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MATLAB introduction

Motivation
A fundamental activity of engineering is to describe the world around us
using mathematics. We use mathematical models to describe physical
systems (modeling).
Examples:
Flow of water through orifice 1st order differential equation
Free oscillation of a mass on a spring 2nd order differential equation

Current in electrical circuits (RLC) 2nd order differential equation


Vibration of circular membrane Bessel functions
One-dimensional heat flow partial differential equation (temperature
depends on both position and time)
MATLAB provides the tools to solve mathematical models in a
programming environment that includes graphing capabilities.

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
Start MATLAB by double-clicking on icon or selecting application
from the Start menu. The MATLAB desktop will be launched.

Command prompt >>. Can type commands here (or) write and save
your own programs (using m-files). Lets begin with command prompt.
Type the following and hit Enter.

Command prompt

The variable a is assigned (=) the value of the square root (sqrt) of
243 and the result is echoed to the screen. To clear the variable, use the
clear a command. Note that it disappears from the Workspace area.

clear all removes all variables


from the Workspace area.

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
To clear the text from the Command Window, use clc. Next, define an
array (or matrix; MATLAB = matrix laboratory).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_(mathematics)

The same 1x5 (row x column) array could be defined as shown.

Default step size is 1.

Command prompt
Individual elements of arrays are identified by their index (or indices). For
a 1xn array, it is only necessary to use the column index since there is
just one row.

Array size is 1x6 (2 rows, 6 columns).

3rd column in a is 7.
Can also access using both indices: (row,
column) = (1, 3).

Command prompt
For mxn arrays (two-dimensional), we must use both the row and column
indices to access individual elements.

Array size is 2x6 (2 rows, 6 columns).

(row, column) = (1, 3) entry is 7

(row, column) = (2, 5) entry is 15

To define a 2-row array, we used a semicolon to mark the end of first


row. Both rows must have same number of columns.

Command prompt
An error is generated if the two rows do not have the same number of
columns. CAT refers to concatenation (or joining arrays).

Error because there are 6


columns in the 1st row and 7
columns in the 2nd row.

Command prompt

Define array with steps of 0.5 (1x9 array).

Previously defined a row array. Can also define a column array (5x1).

Semicolon marks the end of each row.

Command prompt
Lets define and add two row arrays.

Square each element of the a array.


The . tells MATLAB to perform the
squaring operation ^2 term-by-term.
Add the corresponding elements.
The first element of a is added to
first element of b.

Command prompt
Lets define and add two other arrays.

Dimensions are: (rows, columns) = (1, 5)


Use the transpose operator (single quote) to
convert row array into column array.
Dimensions are now: (5, 1)
Oops! Arrays must have the same
dimensions to be added.
You can learn more in a Linear Algebra
course.

Command prompt

MATLAB has many functions that


complete specific tasks. My favorite
is why. Not very useful, but fun!

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
Lets define an equation. As an example, consider the volume, V, of a
circular cylinder.
h

V r2h

Use a radius, r, of 8 and a


height, h, of 15.

is defined in MATLAB using pi.


Use * for multiplication and ^ for power.
3

3.0159 10

V = 3015.9 (MATLAB uses scientific notation;


value following e gives the power of 10).

Command prompt
Given the volume, V, calculate the radius.

V
h

Used the sqrt function.


Original r value is overwritten
(same value in this case).
Note that when using a semi-colon to end a statement (r = 8;), the
assignment is not echoed to the Command Window.

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
Can describe polynomials (often used to fit experimental data) by defining
an array of the polynomial coefficients (highest power to lowest).
For a second-order polynomial, we can use the quadratic equation to
determine the two roots (x values where y(x) = 0).

y ax bx c
2

x1,2

b b 2 4ac

2a

MATLAB has a function roots that can be used to find the roots of nthorder polynomials.
Consider the example:

x1,2

y 1x 2 15x 50

15 15 2 4 1 50 15 5

2 1
2 1

x1 5

Lets complete the same example using MATLAB.

x 2 10

Command prompt

Use indices of array to call specific value;


a = y(1), b = y(2), c = y(3).

y ax 2 bx c 1x 2 15x 50

Used the roots command to find two


values of x where y(x) = 0. Same result
as quadratic equation.

Command prompt

y 1x 3 7x 2 40x - 34
Can also separate elements of row array
using commas rather than spaces.

The roots are:

x1,2 3 5i
x3 1

( i 1)

Command prompt

y 5x 4 110x 2 200
y 5x 4 0x 3 110x 2 0x 200
The roots are: x1,2 20 i

x1,2 2 i

y 5x 4 110x 2 200 5x 2 10 x 2 20 0
Can factor this
polynomial to
x 2 20
x 2 2
check the result:

Command prompt

Lets look more closely at accessing


individual elements of arrays using indices.
Step size is -2.
3

ba

The .^3 gives the term-by-term cube.

The first element of a is 10.


The first element of b is:

b1 a1 10 1000
3

Command prompt

If the .^ operator is not used, we get an error. This is because the ^3 is


attempting to perform: a*a*a. The ^ operator requires square arrays;
this means that the number of rows and columns must be equal (mxm
arrays).

Command prompt

We can also access ranges of elements.

This lists the 5th to 8th elements


of a and b.

b8 a8 - 4 -64
3

Command prompt
The find function is used to identify the indices (not values) of particular
elements. It can be used with the relational operators: >, >=, <, <=, ==, ~=.

The ; suppresses output to Command


Window for a.

Find indices of all b values > 0.


This is the first 5 elements of b.
Show b values with indices of 1 through 5.

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
Consider the cosine function:

y 5 cosx

First, define x and then calculate y.

2
Step size in x is:
10

Range is -2 to 2.

Trigonometric functions require inputs in


radians ( rad = 180 deg), not degrees, for
MATLAB.
In this case, it would be better to graph the data to see the result. Use the
plot function to graph (x, y) data.

Command prompt

Figure
window

5
4
3
2
1

Individual points are


connected by line segments.

The x axis limits are set


between -2 and 2 using
xlim.

-1

Lets plot only the points


next; no line segments.

-4

-2
-3

-5

Set using
xlabel.
-6

- 2

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt
Many figure windows can be opened at the same time (1, 2, 3, ).

Command prompt

5
4
3

We might like to have higher


resolution in x values so the
points are closer together
and the cosine function is
smoother when graphed.

2
1

Now only the (x, y) points


are shown red circles are
specified by ro.

0
-1

2
x step size
10

-2
-3
-4
-5

-6

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt

5
4
3
2
1

2
Step size in x is now:
100

0
-1

Graph looks more continuous.

-2
-3
-4
-5

-6

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt

5
y1

y2

3
2

Can plot multiple curves in the


same graph. Used blue squares
for y1 (larger step size in x1) and
red line for y2.
Added legend to identify two
different curves on single plot.

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5

-6

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt

Type help plot


to learn more.

bs = blue square
r^ = red triangle (pointing up)
k: = black dotted line

Command prompt

1.5708
1.5708

Plot a + b.

1.5708

Lets use the plotting


function to verify identities.

sin-1x cos-1x
2
a sin x
-1

a+b

1.5708

1.5708
2

1.5708
1.5708

2
x step size
10

1.5708

b cos x
-1

1.5708
1.5708
1.5708

-6

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt

Use exp function for exponential.


300

250

e e
coshx
2
x

a ex

coshx

200

(a + b)/2

Lets again use the plotting


function to verify identities.

b e-x

(a + b)/2

150

100

50

Plot (a + b)/2 and compare to cosh.


0

-6

-4

-2

0
x

Command prompt

(x, y) = (0, 3)
20

51st y element

-20

-40

-60

Find the maximum value of y


using max.
y -4x 2 3

-80

-100
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
x

Command prompt

20

-20

y ax 2 bx c -4x 2 0x 3
Roots are x = 0.866, -0.866.

-40

-60

-80

-100
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
x

Command prompt

y 4x 2 3
120

100

80

60

(x, y) = (0, 3)

40

20

Find minimum using min.

0
-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0
x

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Command prompt
Can use MATLAB to solve systems of linear equations.

2x1 9x2 5
3x1 4x2 7

Write in vectormatrix form.

2 9 x1 5
3 - 4 x 7

Vector-matrix form can be represented compactly as: Ax = b

2 9
A

3
4

x1
x
x 2

5
b
7

Can determine x using the inverse of the A matrix: x = A-1b


Perform this operation in MATLAB.

x1 2 9 5
x 3 - 4 7

2

Command prompt

Define the A matrix. Note the use of the


semicolon to give the 2nd row.

The inv function calculates the inverse


of a square matrix (the number of rows is
equal to the number of columns).
This is more Linear Algebra.

2.3714
x

0.0286

Check this
result.

2x1 9x2 5
3x1 4x2 7

22.3714 90.0286 5
32.3714 40.0286 7

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

M-file
Rather than typing at the command prompt (>>), can write a program to
execute series of commands. This is an m-file in MATLAB.

Click to begin new m-file.

The Editor screen is launched. We can now type commands


in a single program (saved as _____.m) and execute this new
program when we are ready.

M-file
Lets write a program (tank.m) to solve the following problem.
A water tank consists of a cylindrical base of radius r and height h and
has a hemispherical top (also radius r). The tank is to be constructed to
hold V = 500 m3 of fluid when filled. The surface area of the cylindrical
part is 2rh and its volume is r2h. The surface area of the hemispherical
top is 2r2 and its volume is 2r3/3.
The cost to construct the cylindrical part of the tank is $300/m2 of surface
area; the hemispherical part costs $400/m2. Plot the cost versus r for 2 r
10 m and determine the radius that results in the minimum cost.
Compute the corresponding height h.
r

2 r 3
V
3
h
r 2

C 300 2 rh 400 2 r 2

M-file

Click to execute the m-file. This


also saves the program.
Define step/range for r.

h is an array. Must use . for


term-by-term power and division.

Same for C.
Find the index of C where it is
equal to its minimum value.
% for
comments.

Determine r, h, and C at this


index.
Plot C as function of r.

Note that you need to have your m-file in the current directory to
execute it.

M-file

1.6

x 10

1.5

cost ($)

1.4

The minimum cost is $91394


for a radius of 4.92 m and
height of 3.2949 m.

1.3

1.2

(4.92, 91394)
1.1

0.9

6
radius (m)

10

M-file
The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from
the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood
to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. The
aorta extends down to the abdomen, where it branches off
into two smaller arteries.

The blood pressure in the aorta during


systole (the period following the closure
of the hearts aortic valve) can be
described using:

y t e -8t sin 9.7t


2

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorta

where t is time in seconds and y(t) is


the pressure difference across the
aortic valve, normalized by a constant
reference pressure (y is unitless).

M-file

100 steps per cycle

y t e sin 9.7t
2

-8t

Use .* for element-byelement multiplication


because t is an array.

This is an oscillating function (sine wave)


that decays exponentially. We must
decide on step size to plot the function.

9.7
1.54 cycles/s (Hz).
2
1
1

0.648 s.
The time for one full cycle (or period) is:
f 1.54
Oscillating frequency is 9.7 rad/s. This is: f

M-file

1.2

5 steps
per cycle

0.8

0.6

y(t)

100 steps
per cycle

0.4

0.2

Red square with dotted line


-0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25
0.3
time (s)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Decision-making
The usefulness of computer programs is
increased by using decision-making
functions. This enables operations to be
completed that depend on the results of
calculations.
The relational operators make comparisons
between arrays.
The result of using relational operators is 1 if
true and 0 if false.

56

False = 0

5 5

True = 1

5 ~ 5

False = 0

operator

meaning

<

Less than

<=

Less than or
equal to

>

Greater than

>=

Greater than
or equal to

==

Equal to

~=

Not equal to

Can compare arrays in element-byelement fashion. Lets consider some


examples

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

y = [14 2 9]

y = [14 2 9]
9<9, false = 0

6<14, true = 1

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

y = [14 2 9]

y = [14 2 9]
9~=9, false = 0

6~=14, true = 1

Decision-making

Can also compare arrays to a scalar.


x = [6 3 9]

x = [6 3 9]

8
9>8, true = 1

6>8, false = 0

Decision-making
The logical operators also make comparisons between arrays. The result of
using logical operators is again 1 if true and 0 if false.
operator

name

definition

NOT

~A returns an array with the same dimensions as


A; the new array has ones where A is zero and
zeros where A is nonzero

&

AND

A&B returns an array the same dimensions as A


and B; the new array has ones where both A
and B have nonzero elements and zeros where
either A or B is zero

OR

A|B returns an array the same dimensions as A


and B; the new array has ones where either A
and B have nonzero elements and zeros where
both A or B is zero

Look at some examples in MATLAB

Decision-making

z = ~x = ~[0 3 9]
~x(3) = ~9 = 0
~x(1) = ~0 = 1

NOT

~A returns an array with the same dimensions


as A; the new array has ones where A is zero
and zeros where A is nonzero

Decision-making

z = ~x > y = ~[0 3 9] > [14 -2 9]


~x = ~[0 3 9] = [1 0 0]
1 > 14, false = 0
0 > -2, true = 1

NOT

z = [1 0 0] > [14 -2 9]

Decision-making

z = ~(x > y) = ~([0 3 9] > [14 -2 9])


[0 3 9] > [14 -2 9]

[0>14

NOT

3>-2

9>9]

[0

0]

~[0

0]

Decision-making

z=0&3=0
A&B returns an array the same dimensions as
A and B; the new array has ones where both
A and B have nonzero elements and zeros
where either A or B is zero

z=2&3=1

AND

Decision-making

z has same dimensions as x


and y
5 & 2, true = 1

AND

0 & 5, false = 0

Decision-making

x dimensions are 1x4


y dimensions are 1x5

AND

x&y gives error

Decision-making

z=0|3=1
A|B returns an array the same dimensions as A
and B; the new array has ones where either A
and B have nonzero elements and zeros where
both A or B is zero

z=2|3=1

OR

Decision-making

z has same dimensions as x


and y

5 | 2, true = 1

0 | 5, true = 1
0 | 0, false = 0

OR

Decision-making
These results are typically summarized in a truth table.

NOT, AND, OR

~x

x|y

x&y

Decision-making
We already introduced the find function. find(x) is used to compute an
array containing the indices (not values) of the nonzero elements of x.

x = [-2 0 4]
y = find(x)

Nonzero x elements
are -2 and [4]

x(1) = -2, nonzero

x(y) = [-2 4]

x(2) = 0
x(3) = 4, nonzero
y = [1 3]
1st element of x is
nonzero; index is 1
for 1st element

3rd element of x is
nonzero; index is 3
for 3rd element

Decision-making

x = [6 3 9 11]

y = [14 2 9 13]

index = find(x < y)

This finds the indices of the


comparison (x < y) where the values
are true (1).
x = [6 3 9 11]
6<14
3<2
True
False

y = [14 2 9 13]
9<9
11<13
False
True

find returns the indices 1 and 4


where the comparison is true (1)

Decision-making

x = [5 -3 0 0 8]
y = [2 4 0 5 7]
5&2 -3&4
0&0
0&5
8&7
True True False False True
find returns the indices 1, 2, and 5
where the comparison is true (1)
x([1 2 5]) = [5 -3 8]
y([1 2 5]) = [2 4 7]

Decision-making
Consider a projectile that is launched with a speed v0 at an angle A
(relative to the horizontal). Its height, h, and velocity, v, depend on the time
since launch (at t = 0).
v(t)
v0
A

h(t)

ht v 0 t sinA 0.5gt 2
v t v 0 2v 0 gt sinA g2 t 2
2

The time is takes to hit the ground is obtained


by setting h(t) = 0 and solving for the time, thit.

t hit

v 0 sinA

0.5g

Decision-making
Let v0 = 20 m/s and A = 40 deg (g = 9.81 m/s2). Find the times (between t =
0 and thit) when the height is no less than 6 m and the speed is
simultaneously no greater than 16 m/s.
v <= 16 m/s
v0
A

h>=6m

Solve for v and h as a function of time. Use relational and logical operators
to find times when height and velocity conditions are both true.

Need to select step size for t. Choose thit/100.


Write program (m-file) to complete this task. Plot v and h versus t to check
results.

Decision-making

Use find to determine indices of


time where h >= hlim and v <= vlim.
Define t_true where conditions are
satisfied using index.
Find first and last values of t_true.
Use subplot to make figure with
2x1 panels. Plot lines at hlim and
vlim using line function.

Decision-making
Find the times (between t = 0 and thit) when the height is no less than 6 m
and the speed is simultaneously no greater than 16 m/s.

10

h(t)

8
6
4
2
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

20

For the specified conditions,


the velocity limits the range.

v(t)

19

t1 = 0.8649 s

18

t2 = 1.7560 s

17
16
15

0.5

1.5
time (s)

2.5

Decision-making
The conditional statements if, else, and elseif also enable decision-making
in programs.
if logical expression
The basic structure of the if statement is:
statements
end
Consider the case that it is only desired to calculate the square root of x if
x is greater than or equal to zero. The logic is: if x >= 0, then calculate y =
sqrt(x). If x is negative, take no action.
if x >= 0
y = sqrt(x);
end
if statements may
also be nested.

There can be multiple statements within


the if statement. There is only one (y =
sqrt(x);) here, however.

if logical expression 1
if logical expression 2
statements
end
end

Decision-making
When more than one action can occur as the result of a decision, use else
and elseif statements along with the if statement.
if logical expression
statements 1
The basic structure of the else statement is:
else
statements 2
end
Consider the case that y = sqrt(x) for x >= 0 and that y = ex-1 for x < 0.
if x >= 0

y = sqrt(x);
else
y = exp(x) 1;
end

Decision-making
The elseif statement enables an additional decision to be made with an if
statement.

The basic structure of the elseif statement is:


Consider the case that y = ln(x) for x > 10,
y = sqrt(x) for 0 <= x <= 10, and y = ex-1
for x < 0.

y lnx ,

if x > 10

y x,

x 10
0 x 10

y e x 1,

x0

if logical expression 1
statements 1
elseif logical expression 2
statements 2
else
statements 3
end
If not true, then
x is <= 10.

y = log(x);
elseif x >= 0
If not true, then
y = sqrt(x);
x is < 0.
else
y = exp(x) 1;
end

Decision-making
Consider the previous example and write an m-file to determine the result
based on the selected x value.

Request x value from the user.


Calculate y based on x input.
Display text and y to Command Window.

Decision-making

x 10

y lnx

0 x 10 y x

x0

y ex 1

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Loops
A loop is a structure used to repeat a calculation (or group of statements)
a number of times. The for loop is used when the number of repetitions is
known beforehand. The while loop is used when the loop continues until a
specified condition is satisfied.
for counter = m:s:n
statements
end

m is the starting value of the loop counter


s is the step size of the counter
n is the final value of the loop counter

Example: Write an m-file to compute the sum of the first 15 terms of the
series 5k2 2k, where k = 1, 2, 3
Use a for loop to complete the task.

Loops

Initialize total value to zero.

Loop counter is k. Update total value


each repetition.

Display results in
Command Window.

Loops
Free vibration of a single degree of freedom spring-mass-damper system
can be expressed as:

- x x
x0
n t
2

1
0
n 0
xt
e
cos n 1 t where tan
cos
1 2 x
0
n
c
k

n
2 km
m
c = 50
N-s/m

k = 1106
N/m

x(t)

m = 2 kg

x 0 x0

Initial displacement of mass


from equilibrium position

x 0 x 0

Initial velocity of mass

Let initial displacement be 5 mm = 0.005 m and initial velocity be zero.


Write m-file to plot x(t) in time steps of 0.0001 s for 0.5 s.

Loops

Use round to round


number of repetitions
to nearest integer.
Use counter cnt to index t
and x and write arrays.

Loops

Exponentially decaying
cosine wave.

Converted x from m to mm.

Outline
Examine basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting

Polynomial fitting
We use mathematical models to describe physical systems (modeling).
This often takes the form of collecting data and fitting a function, such as a
polynomial, to the data.
Regression analysis is finding the polynomial that best fits the data in a
least squares sense.
Example: Fit x/y data with a line (1st order polynomial)
x

10

11

y mx b

Find m and b for least squares


best fit to values of y (dependent
variable) at x locations
(independent variable).

Best fit is provided by the line that minimizes the sum of the squares in the
vertical (y-direction) differences between the line and data points. These
differences are the residuals.

Polynomial fitting
The sum of the squares of the residuals is:
3

J mx i b - y i m 0 b - 2 m 5 b - 6 m 10 b - 11
2

i1

Values of m and b that minimize J are found from:

J
0
m

J
0
b

J 125m2 30mb 280m 3b2 38b 161

J
250m 30b 280 0
m
J
30m 6b 38 0
b

Write in vector-matrix form:

250 30 m 280
30 6 b 38

Determine [m b]T using the inverse of the 2x2 matrix. Perform this
operation in MATLAB.

Polynomial fitting
Solve for m and b:

The best fit line is:

m 250 30 280
b 30 6 38

m = 0.9

b = 1.8333

10

11

y fit 0.9x 1.8333

Find J the sum of the squares of the residuals.

Polynomial fitting
Find J from the residuals.

y fit 0.9x 1.8333


No other straight line will give a
smaller J.

yfit

(yfit-yi)2

1.8333

0.0278

6.3333

0.1111

10

11

10.833

0.0278

J 0.1667

y fit 0.9x 1.8333

Polynomial fitting
11
data

10

fit
9
8

Minimized vertical
distance (residual) using
least squares fitting.

6
5
4
3
2
1

y fit 0.9x 1.8333

5
x

10

10

11

Polynomial fitting
MATLAB can complete this task using the function polyfit. The format for
the function call is:
x independent variable
p = polyfit(x, y, n)
y dependent variable
n order of the polynomial fit
p row array that contains the polynomial
coefficients in descending powers
Example: Fit x/y data with line (1st order polynomial)
x

10

11

y a1x a 2

Find a1 and a2 for least squares


best fit to values of y (dependent
variable) at x locations
(independent variable).

Polynomial fitting

p row array that contains the polynomial


coefficients in descending powers

y a1x a 2
Best fit line
3

J a1x i a 2 - y i

i1

yfit

(yfit-yi)2

1.8333

0.0278

6.3333

0.1111

10

11

10.833

0.0278

Polynomial fitting
Example: Bacterial growth
Bacterial growth is the division
of one bacterium into two
daughter cells in a process
called binary fission. Providing
no mutational event occurs, the
resulting daughter cells are
genetically identical to the
original cell. Hence, "local
doubling" of the bacterial
population occurs. Both
daughter cells from the division
do not necessarily survive.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_growth

Video
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gEwzDydciWc

t (min)

Bacteria
(ppm)

t (min)

Bacteria
(ppm)

10

350

13

11

440

23

12

557

33

13

685

54

14

815

83

15

990

118

16

1170

156

17

1350

210

18

1575

282

19

1830

Polynomial fitting

1st order fit to data

Best fit line


19

J a1t i a 2 - bacteria i
i1

Polynomial fitting

Large residuals with structure

Polynomial fitting

2nd order fit to data


Best fit quadratic
19

J a1t i a 2 t i a3 - bacteria i
i1

Polynomial fitting

Residuals reduced, but some structure remains.

Polynomial fitting

3rd order fit to data

Best fit cubic


19

J a1t i a 2 t i a3 t a 4 - bacteria i
i 1

Polynomial fitting

Smallest residuals with little structure.

Polynomial fitting
2000

500
0
2

10

12

14

16

18

500

1500

10

12

14

16

18

20

-200
-400
0

10
12
time (min)

14

16

18

20

50
0
-50
-100

10

12

14

16

18

20

10
12
time (min)

14

16

18

20

10

residual (ppm)

500
0

fit

1000

100

200
residual (ppm)

residual (ppm)

fit

1000

20

400

-600

1500

bacteria (ppm)

bacteria (ppm)

bacteria (ppm)

1000

data

data

fit

-500

2000

2000
data

1500

5
0
-5
-10
-15

10
12
time (min)

14

16

18

20

1st order fit

2nd order fit

3rd order fit

J = 7.9736x105

J = 1.6776x104

J = 580.936 ppm

Best fit for this


data set

Summary
Examined basic commands typed at the command prompt
Arrays

Equations
Polynomials
Plotting
Systems of equations
M-files
Decision-making
Loops
Polynomial fitting
More information is available from: William J. Palm III, A Concise
Introduction to MATLAB, McGraw-Hill, 2008.