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Certified Safety Construction

Worker CW203
Presented By:
Construction Compliance
Training Center

This material was developed by Compacion Foundation Inc and The Hispanic Contractors Association de Tejas under Susan Harwood Grant
Number SH-20-843-SH0 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or
policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsements by the U.S.
Government.

This module will provide the information and the


necessary tools that you will need in order to recognize
the risks associated with the job, you will learn the
procedures to control and minimize risks.

You will identify;

Definitions

Specific

Subpart L- Scaffolds

Types of Scaffolds

Hazards Associated with


Scaffolds

General Scaffolding
Requirements

Requirements

Inspections

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.450(b)
It is defined as any temporary
elevated platform (supported or
suspended) and its supporting
structure (including points of
anchorage), used for supporting
employees or materials or both.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.450(b)
A person who is capable of
identifying existing and predictable
hazards in the surroundings or working
conditions which are unsanitary,
hazardous,
or
dangerous
to
employees, and who has authorization
to take prompt corrective measures to
eliminate them.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.450(b)
A person who, by possession of a
recognized degree, certificate, or
professional standing, or who by
extensive knowledge, training, and
experience,
has
successfully
demonstrated his/her ability to solve
or resolve problems related to the
subject matter, the work or the project.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(a)(6)
Scaffolds erection shall be evaluated,
designed and planned by a qualified person
and shall be constructed and loaded with
that design. Each project has unique
conditions and hazards. This person should
use the common sense, good judgment
and strong rational bases for the evaluation
of his/her design.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

CFR 1926.450 Scope, applications & definitions

CFR 1926.451 General Requirements

CFR 1926.452 Additional Specific Requirements

CFR 1926.454 - Training

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Appendixes:

Appendix A Scaffold Specifications

Appendix B (Reserved) Criteria for


determining the feasibility of providing safe
access and fall protection for scaffold erectors
and dismantlers.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Appendixes:

Appendix C List of national consensus


standards

Appendix D List of training topics for scaffold


erectors and dismantlers

Appendix E Drawings and illustrations

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Suspension Scaffold

Supported Scaffold

Scaffolding aerial
basket

Scaffolding System

Mobile Scaffolding
Towers

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Falls to a lower level

Collapse of structure
Electrical contacts

Falls on the same level


Falling materials and tools

Blows with fixed objects

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Falls to a lower level:


Building and removing the
scaffolding incorrectly.
Going up the structure to
reach the level of work.

Inadequate fall protection, no


safety rails
Incomplete Platforms
Breakage of the work
platform.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Collapse of the structure:


The inadequate support surface.
Scaffold support of low resistance
materials.
Mooring to the structure,
incomplete or insufficient.
Strong winds (plastic covers
increases
the probability).

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Electrical contacts:
Direct or indirect proximity to
power lines
High or low voltage either air or
on the front.
Power cables for portable
electrical extension cords.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Falls on the same level:


Order and cleanliness on the
surface of work platforms:
Extension cords on the
platform.
Air lines on the platform
Tools on the platform

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Falling materials and tools:

Scaffolding collapse.
Unprotected work platform
(no toe board)
Rupture of the work
platform.
Incomplete Platform

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Blows with fixed


objects:
Blows to the head, arms,
hips and legs.
Blows with the same
scaffold
Blows with fixed structures

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(a)(6)

Designed
by
a
qualified
person
and constructed
and
loaded
in
accordance with that
design.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(1)
Fully planked between
front
upright
and
guardrail support

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(1)(ii)
Space between the last
plank and the guardrail
support no more than
9

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(6)
Planks do not support
one another

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(5)(i)

Each end of a platform


10 feet or less in length shall
not extend over its support
more than 12 inches (30 cm)
unless the platform is designed
and installed so that the
cantilevered portion of the
platform is able to support
employees and/or materials
without tipping.

Cantilevered
Portion

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(5)(ii)

Each
platform
grater than 10 feet
in
length shall not extend
over its support more than
18 inches (46 cm) unless
the platform is designed
and installed so that the
cantilevered portion of the
platform is able to support
employees.

Cantilevered
Portion

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(6)

On
scaffolds
where scaffolds planks
are abutted to create a
long platform each
abutted end shall rest
on separate support
surface.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(8)

On
direction
changes, any platform
on a bearer at other
than a right angle shall
be laid first, and
platforms which rest at
right angles over the
same
bearer
laid
second.

These planks
laid first

These planks
laid on top

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(10)

Scaffold components
manufactured by different
manufacturers shall not be
intermixed
unless
the
components fit together
without force and the
scaffold's structural integrity
is maintained by the user.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(c)(2)

Supported scaffolds
poles, legs, frames
and uprights shall
bear on base plates
and mud sills or other
adequate
firm
foundation.

Base plate

Mud sill
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(c)(2)(ii)

Unstable objects shall


not be used to support
scaffolds or platform
units.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(c)(1)

Supported scaffolds
with a height to base
width ratio of more
than four to one (4:1)
shall be restrained
from
tipping
by
guying, tying, bracing,
or equivalent means.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

TIE

TOP OF SCAFFOLD PLATFORM


AND UPPERMOST TIE
NOT TO EXCEED 4 TO 1 RATIO

26-0 MAX. BETWEEN


INTERMEDIATE TIES

TIE

4 TIMES MINIMUM BASE


TIE AT CLOSEST FRAME
HEADER OR BEARER
FIRST TIE CLOSEST FRAME HOLDER OR BEARER
ABOVE 4 TIMES THE MINIMUM BASE DIMENSION
WIDER 3-0
MINIMUM BASE DIMENSION

TIE

TOP OF SCAFFOLD PLATFORM


AND UPPERMOST TIE
NOT TO EXCEED 4 TO 1 RATIO

20-0 MAX. BETWEEN


INTERMEDIATE TIES
TIE
4 TIMES MINIMUM BASE
TIE AT CLOSEST FRAME
HEADER OR BEARER
FIRST TIE CLOSEST FRAME HOLDER OR BEARER
ABOVE 4 TIMES THE MINIMUM BASE DIMENSION
3-0 AND NARROWER
MINIMUM BASE DIMENSION
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(c)(1)(ii)

Guys, ties, and braces shall be


installed at the closest horizontal
member to the 4:1 height.
Guys, ties and braces shall be
installed at the end of the scaffold
and at horizontal intervals not to
exceed 30 ft.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

All ties must be of


positive type, they should
withstand compression and
tension.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(e)(2)

Additional requirements
for
the
proper
construction and use of
portable
ladders
are
contained in Subpart X

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(e)(1)

Cross braces shall not


be used as a means of
access.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(e)(1)

When scaffold platforms are more


than 2 feet (0.6 m) above or below a
point of access, portable ladders,
hook-on ladders, or other similar
shall be used.

1926.451 (e)(8)

It is possible to use the stairs of a


building and exit for a window when
the scaffold is not more
than
14
inches horizontally and
not more
than 24 inches vertically from other
surface.
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(f)(3)

Scaffolds and scaffolds


components shall be
inspected for visible
defects by a competent
person before each work
shift, and after any
occurrence which could
affect
a
scaffold's
structural integrity.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(f)(4)

Any part of a scaffold damaged


or defective equipment shall be
removed from service.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(f)(6)

Scaffolds shall not be


erected, used, dismantled,
altered, or moved such that
they are conductive material
handled on them might
come closer to exposed and
energized
power
lines,
minimum distance 10 feet
(3.1 m)

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(f)(16)

Platforms shall not


deflect more than
1/60 of the span when
loaded.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(g)(1)

Each employee on a scaffold


more than 10 feet (3.1 m) above
a lower level shall be protected
from falling to that lower level.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(g)(1)(i)

In some scaffolds it is
possible to use a personal
fall arrest system (PFAS) in
lieu of guardrail system.

Scaffold
erectors
and
dismantlers may use a
personal fall arrest system
(PFAS) when is possible.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(g)(2)

Effective September 2, 1997, the


employer shall have a competent
person determine the feasibility
and safety of providing fall
protection for employees erecting
or
dismantling
supported
scaffolds.
See appendix B

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(b)(3); (g)(4)(ii); (iv); (h)(2)(ii)


Front edge of all platforms:
Shall not be more than 14 inches (36 cm) from the
face of the work, unless guardrail systems are
erected
Top edge height of Toprails:
38-45 inches above the platform
surface
Midrails:
At a height midway between the top
edge of the guardrail and the platform.
Toeboards:
At least 3-1/2 inches high

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(h)(1)

Each employee on a
scaffold
shall
be
provided with additional
protection from falling
hand tools, debris, and
other small objects

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.452(c)(5)(iii)

Brackets shall be used


only to support personnel

1926.451(c)(1)(iii)

Ties, guys, braces, or


outriggers shall be used
to prevent the tipping of
supported scaffolds with
an eccentric load

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.452(c)(3)

Frames and panels shall be


joined together vertically by
coupling or stacking pins or
equivalent means.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.452(c)(4)

Where uplift can occur which


would displace
scaffolds
end frames or panels, the
frames or panels shall be
locked together vertically by
pins or equivalent means.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.452(c)(5)(iii)

Brackets used to support


cantilever loads shall: be
used
only
to
support
personal, unless the scaffold
has been designed for other
loads
by
a
qualified
professional engineer.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.452(c)(6)

Scaffolds over 125 feet (38.0


m) in height above their base
plates shall be designed by a
registered
professional
engineer,
and
shall
be
constructed and loaded in
accordance with such design.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.454(a)

Recognize the hazards associated


with the type of scaffold being
used;
Any electrical hazards, fall
hazards and falling object
hazards in the area;
Erecting, maintaining, and
disassembling:
The fall protection systems
Falling object protection
systems being used
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.454(a)(4)&(5)
The maximum intended
load of the scaffolds used.
The load-carrying
capacities of the scaffolds
used.
Any other pertinent
requirements of this
subpart.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.454(b)(1),(2),(3)&(4)

The nature of scaffold hazards.


Correct procedures for erecting,
moving, disassembling, operating,
repairing,
inspecting,
and
maintaining the type of scaffold in
question.
The design criteria, maximum
intended load-carrying capacity
and intended use of the scaffold.
Any other pertinent requirements
of this subpart.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.454(c)(1),(2)&(3)

Where changes at the worksite


present a hazard about which an
employee has not been previously
trained.
Where changes in the types of
scaffolds, fall protection, or other
equipment present a hazard about
which an employee has not been
previously trained.
Where inadequacies in an affected
employee's work indicate that the
employee has not retained the
requisite proficiency.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Scaffold Specifications
The calculation of the maximum uniform load on the
scaffold can be based on three anticipated loads.

Light Duty
= 25 psf
Medium Duty = 50 psf
Heavy Duty = 75 psf
For a Medium Duty:
5 x 7 = 35 sf
35 sf x 50 psf = 1750 lbs Maximum
uniform load
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Scaffold Specifications
Rated Capacity

Intended Load Uniformly

Light Duty

25 Pounds per ft2

Medium Duty

50 Pounds per ft2

Heavy Duty

75 Pounds per ft2

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Scaffold Specifications
Maximum
Intended Load

Maximum Span Maximum Span


Full Thickness

Nominal Thickness

25 Pounds/ft2

10 feet

8 feet

50 Pounds/ft2

8 feet

6 feet

75 Pounds/ft2

6 feet

Not Allowed

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Scaffold Specifications

Southern Pine DI65 and WCLIB Douglas Fir Select


Structural are common species of scaffold grade lumber.
The American Lumber Standards Committee has
established associations approved to grade species of
lumber.
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Scaffold Specifications

The load consists of two


main components, the
weight of the scaffold
that is considered dead
load and the weight of
tools, materials and
workers,
that
is
considered live load.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

The scaffold should be carefully


inspected before each shift, by
a competent person.

The scaffold damaged or


broken should be removed from
service.

The tower should be level,


plumb and square

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Do not use equipment that is


damaged.

Do not use equipment that is


corroded or rusted.

Check that the equipment is


not bent or twisted.

Check all moving parts

Check the welds

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Check the boards for any visible


damage
(cracks,
breaks,
separated, etc.).

The boards should be of a special


grade and meets OSHA standards

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

The capacity of the soil


must be inspected and
determined by a competent
person in accordance with
the standards under OSHA
(CFR 1926 Subpart P).

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Inspect

Reinforcement:
Frames and panels must
be
connected
by
horizontal
braces,
diagonal, alone or in
combination, and which
secure vertical members
laterally.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

The platform is the


working area of the
scaffold.
Make sure it is safe!

The gap between the


platform
and
the
building should not be
more than 14 inches
(35 cm).

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

WARNING!
Serious injury and possible
death may be the result of poor
construction and improper use
of the scaffold.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

1926.451(f)(7)

Scaffolds shall be erected,


moved, dismantled, or altered
only under the supervision
and direction of a competent
person qualified in scaffold
erection, moving, dismantling
or alteration. Such activities
shall be performed only by
experienced
and
trained
employees selected for such
work by the competent
person.
CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

The minimum requirements for


the personal protective
equipment are: helmet, goggles,
gloves, equipment, personal fall
arrest, and additional equipment
required.
All tools must be secured with a
cord.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Questions?

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person

Photos shown in this presentation may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA
requirements.

It is not the intent of the content developers to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent
is more to address hazard awareness in the construction industry, and to recognize the overlapping hazards
present in many construction workplaces.

It should NOT be assumed that the suggestions, comments, or recommendations contained herein constitute a
thorough review of the applicable standards, nor should discussion of issues or concerns be construed as a
prioritization of hazards or possible controls. Where opinions (best practices) have been expressed, it is
important to remember that safety issues in general and construction jobsites specifically will require a great
deal of site - or hazard-specificity - a one size fits all approach is not recommended, nor will it likely be very
effective.

It is assumed that individuals using this presentation, or content, to augment their training programs will be
qualified to do so, and that said presenters will be otherwise prepared to answer questions, solve problems,
and discuss issues with their audiences.

No representation is made as to the thoroughness of the presentation, nor to the exact methods of
recommendation to be taken. It is understood that site conditions vary constantly, and that the developers of this
content cannot be held responsible for safety problems they did not address or could not anticipate, nor those
which have been discussed herein or during physical presentation. It is the responsibility of each employer
contractor and their employees to comply with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they
work. Copies of all OSHA regulations are available form your local OSHA office. This presentation is intended to
discuss Federal Regulations only your individual State requirements may be more stringent.

As a presenter, you should be prepared to discuss all of the potential issues/concerns, or problems inherent in
those photos particularly.

CW203 Scaffold Qualified Person