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IVAN PETROVICH
PAVLOV
Classical Conditioning
Biographies

o Born : September 14, 1849 in Ryazan,


Russia
o Died : February 27, 1936 (aged 86) at
Leningrad, Soviet Union
o Fields : Physiologist, psychologist,
physician
o Institutions : Military Medical
Academy
o Alma mater : Saint Petersburg
University
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov o Known for Classical conditioning,
Transmarginal inhibition, Behavior
modification
o Notable awards : Nobel Prize in
Physiology
or Medicine
Concept

Before conditioning

_Neutral Stimulus (SN) : Stimulus which does not start, first of all, no Reflex, no
answer or which does not start the desired answer.

_Unconditional Stimulus (SI) (or stimulus unconditioned ): Stimulus which starts an


answer in manner reflex,
without training necessary.

_Unconditional Answer (RI) (or unconditioned answer ): Answer started by a


stimulus in
manner reflex, without training
necessary. It can appear in the
form of emotion or of reflex.
Concept

After conditioning

_Conditional Stimulus (SC) (or stimulus conditioned ): Initially neutral stimulus


(SN)
which ends up starting a
conditional answer (RC) when
it was associated with an
unconditional stimulus (SI).

_Conditional Answer (RC) (or conditioned answer ): Answer started by a


conditional
stimulus (SC) when it was
associated with an unconditional
stimulus (SI) (thus that the
unconditional answer (RI)).
Research
o 1980s : Investigate the gastric function of dog.
_Externalizing a salivary gland.
_Salivary gland : Exocrine gland that produce saliva.
_Collect, measure and analyze the saliva.
_Saliva : Watery and usually frothy substance produced
in the mouth of humans and most other
animals.
_What response it had to food under different condition.
_Manipulate the stimuli occurring before the presentation of
food.
_Noticed : rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat
powder (an innate response to food-unconditioned
response)
_Unconditioned response : The significant stimulus
necessarily evokes the
response.
_The dog began to salivate in the presence of lab technician who
normally fed them. These called psychic secretions.
Research
o From this observation : He predicted that this particular stimulus (meat powder)
in
the dog’s surrounding would become associated with food
and salivation on its own.
_Pavlov saw in this phenomenon the base of the training
and indicated this phenomenon by the name of
conditional reflex (or conditioned) or Reflex of Pavlov.

o Pavlov decided to see if he could make the dogs salivate with any sort of
stimulus
and was shocked by the results.
_Experiment : Presented the food to another dog.
_IF were the food which always caused the salivation of dog (IH).
_Consequently, Pavlov started to make sound a bell (SN) each time
it prepared to serve his meal to him.
_Neutral stimulus (bell) became conditioned stimulus (CS) as a
result of consistent pairing with the
unconditioned stimulus (US)-meat powder.
_Neutral stimulus : Any event that does not result in an
overt behavioral response.
Research

_Pavlov referred this relationship as a conditional reflex (now


called Conditioned Response).
_Conditioned response : If the CS and the US are
repeatedly paired, eventually the
two stimuli become associated
and the organism begins to
produce a behavioral response to
the CS.
_So, when he would ring his bell for food, his dogs would start
to salivate.
_After little time, it realized that the dog salivated (IH ⇒ RC) as
soon as it heard the bell (SN ⇒ SC) and this, even in a case
where it did not bring food to him.
Phenomena
Related to classical conditioning

Generalization: The conditional answer (RC) is not only obtained with a


precise
stimulus, but with elements which have a certain resemblance
to
this conditional stimulus (SC).

Discrimination: The conditional answer (RC) is obtained in a situation with


quite
specific stimuli and is not it in the other similar ones.

Extinction: The conditional answer (RC) can decrease and disappear when the
conditional stimulus (SC) is presented too often without the
unconditional stimulus (SI).

Spontaneous Recovery: A conditional answer (RC) reappears after one period


of
extinction.
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nurhafiz b nordin

noor azeani bt muhamad yatim