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# ISA Northern California

October 14, 2003
Craig Chidester
909 288 7990

Power Quality

## What Kind of Power Quality Effects?

Power factor?
PF = kW / kVA
High motor content means lagging PF
100HP motor, 460V, 93% eff, 119A

## (100HP x 0.746kW/HP) / 0.93 = 80.2kW

119A x 460V x 1.73 / 1000 = 94.8kVA
PF = 80.2kW / 94.8kVA = 84.6% @ FL
But at actual load, more like 70% or less

## What Kind of Power Quality Effects?

Incoming Sine Wave Notching?

## Arises from SCR front ends on AFDs

Forced commutation causes line notches
But modern AFDs use diode front ends
Self commutating no notching

Voltage sag?

## Standard motor starters allow 650% inrush

Weak power systems are affected
500HP motor on 1000kVA, 5.75%Z Xfmr
650% X (500 / 1000) X 0.0575 = 19% sag
AFD limits inrush to 110% (or 150%)
110% X (500 / 1000) X 0.0575 = 3% sag

## What kind of Power Quality Effects?

Harmonic Distortion
AFDs, DC Drives, UPSs, DC power supplies (computers,
duplicators, faxs) will cause current (and voltage) harmonics
Single phase 3rd, 6th, etc (triplens) can cause transformer
neutral conductor overheating
Three phase 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc can cause equipment
malfunctions
Big questions How much? and How much is too much?

## What are Harmonics?

Definition:
Harmonics are integral multiples of some fundamental
frequency that, when added together, result in a
distorted waveform.

## What are Harmonics?

+
sin(5x)
f(x) = sin(x)
f(x) =
5
The resulting wave shows a strong departure from the smooth
waves comprising it:

5

## What are Harmonics?

In fact, any function may be constructed from a
sine wave and some number of its harmonics:

## Where do they come from?

The power company typically supplies a reasonably
smooth sinusoidal waveform:

## Where do they come from?

...but nonlinear devices will draw distorted waveforms,
which are comprised of harmonics of the source:

## Common sources of Harmonics

Lighting ballasts

UPS systems

AC and DC drives

Converter

DC bus
&
smoothing

harmonics

Inverter

harmonics

## AC drives and Harmonics

HARMONICS:
Have implications for the motor
insulation and windings.
Essentially have zero effect on
other equipment on the power
system.

Inverter

harmonics

## AC drives and Harmonics

LINE-SIDE HARMONICS CAN HAVE
FAR-REACHING EFFECTS ON THE
POWER SYSTEM:
Distribution transformers
Converter

DC bus
&
smoothing

Standby generators
Communications equipment
Switchgear and relays

harmonics

## Computers, computer systems

Diagnostic equipment

## AC drives and Harmonics

Typical 6-step converter waveform:
Harmonic Content
I5 = 22.5%
I7 = 9.38%
I11 = 6.10%
I13 = 4.06%
I17 = 2.26%
I19 = 1.77%
I23 = 1.12%
I25 = 0.86%

## Harmonics and transformers

Transformer overheating and potential
insulation failure result from several
conditions caused by harmonics:
Increased skin and proximity effects
Harmonics circulating in the primary
winding
AFC

AFC

## Increased hysteresis losses

Increased eddy current losses
DC in the primary windings

## Harmonics and transformers

Many transformers are rated by
K factor which simply describes
their ability to withstand harmonics.
Transformers may also be derated
heating caused by harmonics.

AFC

AFC

## Improved transformer designs have

also been developed, with oversized
neutral busses, special cores, and
specially designed coils.

## Power correction capacitors can cause

series and parallel resonance effects on
a power system.
If a harmonic is generated which excites
a system resonance, amplification of that
harmonic may occur.

## Calculation of the harmonic resonance frequency for the

system can give an indication of potential resonance
problems.

## Harmonics and power-correction capacitors

EXAMPLE:
Assume a 1500 kVA supply xfmr,
with a 5.75% impedance.

1500 kVA
5.75%

## Also assume 600 kVA of power

correction capacitors on the system

600 kVAC

hr =

kVAsc
kVAC

600

## Recommended limits - IEEE 519

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
has set recommended limits on both current and voltage
distortion in IEEE 519-1992.
Voltage distortion limits (@ low-voltage bus):
Application class

THD (voltage)

Special system

3%

General system

5%

Dedicated system

10 %

## Recommended limits - IEEE 519

MAXIMUM HARMONIC CURRENT DISTORTION
in percent of IL
Isc/IL
<20
20-50
50-100
100-1000
>1000

<11
4.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
15.0
Isc:
IL:

11<h<17
17<h<23
23<h<35
2.0
1.5
0.6
3.5
2.5
1.0
4.5
4.0
1.5
5.5
5.0
2.0
7.0
6.0
2.5

## Maximum short-circuit current at the Point of Common

Coupling (PCC).
Maximum demand load current (fundamental) at
the PCC.

TDD
5.0
8.0
12.0
15.0
20.0

Attenuation of Harmonics
Inductive Reactance
Method:

## Add a line reactor or isolation transformer

to attenuate harmonics.

Benefits:

Low cost.
Technically simple.

Concerns:

## Tends to offer reductions in only higher

order harmonics. Has little effect on the 5th
and 7th harmonics.
Because of the associated voltage drop,
there are limits to the amount of reactance

Attenuation of Harmonics
Passive Filters
Method:

## Provide a low-impedance path to ground

for the harmonic frequencies.

Benefits:

May be tuned to a
frequency between two prevalent harmonics
so as to help attenuate both.

Concerns:

## Tuning the filters may be a labor-intensive

process.
Filters are difficult to size, because they offer
a path for harmonics from any source.
Quite sensitive to any future system changes.

Attenuation of Harmonics
Active Filters
Method:

## Inject equal and opposite harmonics onto the

power system to cancel those generated by
other equipment.

Benefits:

## Have proven very effective in reducing

harmonics well below required levels.

Concerns:

## The high performance inverter required for the

harmonic injection is costly.
Power transistors are exposed to conditions
of the line, so reliability may be a problem.

Attenuation of Harmonics
12-pulse Rectifiers
Method:

## Two separate rectifier bridges supply a single

DC bus. The two bridges are fed from phaseshifted supplies.

Benefits:

## Very effective in the elimination of 5th and 7th

harmonics.
Stops harmonics at the source.
Insensitive to future system changes.

Concerns:

## May not meet the IEEE standards in every

case.
Does little to attenuate the 11th and 13th
harmonics.

Attenuation of Harmonics
18-pulse Rectifier
Method:

## An integral phase-shift transformer and rectifier

Input which draws an almost purely sinusoidal
waveform from the source.

Benefits:

## Meets the IEEE standards in every case!

Attenuates all harmonics up to the 35th.
Stops harmonics at the source.
Insensitive to future system changes.

Concerns:

## Can be expensive at smaller HPs

Comparison of waveforms
6-pulse converter
note the level of distortion
and steep current rise.

12-pulse converter
the waveform appears more
sinusoidal, but still not very
smooth.

18-pulse converter
virtually indistinguishable
from the source current
waveform.