programming with MatLab

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programming with MatLab

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Motivation

A fundamental activity of engineering is to describe the world around us

using mathematics. We use mathematical models to describe physical

systems (modeling).

Examples:

Flow of water through orifice 1st order differential equation

Free oscillation of a mass on a spring 2nd order differential equation

Vibration of circular membrane Bessel functions

One-dimensional heat flow partial differential equation (temperature

depends on both position and time)

MATLAB provides the tools to solve mathematical models in a

programming environment that includes graphing capabilities.

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

Start MATLAB by double-clicking on icon or selecting application

from the Start menu. The MATLAB desktop will be launched.

Command prompt >>. Can type commands here (or) write and save

your own programs (using m-files). Lets begin with command prompt.

Type the following and hit Enter.

Command prompt

The variable a is assigned (=) the value of the square root (sqrt) of

243 and the result is echoed to the screen. To clear the variable, use the

clear a command. Note that it disappears from the Workspace area.

from the Workspace area.

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

To clear the text from the Command Window, use clc. Next, define an

array (or matrix; MATLAB = matrix laboratory).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_(mathematics)

Command prompt

Individual elements of arrays are identified by their index (or indices). For

a 1xn array, it is only necessary to use the column index since there is

just one row.

3rd column in a is 7.

Can also access using both indices: (row,

column) = (1, 3).

Command prompt

For mxn arrays (two-dimensional), we must use both the row and column

indices to access individual elements.

row. Both rows must have same number of columns.

Command prompt

An error is generated if the two rows do not have the same number of

columns. CAT refers to concatenation (or joining arrays).

columns in the 1st row and 7

columns in the 2nd row.

Command prompt

Previously defined a row array. Can also define a column array (5x1).

Command prompt

Lets define and add two row arrays.

The . tells MATLAB to perform the

squaring operation ^2 term-by-term.

Add the corresponding elements.

The first element of a is added to

first element of b.

Command prompt

Lets define and add two other arrays.

Use the transpose operator (single quote) to

convert row array into column array.

Dimensions are now: (5, 1)

Oops! Arrays must have the same

dimensions to be added.

You can learn more in a Linear Algebra

course.

Command prompt

complete specific tasks. My favorite

is why. Not very useful, but fun!

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

Lets define an equation. As an example, consider the volume, V, of a

circular cylinder.

h

V r2h

height, h, of 15.

Use * for multiplication and ^ for power.

3

3.0159 10

value following e gives the power of 10).

Command prompt

Given the volume, V, calculate the radius.

V

h

Original r value is overwritten

(same value in this case).

Note that when using a semi-colon to end a statement (r = 8;), the

assignment is not echoed to the Command Window.

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

Can describe polynomials (often used to fit experimental data) by defining

an array of the polynomial coefficients (highest power to lowest).

For a second-order polynomial, we can use the quadratic equation to

determine the two roots (x values where y(x) = 0).

y ax bx c

2

x1,2

b b 2 4ac

2a

MATLAB has a function roots that can be used to find the roots of nthorder polynomials.

Consider the example:

x1,2

y 1x 2 15x 50

15 15 2 4 1 50 15 5

2 1

2 1

x1 5

x 2 10

Command prompt

a = y(1), b = y(2), c = y(3).

y ax 2 bx c 1x 2 15x 50

values of x where y(x) = 0. Same result

as quadratic equation.

Command prompt

y 1x 3 7x 2 40x - 34

Can also separate elements of row array

using commas rather than spaces.

x1,2 3 5i

x3 1

( i 1)

Command prompt

y 5x 4 110x 2 200

y 5x 4 0x 3 110x 2 0x 200

The roots are: x1,2 20 i

x1,2 2 i

y 5x 4 110x 2 200 5x 2 10 x 2 20 0

Can factor this

polynomial to

x 2 20

x 2 2

check the result:

Command prompt

individual elements of arrays using indices.

Step size is -2.

3

ba

The first element of b is:

b1 a1 10 1000

3

Command prompt

attempting to perform: a*a*a. The ^ operator requires square arrays;

this means that the number of rows and columns must be equal (mxm

arrays).

Command prompt

of a and b.

b8 a8 - 4 -64

3

Command prompt

The find function is used to identify the indices (not values) of particular

elements. It can be used with the relational operators: >, >=, <, <=, ==, ~=.

Window for a.

This is the first 5 elements of b.

Show b values with indices of 1 through 5.

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

Consider the cosine function:

y 5 cosx

2

Step size in x is:

10

Range is -2 to 2.

radians ( rad = 180 deg), not degrees, for

MATLAB.

In this case, it would be better to graph the data to see the result. Use the

plot function to graph (x, y) data.

Command prompt

Figure

window

5

4

3

2

1

connected by line segments.

between -2 and 2 using

xlim.

-1

next; no line segments.

-4

-2

-3

-5

Set using

xlabel.

-6

- 2

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

Many figure windows can be opened at the same time (1, 2, 3, ).

Command prompt

5

4

3

resolution in x values so the

points are closer together

and the cosine function is

smoother when graphed.

2

1

are shown red circles are

specified by ro.

0

-1

2

x step size

10

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

5

4

3

2

1

2

Step size in x is now:

100

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

5

y1

y2

3

2

same graph. Used blue squares

for y1 (larger step size in x1) and

red line for y2.

Added legend to identify two

different curves on single plot.

1

0

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

to learn more.

bs = blue square

r^ = red triangle (pointing up)

k: = black dotted line

Command prompt

1.5708

1.5708

Plot a + b.

1.5708

function to verify identities.

sin-1x cos-1x

2

a sin x

-1

a+b

1.5708

1.5708

2

1.5708

1.5708

2

x step size

10

1.5708

b cos x

-1

1.5708

1.5708

1.5708

-6

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

300

250

e e

coshx

2

x

a ex

coshx

200

(a + b)/2

function to verify identities.

b e-x

(a + b)/2

150

100

50

0

-6

-4

-2

0

x

Command prompt

(x, y) = (0, 3)

20

51st y element

-20

-40

-60

using max.

y -4x 2 3

-80

-100

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Command prompt

20

-20

y ax 2 bx c -4x 2 0x 3

Roots are x = 0.866, -0.866.

-40

-60

-80

-100

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Command prompt

y 4x 2 3

120

100

80

60

(x, y) = (0, 3)

40

20

0

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

x

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Command prompt

Can use MATLAB to solve systems of linear equations.

2x1 9x2 5

3x1 4x2 7

2 9 x1 5

3 - 4 x 7

2 9

A

3

4

x1

x

x 2

5

b

7

Perform this operation in MATLAB.

x1 2 9 5

x 3 - 4 7

2

Command prompt

semicolon to give the 2nd row.

of a square matrix (the number of rows is

equal to the number of columns).

This is more Linear Algebra.

2.3714

x

0.0286

Check this

result.

2x1 9x2 5

3x1 4x2 7

22.3714 90.0286 5

32.3714 40.0286 7

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

M-file

Rather than typing at the command prompt (>>), can write a program to

execute series of commands. This is an m-file in MATLAB.

in a single program (saved as _____.m) and execute this new

program when we are ready.

M-file

Lets write a program (tank.m) to solve the following problem.

A water tank consists of a cylindrical base of radius r and height h and

has a hemispherical top (also radius r). The tank is to be constructed to

hold V = 500 m3 of fluid when filled. The surface area of the cylindrical

part is 2rh and its volume is r2h. The surface area of the hemispherical

top is 2r2 and its volume is 2r3/3.

The cost to construct the cylindrical part of the tank is $300/m2 of surface

area; the hemispherical part costs $400/m2. Plot the cost versus r for 2 r

10 m and determine the radius that results in the minimum cost.

Compute the corresponding height h.

r

2 r 3

V

3

h

r 2

C 300 2 rh 400 2 r 2

M-file

also saves the program.

Define step/range for r.

term-by-term power and division.

Same for C.

Find the index of C where it is

equal to its minimum value.

% for

comments.

index.

Plot C as function of r.

Note that you need to have your m-file in the current directory to

execute it.

M-file

1.6

x 10

1.5

cost ($)

1.4

for a radius of 4.92 m and

height of 3.2949 m.

1.3

1.2

(4.92, 91394)

1.1

0.9

6

radius (m)

10

M-file

The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from

the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood

to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. The

aorta extends down to the abdomen, where it branches off

into two smaller arteries.

systole (the period following the closure

of the hearts aortic valve) can be

described using:

2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorta

the pressure difference across the

aortic valve, normalized by a constant

reference pressure (y is unitless).

M-file

y t e sin 9.7t

2

-8t

because t is an array.

that decays exponentially. We must

decide on step size to plot the function.

9.7

1.54 cycles/s (Hz).

2

1

1

0.648 s.

The time for one full cycle (or period) is:

f 1.54

Oscillating frequency is 9.7 rad/s. This is: f

M-file

1.2

5 steps

per cycle

0.8

0.6

y(t)

100 steps

per cycle

0.4

0.2

-0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

time (s)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Decision-making

The usefulness of computer programs is

increased by using decision-making

functions. This enables operations to be

completed that depend on the results of

calculations.

The relational operators make comparisons

between arrays.

The result of using relational operators is 1 if

true and 0 if false.

56

False = 0

5 5

True = 1

5 ~ 5

False = 0

operator

meaning

<

Less than

<=

Less than or

equal to

>

Greater than

>=

Greater than

or equal to

==

Equal to

~=

Not equal to

examples

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

y = [14 2 9]

y = [14 2 9]

9<9, false = 0

6<14, true = 1

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

y = [14 2 9]

y = [14 2 9]

9~=9, false = 0

6~=14, true = 1

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

8

9>8, true = 1

6>8, false = 0

Decision-making

The logical operators also make comparisons between arrays. The result of

using logical operators is again 1 if true and 0 if false.

operator

name

definition

NOT

A; the new array has ones where A is zero and

zeros where A is nonzero

&

AND

and B; the new array has ones where both A

and B have nonzero elements and zeros where

either A or B is zero

OR

and B; the new array has ones where either A

and B have nonzero elements and zeros where

both A or B is zero

Decision-making

z = ~x = ~[0 3 9]

~x(3) = ~9 = 0

~x(1) = ~0 = 1

NOT

as A; the new array has ones where A is zero

and zeros where A is nonzero

Decision-making

~x = ~[0 3 9] = [1 0 0]

1 > 14, false = 0

0 > -2, true = 1

NOT

z = [1 0 0] > [14 -2 9]

Decision-making

[0 3 9] > [14 -2 9]

[0>14

NOT

3>-2

9>9]

[0

0]

~[0

0]

Decision-making

z=0&3=0

A&B returns an array the same dimensions as

A and B; the new array has ones where both

A and B have nonzero elements and zeros

where either A or B is zero

z=2&3=1

AND

Decision-making

and y

5 & 2, true = 1

AND

0 & 5, false = 0

Decision-making

y dimensions are 1x5

AND

Decision-making

z=0|3=1

A|B returns an array the same dimensions as A

and B; the new array has ones where either A

and B have nonzero elements and zeros where

both A or B is zero

z=2|3=1

OR

Decision-making

and y

5 | 2, true = 1

0 | 5, true = 1

0 | 0, false = 0

OR

Decision-making

These results are typically summarized in a truth table.

NOT, AND, OR

~x

x|y

x&y

Decision-making

We already introduced the find function. find(x) is used to compute an

array containing the indices (not values) of the nonzero elements of x.

x = [-2 0 4]

y = find(x)

Nonzero x elements

are -2 and [4]

x(y) = [-2 4]

x(2) = 0

x(3) = 4, nonzero

y = [1 3]

1st element of x is

nonzero; index is 1

for 1st element

3rd element of x is

nonzero; index is 3

for 3rd element

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9 11]

y = [14 2 9 13]

comparison (x < y) where the values

are true (1).

x = [6 3 9 11]

6<14

3<2

True

False

y = [14 2 9 13]

9<9

11<13

False

True

where the comparison is true (1)

Decision-making

x = [5 -3 0 0 8]

y = [2 4 0 5 7]

5&2 -3&4

0&0

0&5

8&7

True True False False True

find returns the indices 1, 2, and 5

where the comparison is true (1)

x([1 2 5]) = [5 -3 8]

y([1 2 5]) = [2 4 7]

Decision-making

Consider a projectile that is launched with a speed v0 at an angle A

(relative to the horizontal). Its height, h, and velocity, v, depend on the time

since launch (at t = 0).

v(t)

v0

A

h(t)

ht v 0 t sinA 0.5gt 2

v t v 0 2v 0 gt sinA g2 t 2

2

by setting h(t) = 0 and solving for the time, thit.

t hit

v 0 sinA

0.5g

Decision-making

Let v0 = 20 m/s and A = 40 deg (g = 9.81 m/s2). Find the times (between t =

0 and thit) when the height is no less than 6 m and the speed is

simultaneously no greater than 16 m/s.

v <= 16 m/s

v0

A

h>=6m

Solve for v and h as a function of time. Use relational and logical operators

to find times when height and velocity conditions are both true.

Write program (m-file) to complete this task. Plot v and h versus t to check

results.

Decision-making

time where h >= hlim and v <= vlim.

Define t_true where conditions are

satisfied using index.

Find first and last values of t_true.

Use subplot to make figure with

2x1 panels. Plot lines at hlim and

vlim using line function.

Decision-making

Find the times (between t = 0 and thit) when the height is no less than 6 m

and the speed is simultaneously no greater than 16 m/s.

10

h(t)

8

6

4

2

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

20

the velocity limits the range.

v(t)

19

t1 = 0.8649 s

18

t2 = 1.7560 s

17

16

15

0.5

1.5

time (s)

2.5

Decision-making

The conditional statements if, else, and elseif also enable decision-making

in programs.

if logical expression

The basic structure of the if statement is:

statements

end

Consider the case that it is only desired to calculate the square root of x if

x is greater than or equal to zero. The logic is: if x >= 0, then calculate y =

sqrt(x). If x is negative, take no action.

if x >= 0

y = sqrt(x);

end

if statements may

also be nested.

the if statement. There is only one (y =

sqrt(x);) here, however.

if logical expression 1

if logical expression 2

statements

end

end

Decision-making

When more than one action can occur as the result of a decision, use else

and elseif statements along with the if statement.

if logical expression

statements 1

The basic structure of the else statement is:

else

statements 2

end

Consider the case that y = sqrt(x) for x >= 0 and that y = ex-1 for x < 0.

if x >= 0

y = sqrt(x);

else

y = exp(x) 1;

end

Decision-making

The elseif statement enables an additional decision to be made with an if

statement.

Consider the case that y = ln(x) for x > 10,

y = sqrt(x) for 0 <= x <= 10, and y = ex-1

for x < 0.

y lnx ,

if x > 10

y x,

x 10

0 x 10

y e x 1,

x0

if logical expression 1

statements 1

elseif logical expression 2

statements 2

else

statements 3

end

If not true, then

x is <= 10.

y = log(x);

elseif x >= 0

If not true, then

y = sqrt(x);

x is < 0.

else

y = exp(x) 1;

end

Decision-making

Consider the previous example and write an m-file to determine the result

based on the selected x value.

Calculate y based on x input.

Display text and y to Command Window.

Decision-making

x 10

y lnx

0 x 10 y x

x0

y ex 1

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Loops

A loop is a structure used to repeat a calculation (or group of statements)

a number of times. The for loop is used when the number of repetitions is

known beforehand. The while loop is used when the loop continues until a

specified condition is satisfied.

for counter = m:s:n

statements

end

s is the step size of the counter

n is the final value of the loop counter

Example: Write an m-file to compute the sum of the first 15 terms of the

series 5k2 2k, where k = 1, 2, 3

Use a for loop to complete the task.

Loops

each repetition.

Display results in

Command Window.

Loops

Free vibration of a single degree of freedom spring-mass-damper system

can be expressed as:

- x x

x0

n t

2

1

0

n 0

xt

e

cos n 1 t where tan

cos

1 2 x

0

n

c

k

n

2 km

m

c = 50

N-s/m

k = 1106

N/m

x(t)

m = 2 kg

x 0 x0

from equilibrium position

x 0 x 0

Write m-file to plot x(t) in time steps of 0.0001 s for 0.5 s.

Loops

number of repetitions

to nearest integer.

Use counter cnt to index t

and x and write arrays.

Loops

Exponentially decaying

cosine wave.

Outline

Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

Polynomial fitting

We use mathematical models to describe physical systems (modeling).

This often takes the form of collecting data and fitting a function, such as a

polynomial, to the data.

Regression analysis is finding the polynomial that best fits the data in a

least squares sense.

Example: Fit x/y data with a line (1st order polynomial)

x

10

11

y mx b

best fit to values of y (dependent

variable) at x locations

(independent variable).

Best fit is provided by the line that minimizes the sum of the squares in the

vertical (y-direction) differences between the line and data points. These

differences are the residuals.

Polynomial fitting

The sum of the squares of the residuals is:

3

J mx i b - y i m 0 b - 2 m 5 b - 6 m 10 b - 11

2

i1

J

0

m

J

0

b

J

250m 30b 280 0

m

J

30m 6b 38 0

b

250 30 m 280

30 6 b 38

Determine [m b]T using the inverse of the 2x2 matrix. Perform this

operation in MATLAB.

Polynomial fitting

Solve for m and b:

m 250 30 280

b 30 6 38

m = 0.9

b = 1.8333

10

11

Polynomial fitting

Find J from the residuals.

No other straight line will give a

smaller J.

yfit

(yfit-yi)2

1.8333

0.0278

6.3333

0.1111

10

11

10.833

0.0278

J 0.1667

Polynomial fitting

11

data

10

fit

9

8

Minimized vertical

distance (residual) using

least squares fitting.

6

5

4

3

2

1

5

x

10

10

11

Polynomial fitting

MATLAB can complete this task using the function polyfit. The format for

the function call is:

x independent variable

p = polyfit(x, y, n)

y dependent variable

n order of the polynomial fit

p row array that contains the polynomial

coefficients in descending powers

Example: Fit x/y data with line (1st order polynomial)

x

10

11

y a1x a 2

best fit to values of y (dependent

variable) at x locations

(independent variable).

Polynomial fitting

coefficients in descending powers

y a1x a 2

Best fit line

3

J a1x i a 2 - y i

i1

yfit

(yfit-yi)2

1.8333

0.0278

6.3333

0.1111

10

11

10.833

0.0278

Polynomial fitting

Example: Bacterial growth

Bacterial growth is the division

of one bacterium into two

daughter cells in a process

called binary fission. Providing

no mutational event occurs, the

resulting daughter cells are

genetically identical to the

original cell. Hence, "local

doubling" of the bacterial

population occurs. Both

daughter cells from the division

do not necessarily survive.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_growth

Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEwzDydciWc

t (min)

Bacteria

(ppm)

t (min)

Bacteria

(ppm)

10

350

13

11

440

23

12

557

33

13

685

54

14

815

83

15

990

118

16

1170

156

17

1350

210

18

1575

282

19

1830

Polynomial fitting

19

J a1t i a 2 - bacteria i

i1

Polynomial fitting

Polynomial fitting

Best fit quadratic

19

J a1t i a 2 t i a3 - bacteria i

i1

Polynomial fitting

Polynomial fitting

19

J a1t i a 2 t i a3 t a 4 - bacteria i

i 1

Polynomial fitting

Polynomial fitting

2000

500

0

2

10

12

14

16

18

500

1500

10

12

14

16

18

20

-200

-400

0

10

12

time (min)

14

16

18

20

50

0

-50

-100

10

12

14

16

18

20

10

12

time (min)

14

16

18

20

10

residual (ppm)

500

0

fit

1000

100

200

residual (ppm)

residual (ppm)

fit

1000

20

400

-600

1500

bacteria (ppm)

bacteria (ppm)

bacteria (ppm)

1000

data

data

fit

-500

2000

2000

data

1500

5

0

-5

-10

-15

10

12

time (min)

14

16

18

20

J = 7.9736x105

J = 1.6776x104

J = 580.936 ppm

data set

Summary

Examined basic commands typed at the command prompt

Arrays

Equations

Polynomials

Plotting

Systems of equations

M-files

Decision-making

Loops

Polynomial fitting

More information is available from: William J. Palm III, A Concise

Introduction to MATLAB, McGraw-Hill, 2008.

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