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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)

What is electrodialysis?
Electrodialysis is a membrane process in which ions are
transported through ion permeable membranes from one
solution to another under the influence of an electrical
potential gradient. First applications in the 30s.

General Principles
Salts

dissolved in water forms ions, being positively


(cationic) or negatively (anionic) charged.
These ions are attracted to electrodes with an opposite
electric charge.
Membranes can be constructed to permit selective passage
of either anions or cations.
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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
How the process takes place?
Electrodialysis cell

Module
Hundreds of anionic and cationic
membranes placed alternatively

ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Ion Permeable Membranes
Non porous

Sheets of ion-exchange resins and other polymers


Thickness 100 - 500 mm

Are divided in
Anion - exchange
Positively charged groups
E.g. Quarternary ammonium salts
NR3 or C5H5N-R

Cation - exchange
Negatively charged groups
E.g. Sulfonic or carboxylic acid groups
- SO3 -

Chemically attached to the polymer chains


(e.g. styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers)
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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Types of Ion - Exchange Membranes
Heterogeneous

Ion - exchange resines + Film - forming polymer


High Electrical resistance
Poor mechanical strenght

Homogeneous

Introduction of an ionic group into a polymer film

Crosslinking

ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Requirements for Ion - Exchange Membranes
High electrical conductivity
High ionic permeability
Moderate degree of swelling
High mechanical strength
Charge density 1 - 2 mequiv / g dry polymer
Electrical Resistance 2 - 10 W.cm2
Diffusion coefficient 10-6 - 10-10 cm2/s
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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
How the process takes place?
Donnan exclusion
Electrostatic repulsion

Osmotic flow

ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Designing of an electrodialysis desalination plant
Desalination 142 (2002) 267-286

Parameters:
Stack Construction
Feed and product concentration
Membrane permselectivity
Flow velocities
Current density
Recovery Rates

Optimized in terms of

Width of the cell


Length of the stack
Thickness of the cell chamber
Volume factor
Shadow effect
Safety factor

Component design and properties


Operating Parameters

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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Applications
Potable from brackish water
Reduce
Electrolyte
Content

Food products - whey, milk, soy sauce, fruit juice


Nitrate from drinking water
Boiler feed water
Rinse water for electronics processing
Effluent streams
Blood plasma to recover proteins
Sugar and molasses
Amino acids
Potassium tartrate from wine
Fiber reactive dyes

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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Recover Electrolytes

Pure NaCl from seawater


Salts of organic acids from fermentation broth
Amino acids from protein hydrolysates
HCl from cellulose hydrolysate

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ELECTRODIALYSIS (ED)
Electrodialysis Reversal Process (EDR)
The polarity of the electrodes is reversed, so the
permeate becomes the retentate and viceversa.

Electrodialysis at high temperatures


Electrodialysis with electrolysis

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