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HORMONES.

Pupils should be able to :


1. Define hormone as a chemical substance, produced
by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the
activity of one or more specific target organs and is
then destroyed by the liver.

2. Explain what is meant by an endocrine gland, with


reference to the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas

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3. State the role of the hormone adrenaline in


boosting blood glucose levels and give examples
of situations in which this may occur.
4. Explain how the blood glucose concentration is
regulated by insulin and glucagon as a
homeostatic mechanism.

5. Describe the signs such as an increased blood


glucose level and glucose in urine and the
treatment of diabetes mellitus using insulin.

SIOs in pale green not in Sci Bio


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Co-ordination of the human body is brought about by


Nervous and
hormonal control

http://www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/hormones/index.cfm?coSiteNavigation_allTopic=1

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What is a hormone?
- its a chemical substance (protein, polypeptide, steroid or
produced in minute amts by endocrine
(ductless) glands
amines)

- secreted directly into the blood


- to be transported to one or more specific target organs

- where it alter the activity of those organs


- After which it is destroyed in the liver
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- Important in homeostatic control where the


stimulus is mainly from the bodys internal envimt.
- Change in internal environment detected mainly by

hypothalamus

- which then directs the endocrine gland/s involved


to secrete the appropriate hormone

- Serious deficiencies or excesses of hormone


production give rise to illnesses
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Master gland cos it orchestrates


the productn of hormones from
other endocrine glands
Anterior pituitary gland
- Produces 6 hormones
- most have other endocrine
glands as their target organs
- Also releases growth hormone

Posterior pituitary gland


- stores 2 hormones
- ADH & oxytocin prod by
hypothalamus

Secretes thyroxine
& triiodothyronin
regulate growth &
developmt of cells

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Two kinds of glands

EXOCRINE gland Glands with ducts are called


exocrine glands. Eg salivary glands
ENDOCRINE gland ductless glands. Do not have a
duct to carry away the secretion
eg adrenal glands

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PANCREAS
- Is an exocrine gland which secretes enzyme into
the duodenum through the pancreatic duct
- Is also an endocrine gland (ductless)
the hormone producing cells are arranged in small
isolated groups called islets
- Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas produce the
hormone insulin

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Blood normally contains about 70 90mg of


glucose per 100cm3 of blood
After food, blood glucose level increases.

Pancreas detects and secretes insulin to bring the


glucose level down.

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Effects of INSULIN

1.Increases the permeability of cell membranes to


glucose and thus increases the rate of glucose
uptake by cells
2. Causes the conversion of excess glucose to
glycogen for storage in liver and muscles
3. Causes an increased oxidation of glucose during
tissue respiration
All these changes decreases blood glucose concentration
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During vigorous muscular contraction or


during starvation, glucose level drops
If blood glucose level drops, the hormone glucagon
is released.
Glucagon acts mainly on the liver cells.

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Effects of Glucagon
- Stimulates the :

Conversion of the stored glycogen into glucose


Conversion of fats and amino acids into glucose

Conversion of lactic acid into glucose


Blood glucose level below 40mg/100cm3 affects
brain cells - lead to convulsion and coma
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What happens when there is a deficiency in


insulin production?
- result in Diabetes mellitus
SIGNS :
urine contains glucose
persistently high blood glucose level
TREATMENT :
diet must be carefully monitored
treated by injecting insulin into veins
cannot take insulin orally because as a protein, it
would be broken down by digestive enzymes
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A person suffering from diabetes mellitus tends


to :
lose weight and show muscular weakness due to
- inability to convert glucose to glycogen for storage in
muscles and liver
- cells unable to absorb glucose well for tissue respiration
body oxidises fats instead of glucose
- results in production of ketones which can lower
bloods pH and cause death if too much accumulates
become dehydrated
- excess glucose excreted via kidneys and this leads to
much loss of water resulting in thirst
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ADRENALINE
Produce by adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland,
situated above the kidneys
adrenal glands controlled by
the nervous system
secreted when person is in
fear, anger, anxiety
prepare body for fight or
flight reactions
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How Adrenal Medulla Responds to Stimuli


2
1

Stimuli

Receptor
Hypothalamus stimulated
4

Fear,
anger,
anxiety,
stress, etc

sensory
neurone
Certain sensory
neurones in the
hypothalamus are
activated

5
spinal cord

Nerve impulses
leave the spinal
cord to adrenal
medulla

adrenal
cortex

adrenal
medulla

8 Adrenaline reaches target organs in

various parts of the body. It brings


about short-term responses that
prepare the body for fight or flight.

Adrenaline is
carried in blood

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18 December 2014

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Effects of Adrenaline :
1. Speeds up the breakdown of glycogen to
glucose in liver and muscles - thus more glucose is
made available for tissue respiration
2. Increases metabolic rate - more E released in
tissue respiration
3. Increases rate of heartbeat - so that O2 and
glucose can be carried to the muscles quickly

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4. Increases breathing rate - so that more O2 can be


absorbed into blood in the lungs and CO2 can be
removed quickly
5. Constricts arterioles in skin (causing pallor) - more
blood can be channelled to the muscles and lungs

6. Pupils dilate - let more light into eye to form brighter


images; help to detect visual danger signals in
surroundg

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