)

=

... (25)

D

o

e E

o rE

E

The dimensionless quantity r is the relative permittivity or

the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. The quantity

o.r = is called the absolute permittivity and its units are

farads per meter (F/m).

45

Dielectrics

the forces applied on the electrons by the field can

reach a point where they overcome the forces binding

the electrons to the atomic nuclei.

Some electrons will then be removed from their

nuclei. This phenomenon is known as dielectric

breakdown.

The minimum electric field intensity at which

dielectric breakdown occurs is the dielectric strength

of the material.

46

electric fields

Figure 7

called boundary conditions.

47

electric fields

over the closed contour is

E d = E2t E1t = 0,

c

where E1t and E2t are the tangential components of the electric

field intensities at the boundary, in medium 1 and medium 2

respectively.

The height of the contour bc = da is infinitely small so that

their contributions to the line integral can be ignored as the

contour approaches the boundary.

48

electric fields

the electric fields at the interface of two dielectric

media,

E1t = E2t

(V/m)

... (26)

The tangential component of electric field intensity

is continuous across an interface.

If these two media are dielectrics with permittivity 1

and 2, such that

D1t = 1 E1t and D2t = 2 E2t , than

(D1t / 1) = (D2t / 2)

... (27)

49

electric fields

electric fields is obtained by constructing a pillbox with top

and bottom surface area of S and height h. Again the height

h is assumed to be very small (which approximate zero).

Applying Gauss law we have:

D ds Q ( D1 n 2 D2 n1 )S ( D1 D2 ) n 2 S

s

D ds (D1n D 2n ).S s S Q

s

Therefore,

D1n - D2n = S

(C/m2)

... ( 28)

50

electric fields

electric flux densities at the boundary, in medium 1

and medium 2 respectively.

The electric flux density is discontinuous across an

interface if a surface charge exists. The size of the

discontinuity is equal to the surface charge density.

1E1n - 2E2n = S

... (29)

51

Example: Application of

Boundary Conditions

dielectric media with permittivity 1 and 2, as shown in

Figure 8. If the magnitude of the electric field intensity

in dielectric 1 at a point on the boundary is E1. It makes

an angle 1 with the normal. Determine the magnitude

E2 and direction 2, of the electric field intensity at the

same point on the boundary, in dielectric 2.

Figure 8

52

Conditions

Solution:

Equating the tangential component of the two electric

intensities at the interface we find:

E2 sin 2 = E1 sin 1.

Since the surface charge density at the interface is zero,

the normal component of the two electric flux densities

are also equal, i.e. :

2 E2 cos 2 = 1 E1 cos 1.

53

Example: Application of

Boundary Conditions

arrive at:

tan 2 2

tan 1 1

The magnitude of the electric field intensity at the

same point on the boundary in dielectric 2:

E2 E22t E22n ( E2 sin 2 ) 2 ( E2 cos 2 ) 2

Therefore,

2

1

2

E 2 E1 sin 1 E1 cos1

1/ 2

1

2

E1 sin 1 cos1

1/ 2

54

For a conductor,

E2 = D2 = 0,

Thus the boundary conditions become

E1t = D1t = 0

... (30.1)

D1n = .E1n = s

... (30.2)

Where is the permittivity of the dielectric medium and s

indicates surface charge density induced by the electric field in

the dielectric. Therefore, E is always normal to the surface at

the conductor boundary.

55

Capacitance

pieces of conductors M1 and M2, of

arbitrary shape is shown in the

figure. A homogeneous dielectric

material is placed between these

two conductors

Assume that M1 and M2 carry equal

amount of charges but with

different polarity +Q and -Q. There

are no other charges present, and

thus the total charge of the system is

zero.

56

Capacitance

charge, Q, on the conductor and the voltage difference, V,

between the two conductors, and is related by this equation:

Q = CV;

where C is the capacitance of the capacitor.

Capacitance is measured in Farads (F), where 1 Farad is

defined as 1 coulomb per volt.

Q s E ds

(F) ... (31)

C

V

- E d

l

57

Capacitance

pieces of conducting plates of surface area

A separated by distance d. Assuming

uniform distribution of electric field

between the two conducting plates, .

Gauss's Law can be used to calculate the

capacitance. A Gaussian surface with

height, h, and closed by two planes of area

size, A, is constructed as shown in the

figure below.

58

Capacitance

Cylindrical Capacitors

A coaxial cable of length L is an example

of a cylindrical

capacitor

2 0 L

C

ln( R2 / R1 )

R2

R1

that q = CV, then q1=C1V, q2=C2V, q3=C3V.

Total charge q = q1+q2+q3=(C1+C2+C3) V

Equivalent capacitance = q/V

Thus, C= (C1+C2+C3)

V=V1+V2+V3

Equivalent capacitance: C Vq 1 11 1

Therefore,

1

1

1

1

C C1 C 2 C 3

C1

C2

C3

60

Electrostatic Energy

Work is required to assemble a charge distribution

q2

q1

kq1

W2 q2V1 q2

a

q3

Total work done

kq1 kq2

W3 q3 (V1 V2 ) q3 (

)

a

a

W W2 W3

a

a

a

Electrostatic Energy

The work dW required to add an element of charge dq

to an existing charge distribution is

dW dqV

dq

where V is the potential at the final

location of the charge element. The

total work required is therefore

Since the electric is

W dW Vdq conservative, the work is

stored as electrostatic energy,

U.

Field

The energy density uE

energy

uE

U /( Ad )

volume

1

2

uE 0 E

2

This expression

holds true for

any electric field

capacitor.

If the capacitor plates are made of a good conductor with zero resistance

and if the dielectric separating the two conductors has zero conductivity

and is hysteresis-free, then no power losses occur anywhere in the

capacitor.

The charging-up energy is stored in the electric field in dielectric medium

in the form of potential energy. Electric energy stored in a capacitor is the

same as the work required to charge it up. The amount of stored energy W

is related to Q, C and V.

The energy is stored in the dielectric medium in the form of electrostatic

potential energy.

64

Consider in t second, charge q'(t) is transferred from one plate to the other

plate through external circuit (not directly through the dielectric).

Potential

'

q (t )

difference between the two plates at that instant is:

v(t )

needed is:

dq '

q'

dW v.

dt

.dt (

)dq '

If the process is repeated until a total charge Q being transferred, the total

'

Q q

work is:

1 Q2

1

'

2

W

dW

dq

2 C

CV ,

where

V Q/C

1

1 .A 2

1 .A

1

CV 2

V

( Ed ) 2 .E 2 .vol

2

2 d

2 d

2

If charges are moving with constant velocity, a static magnetic (or magnetostatic)

field is produced. Thus, magnetostatic fields originate from currents (for instance,

direct currents in current-carrying wires).

Most of the equations we have derived for the electric fields may be readily used to

obtain corresponding equations for magnetic fields if the equivalent analogous

quantities are substituted.

field at some point in space in terms of the current that

produces the field.

a wire carrying steady current I, the magnetic

field dB at some point P has the following

properties:

The vector dB is to both ds (direction of I)

& to the vector r directed from the element ds

to the point P.

The magnetic field wraps in circles around a wire.

The direction is found using the right-hand

rule.

Thumb of right hand in the direction of the

current, fingers curl in the direction of B. Field

at any point is tangent to curl

dl

I

1. Which drawing below shows the correct

direction of the magnetic field, B, at the point P?

A.

B.

C.

D.

I.

II.

III.

IV.

B into

page

i

P

B into

page

i

P

II

III

B

P

IV

B into

page

to r2, where r is the distance from the element ds

to the point P.

The magnitude of dB is proportional to the

current I and to the length ds of the element.

The magnitude of dB is proportional to sin q,

where q is the angle between the vectors ds and

r.

Biot-Savart law:

To determine the total magnetic field B at some

point due to a conductor of specified size, add up

contribution from all elements ds that make up the

conductor (integrate)!

dH

4 R

IdL R

IdL aR

4 R

I

4 R

dL a R

wire

Consider a thin, straight wire carrying

To determine the total magnetic field B

at the point P at a distance R from the

wire:

Let ds = dx, then dssin q becomes

dxsin q.

The contribution to the total magnetic

field at point P from each element of

the conductor ds is:

o I dx sin

dB

4

r2

transverse Width b, in which there

is a uniform surface current density

K, is Kb.

For a non-uniform surface current

density, integration is necessary.

K d N Alternate Forms

K_x

H

dS aR

2

4 R

J_x

H

dv aR

2

4 R

71

Biot-Savart Law

The magnitude of

the field is not a

function of phi or z

and it varies

inversely

proportional as the

distance from the

filament.

The direction is of

the magnetic field

intensity vector is

circumferential.

H2

I

3

I

2

4 z1

H2

dz1 az a z1 az

z1

dz1 a

72

Biot-Savart Law

I

4

sin 2 sin 1 a

73

Example 8.1

H2 x

4 ( 0.3)

1 a

180

H2 x

4 ( 0.3)

1

180

sin 53.1

sin 53.1

H2 x 3.819

1x 90

180

0.3

1y at an

0.4

2x at an

0.4

0.3

2y 90

H2 y

4 ( 0.4)

a

z

180

H2 y

4 ( 0.4)

180

1 sin 36.9

1 sin 36.9

H2 H2 x H2 y

az

H2 6.366

H2 y 2.547

az

180

74

i1 i2

current is proportional to the electric current which

serves as its source, just as the electric field in

space is proportional to the charge which serves

as its source.

75

H_ do t_ dL

Amperes Circuital Law states that the line integral of H about any

closed path is exactly equal to the direct current enclosed by the

path.

of a right-handed screw turned in the direction in which the closed

path is traversed.

76

H_ dot _ dL

H d

1 d

I

2

77

2 a

I

2

2 b2

I I

2 2

c b

2 H

a b

b

c b

c b

78

79

80

81

CURL

product of the del operator with a vector

function

82

CURL

H_ do t_ dL

( curl_H)aN

lim

SN 0

SN

83

CURL

curl_H =

x H

x H = J

Second Equation of Maxwell

x E = 0

Third Equation

84

CURL

CurlH

d H d H a d H d H a d H d H a

z

y x

x

z y

y

x z

d

y

d

z

d

z

d

x

d

x

d

y

ax

d

CurlH

dx

H

x

ay

d

dy

Hy

d

dz

Hz

az

85

CURL

Exam ple 1

In a certain conducting region, H is def ined by:

H1 x( x y x) y x x y

Determine J at:

x 5

H1 y( x y z) y x z

y 2

2 2

H1 z( x y z) 4 x y

z 3

d

d

DelXHx H1 z( x y z) H1 y( x y z)

dy

dz

DelXHx 420

ax

DelXHy

d

d

H1 x( x y z) H1 z( x y z)

dz

dx

DelXHy 98

ay

DelXHz

d

d

H1 y( x y z) H1 x( x y z)

dx

dy

DelXHz 75

az

86

CURL

Exam ple 2

H2 x( x y x) 0

x 2

y 3

H2 y( x y z) x z

H2 z( x y z) y x

z 4

d

d

DelXHx H2 z( x y z) H2 y( x y z)

dy

dz

d

d

DelXHy H2 x( x y z) H2 z( x y z)

dz

dx

d

d

DelXHz H2 y( x y z) H2 x( x y z)

dx

dy

DelXHx 16

ax

DelXHy 9

ay

DelXHz 16

az

87

Example 8.2

88

Stokes Theorem

integrals about the

perimeter of every Delta S

is the same as the closed

line integral about the

perimeter of S because of

cancellation on every path.

H_ dot _ dL

( Del H)_dot _ dS

S

89

Hr r 6 r sin

Example 8.3

H r 0

H r 18 r sin cos

segment 1

r 4

0 0.1

r 4

0.1

segment 2

0 0.3

segment 3

r 4

dL

0 0.1

0.3

dr ar r d a r sin d a

Second term = 0 on segment 2 ( constant)

Third term = 0 on segments 1 and 3 ( = 0 or constant)

H dL

H r d

since H=0

0.3

H r sin d

H r d

H r r sin d 22.249

90

0 H

B_dot _ dS

B_dot _ dS

4 10

91

r R x

r R x 2

Express sin in terms of R and r.

2

R

R

sin

r

R2 x2

o I dx sin o I dx sin

dB 4 r 2 4 r 2

o I

dx

R

B

1

2

2

2

2 2

4 R x

R x

o I

R dx

B

4 R 2 x 2

o I R

dx

2

2

4

R x

dx

x

2 2 3 2 2 2 2 12

R x R R x

o I R

x

B

4 R2 R2 x2

o I

4 R R 2 2

o I R

1

2

4 R2

R 2 x 2

1

2

o I

4 R 2 12 2 12

I

I

2 o I

B o

o

1 1

4 R 4 R

4R

1

2

o I

B

2 R

o I dx sin o I l dx sin

ldB l 4 r 2 4 l r 2

o I l

dx

R

B

1

2

2

2

2 2

4 l R x

R x

l

o I l

o I R l

R dx

dx

B

3

l

2

2

4 l R 2 x 2 2

4

R x

From the table of integrals:

dx

2

R R x

2

o I R

x

B

4 R2 R2 x2

o I

l

4 R R 2 l2

o I

l

B

4 R R 2 l2

o I 2 l

B

4 R a 2 l2

1

2

o I R

1

2

2

4R

l

l

2

R 2 x 2

1

2

l

1

2

1

a 2 l 2 2

o I l

2 R R l

2

Wire

Just add up all of the contributions ds to the

current, but now distance r=R is constant,

and r ds.

i

B dB 0 2 ds

0

4R 0

Notice that

. So the integral becomes

ds Rd

0i

4R 2

Rd

0i

4R

0i = 2, so

For a complete

B loop,

4R

0i

2R

Circular Current Loop

the yz plane and carrying a steady current I:

the r from ds to point P.

ds sin 90 ds

from ds is at an angle

with the x axis.

along the x axis and directed away from

the circular loop.

dB dB

cos

o I

ds

dB 4 R 2 x 2 cos

o I

ds

dB 4 R 2 x 2 cos

o I

ds

R

dB 4 R 2 x 2 2 2

R x

o I R

B

ds

3

4 R2 x2 2

around the closed current loop is the

circumference; s = 2R

The net magnetic field B at point P is :

B

B

B

o I R

4 R x

2

2 o I R

4 R x

2

o I R

2 R x

2

2R

2

current loop, where x is very large in

comparison to R:

B

B

o I R

2 R x

2

o I R

2

2 3

o I R

B

3

2x

o I R

2 x

o I R

2 x

2

2

B

y=

f(x)

0i

2R

o I R 2

B

2 x3

o I R

2 R x

2

3

2

x=

2

Either:

Coulomb's Law:

Gauss' Law

Magnetic Field?

Two ways to calculate the Magnetic Field:

Biot-Savart Law:

I

Ampere's Law

"High symmetry"

Amperes Law

Draw an amperian loop around a system of

currents (like the two wires at right). The

loop can be any shape, but it must be closed.

the loop, for

B

each element of length ds around this closed

loop.

The value of this integral is proportional to the

current enclosed:

B ds 0ienc

Amperes Law

Straight Wire with Current

that, for this case,

i.

B 0

2r

Lets show it again, using Amperes Law:

First, we are free to draw an Amperian loop of

any shape, but since we know that the

magnetic field goes in circles around a wire,

lets choose a circular loop (of radius r).

Then B and ds are parallel, and B is constant

on the loop, so

B ds B2r 0ienc

i

B 0

2r

B ds 0ienc

Amperes Law

Straight Wire with Current

Draw a circular Amperian loop around the

axis, of radius r < R.

The enclosed current is less than the total

current, because some is outside the

Amperian loop. The amount enclosed is

J

i r 2

ienc

Aen

Atotal

R 2

r2

B ds B2r 0ienc 0i R 2

i

B 0 2 r

2R

B

~r

~1/r

R

current I into the screen as shown.

The conductor on the left is solid and

has radius R=3a. The conductor on

the right has a hole in the middle &

carries current only between R=a &

3a

R=3a.

3a

2a

1A

the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

1B

for the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

1A

between the

magnetic field at R =

6a for the two cases

(L=left, R=right)?

a

3a

3a

2a

Amperes Law can be used to find the field in both cases.

The Amperian loop in each case is a circle of radius R=6a in the plane of

the screen.

The field in each case has cylindrical symmetry, being everywhere

tangent to the circle.

Therefore the field at R=6a depends only on the total current enclosed!!

In each case, a total current I is enclosed.

1B

the magnetic field at R = 2a for

the two cases (L=left, R=right)?

a

3a

3a

2a

Once again, the field depends only on how much current is enclosed.

For the LEFT conductor:

( 2a ) 2

4

IL

I

I

2

9

(3a)

( 2a ) 2 a 2

3

IR

I

I

2

2

8

(3a) a

Solenoids

We saw earlier that a complete

its center:

0i

B

2R

simply adding more loops. A many

turn coil of wire with current is

called a solenoid.

farther away the fields blend into a

nearly constant field down the axis.

Solenoids

Compare with electric field in a capacitor.

Like a capacitor, the field is uniform inside (except near the ends), but the

direction of the field is different.

Approximate that the field is constant inside and zero outside (just like capacitor).

the solenoid.

Characterize the windings in terms of number

of turns per unit length, n. Each turn carries

current i, so total current over length h is inh.

B ds Bh 0ienc 0inh

B 0in

ideal solenoid

Toroids

both ends, and spreads apart (weakens) at the

ends.

We can wrap our coil around like a doughnut, so

that it has no ends. This is called a toroid.

Now the field has no ends, but wraps uniformly

around in a circle.

What is B inside? We draw an Amperian loop

parallel to the field, with radius r. If the coil has a

total of N turns, then the Amperian loop encloses

current Ni.

B ds B2r 0ienc 0iN

0iN

2 r

inside toroid

Currents

Recall that a wire carrying a current in a magnetic

field feels a force.

When there are two parallel wires carrying current,

the magnetic field from one causes a force on the

other.

When the currents are parallel, the two wires are

pulled together.

When the currents are anti-parallel, the two wires are

forced apart.

To calculate the force on b due to a,

i

i

B 0 0a

2R

2 d

Fba

0iaib L

2d

Fba ib L Ba

FF

FB iL B

Magnetic Forces on One Another

second current-carrying wire, first find the field due to

the second wire at the site of the first wire. Then find

the force on the first wire due to that field.

Parallel currents attract each other, and antiparallel

currents repel each other.

3. Which of the four situations below has the

greatest force to the right on the central

conductor?

F greatest?

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

I.

II.

III.

IV.

Cannot

determine.

I.

II.

III.

IV.

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