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SEMINAR PRESENTATION ON SMART GRID

SUBMITTED BY :ANIL KUMAR MEENA


ROLL NO.-11104EN074
B.TECH - 4th YEAR

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
IIT(BHU),VARANASI

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIC GRID


1.

The first ac power grid system was installed in 1882.

2.

That time the grid was a centralized unidirectional


system of electric power transmission, electricity
distribution and demand- driven control.

3.

The topology of 1960s grid was a result of strong


economic of scale: large coal, gas and oil fired
power station.

WHAT IS SMART GRID

Smart Grid = IT + Electric Grid

WHAT IS SMART GRID

It is a modernized electrical grid that uses


analogue or digital information and
communication technology to gather and act
on information such as behaviors of suppliers
and consumer in automated fashion to improve
the efficency,reliability,economic and
sustainability of the production and distribution
of electricity.

WHY DEVELOP A SMART GRID


1.Enviorment impacts-India is currently the world's 7th largest emitter of global
warming pollution and 5th largest for emissions from fossil fuel combustion. It
accounts for approximately 4 percent of the world's emissions (1,866 million
metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)). Per capita emissions are 1.7
metric tons of CO2e (154th highest in the world). The per capita GHG emissions of
India (average across the five studies) are estimated to be 2.1 tonnes of CO2e1
in the year 2020, and 3.5 tonnes of CO2e in the year 2030
2.Blackout-In India major blackout is

2th Jan. 2001 230 millions people affected,30th July 2012 330 millions and 31th July
2012 600 millions people affected.
3.Theft Control in India it is a serious problem it is increases losses up to 50%.
4.Costs Implementation of dynamic tarffics, Tariff mechanism for roof top
solar PV's Net Metering/Feed in Tariff
5.Utility Operations - Introduction of Battery Parks and other Energy Storage
Systems on a trial basis

ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN INDIA

CARBON EMMISSON(C02e) IN INDIA

Fig.-Climate Modelling Forum, India,sep. 2009

SMART GRID IN INDIA

In India July 2013 230GW of installed capacity of electricity with utilities.

Indian power system is now the fourth largest in the world, but per-capita
consumption of electricity in India is only about one-fourth of the world
average.

India power demand is increasing at an annual rate of 8-10%. So, The potential
demand by 2032 is estimated to be as high as 900 GW.

Indias transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world,
averaging 26% of total electricity production, with some states as high as 62%.

When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total,
average losses are as high as 50%. This creates a powerful incentive for
introducing smart grid components, and the meter market in India is estimated
at 100 million nodes.

In India first project of smart grid in July, 2008, Rabirashmi Abasan in Kolkata
(greater Calcutta area).

WHAT IS SMART GRID

Mainly Three Component


1.Generation

2.Transmission
3.Distribution(Consumer)

SMART GRID SYSTEM

MODEL OF INTEGRATED SMART GRID

CHARACTERISTICS OF SMART GRID

SELF HEALING

Empower
and
incorporate
the consumer

Optimization
Assets

SMART GRID

Tolerant
attack

Market

Power
Quality

CHARACTERISTICS OF SMART GRID


Self

Healing

A smart grid automatically detects and responds to routine problems and quickly
recovers if they occur, minimizing downtime and financial loss.

Empower

and incorporate the consumer

A smart grid gives all consumers - industrial, commercial, and residential - visibility into realtime pricing, and affords them the opportunity to choose the volume of consumption and
price that best suits their needs.

Tolerant

attack

A smart grid has security built-in from the ground up

Provides

power quality needed by 21th century users

A smart grid provides power free of sags, spikes, disturbances and interruptions. It is suitable for
use by the data centres, computers, electronics and robotic manufacturing that will power our
future economy.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SMART GRID


Accommodates

a wide variety of generation option

A smart grid enables "plug-and-play" interconnection to multiple and distributed sources of


power and storage (e.g., wind, solar, battery storage, etc.)

Fully

enables maturing electricity markets

By providing consistently dependable coast-to-coast operation, a smart grid supports energy


markets that encourage both investment and innovation.

Optimizes

assets

A smart grid enables us to build less new infrastructure, transmit more power through
existing systems, and thereby spend less to operate and maintain the grid.

COMPONENTS OF SMART GRID


Smart

Meter- it is featuring two-way communications between consumers and power

providers to automate billing data collection, detect outages and dispatch repair crews to the
correct location faster.

Variable

Frequency mode of operation-Rather than using nominal frequency,

provision to operate devices in variable frequency will reduce the time of device operation
and hence the power.

Phasor

measurement units -High speed sensors called PMUs distributed throughout a

transmission network can be used to monitor the state of the electric system.

Universal access - It is to affordable, low-carbon electrical power generation (e.g., wind

turbines, concentrating solar power systems, photovoltaic panels) and storage (e.g., in
batteries, flywheels or super-capacitors or in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles).

Intelligent

appliances

HUGE ENERGY SAVING POTENTIAL

Data is 2006-2007
Known technologies could result in huge
electrical power savings
Constraints
Low affordability in the nation
High Investment on new appliances,

better processes.

Require new
low cost
solutions

SUN SHINES BRIGHTLY OVER INDIA

INDIA CAN CERTAINLY USE SOLAR ENERGY, AS CAPITAL GOODS PRICES FALL
SOLAR PHOTO-VOLTAIC PROVIDES DC POWER FOR ABOUT SIX HOURS A DAY
100 PER WH CAPITAL COST: WITH 10% INTEREST AND PAYBACK IN 20 YEARS,
AMOUNTS TO 12 PER YEAR(NOT COMPUTING COSTS OF LAND)
COSTS A LITTLE OVER 7.25 / KWH ASSUMING 10% LOSSES
AS OPPOSED TO 3 TO 5 PER KWH FOR GR

Solar PV power price computation


investment per kWh

1,00,000.00

interest rate

10%

depreciation (years)
yearly payment

sun-hours/day
number of days /year

20

total power in Kwh gen/yr

-11,745.96
price per kWh

Losses
7.25

6
300
1800
10%

WHEN DO THE DEMAND PEAK IN INDIA


Depends on which time of year?
There are two peaks

Sept 23rd

Day: 11 am to 4 pm
Evening: 7 pm to 11 pm

Evening peak is worst most of the year


Homes/ shops add to late office hrs
Day peak can be bad in Summer month
Air Con is significant load

May 2nd
June 6th

20

May 19th

Feb 9th

DECENTRALIZED SOLAR PV

Would be ideal in day time


To complement grid
Direct usage in offices / shopping malls can reduce the day time peak load requirement
to a considerable extent
Some coupling to ice-battery (charged during off-peak hours)
Makes economic sense today, provided there is space for solar PV installation

Some solar PV / solar thermal feeding to grid would be helpful

What about evening peak loads


Solar can not help here
Reducing load by enhancing efficiency
Reducing consumptions by introduction of time of day metering
Using some storage (electrical / ice-battery charged during 5 PM to 7 PM)

SMART-GRIDS FOR INDIA


Reduce

Distribution losses
Enable decentralized power-generation and optimize usage
Explore alternate methods of storage, including storage of heat
(cool)
Handle peak-demand better
Manage demand and supply to meet creatively at all points of
time, by using storage and high-cost instantaneous power-sources
At local level
At neighborhood level
At district level, at state level, at national level
Intelligently decide where to do load shedding if no other options
enable time of day metering with remote monitoring

DISADVANTAGES OF SMART GRID


Privacy
some

and security

type of meters are hacked

Hacker

Gain of thousands, even millions of meters

Increase or decrease the demand for power

Not

simply a single component

Various

technology component

Software ,the power generators ,system integrators

Expensive

in terms of installation

FUTURE OF SMART GRID


In

the near future ,there will not be any vast


development

Initially

there is requirement of huge financial


demands and regulations.

In

the long-run ,attitudes will change ,wide spread


usage of the smart grid from every business to every
home just like the Internet.

SMART GRID PROJECT IN INDIA


1.

Uttar Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam Limited (UHBVNL),Panchkula (Haryana) Location: Panipat

2.

Tripura State Electricity Corporation Limited (TSECL),Agartala (Tripura) Location: Electrical


Division No. 1 of Agartala town

3.

Electricity Department, Government of Puducherry (PED) Location: Division 1 of Puducherry

4.

Uttar Gujarat Vij Company Limited (UGVCL), Mehsana (Gujarat) Location: Naroda of
Sabarmati circle which is a cluster of industrial and residential area, and Deesa of Palanpur
circle which is an agricultural area

5.

Jaipur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (JVVNL), Jaipur (Rajasthan) Location: Vishwakarma
Industrial Area (VKIA), Sanganer sub-division of Jaipur

6.

West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited (WBSEDCL), West Bengal
Location: Siliguri Town in Darjeeling District

7.

Central Power Distribution Company of AP Limited (APCPDCL), Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)


Location: Jeedimetla Industrial Area

8.

Punjab State Power Corporation Limited (PSPCL), Punjab Location: Industrial Division of City
Circle Amritsar

REFERENCESo

NATURAL RESOURCES DEFENCE COUNCIL

http://www.nrdc.org/international/copenhagenaccords/
o

Climate Modelling Forum, GOI, Sep. 2009

Smart Grid Initiative for Power Distribution Utility in India by Arup Sinha, S.Neogi,, R.N.Lahiri, MemberIEEE, S.Chowdhury, MemberIEEE,,
S.P.Chowdhury,MemberIEEE, N.Chakraborty,MemberIEEE

A. Zheng, "A Smarter Grid for India", October 2007

http://www.smartgridnews.com/
o

Accelerated Deployment of Smart Grid Technologies in India Present Scenario,

Challenges and Way Forward by Er. Alekhya Datta1, Dr. Parimita Mohanty2, Er. Mukesh Gujar3.
o

Smart Grid The Future Fantsy by Han Slootweg Manager Innovation Enexis B.V.,The Netherlands

A. Aggarwal, S. Kunta, and P. Verma, A proposed communication infrastructure for the smart grid, in Innocative Smart Grid
Technologies (ISGT), 2010, 2010.

K. Clement-Nyns, E. Haesen, and J. Driesen, "The impact of charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid," IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems,2010

Demand-Side Behavior in the Smart Grid Environment A. Moshari, G. R. Yousefi, A. Ebrahimi, and S. Haghbin ,IEEE paper 2009

Introduction of Smart Grid IIT DELHI by Vikram Gandotra ,24th march 2013

S.Massod Amin and bruce F. Wollenberg Towards to Smart Grid IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, oct. 2005

Smart Grid Vision and Roadmap for India by GOI on 13th aug 2013

http://www.ieee.org/go/emergingtech

SAVE ENERGY SAVE FUTURE

Thank You