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TM-3142 TEKNIK

PRODUKSI GAS BUMI


Prepared by:
David Maurich, ST, MT.

Sistem Evaluasi
Kriteria Penilaian:
Absensi Kehadiran
= 10 %
Tugas (PR)
= 20 %
Ujian Tengah Semester (UTS) = 30 %
Ujian Akhir Semester (UAS)
= 40 %
Sumber Bahan Ujian:
1. Text Book
2. Catatan Kuliah di Kelas
3. PR
4. Slide

Pustaka
Lee, W.J. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: Gas
Reservoir Engineering, SPE (1996).
Ikoku. Chi U. (1984), Natural Gas Reservoir
Engineering, John Wiley & Sons,.
Other text/reference materials will be given out
as needed-either in paper or electronic form.

SATUAN ACARA PERKULIAHAN


Pertemuan
Minggu 1
Minggu 2
Minggu 3
Minggu 4
Minggu 5
Minggu 6
Minggu 7
Minggu 8
Minggu 9
Minggu 10
Minggu 11
Minggu 12
Minggu 13
Minggu 14
Minggu 15

Pokok Bahasan
Pengenalan & sifat-sifat gas alam
Perkiraan cadangan
Deliverability
Pengaruh komplesi sumur
Aliran gas dalam pipa
Aliran gas dalam pipa: pengaruh adanya fluida di dalam aliran gas
Analisis nodal untuk aliran gas
Pengukuran laju alir gas
Ujian Tengahan Semester (UTS)
Decline curve analisis
Kinerja reservoir
Kinerja reservoir
Reservoir gas kondensat
Studi kasus dan praktek dengan menggunakan Tools: Prosper, Pipesim
Ujian Akhir Semester

Format Laporan PR
Tugas-tugas Pekerjaan Rumah (PR) memiliki bobot
20% dari total nilai akhir mata kuliah.
PR harus dikerjakan sendiri, menyontek/kecurangan
akan diberi nilai 0 bagi yang mencontek dan yang
memberi contekan (indikasi: jawaban persis
sama/sangat mirip sekali).
Untuk menyeragamkan Laporan, maka dibuat format
laporan seperti di Lampiran.
Laporan PR boleh dikerjakan dengan komputer atau
tulisan tangan yang rapi.
Untuk plot, grafik, gambar atau perhitungan yang
rumit sebaiknya dikerjakan dengan bantuan
komputer.
Informasi lain yang belum jelas dapat ditanyakan
lewat email saya: davidmaurich@yahoo.com

Peranan Migas Dalam Pembangunan Nasional


Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara
Perubahan 2013 (APBNP 2013) yang dinyatakan
dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 15 Tahun 2013,
pemerintah dan DPR menyepakati:
1. Penerimaan negara dari pajak penghasilan (PPh)
migas adalah Rp.74,28 triliun atau 4,95% dari target
penerimaan negara 2013.
2. Penerimaan negara bukan pajak (PNBP) dari sektor
migas ditargetkan Rp.180,61 triliun atau 12,02% dari
total penerimaan negara.
3. Total penerimaan negara dari sektor migas adalah
Rp.254,89 triliun atau 16,97% dari total pendapatan
negara.

Peranan Migas Dalam APBN


1,600

1,502.01

Pendapatan+Hibah (Negara)
Pendapatan Migas
Pendapatan Tambang+Panas Bumi

Pendapatan (Rp. Triliun)

1,400
1,200

1,210.60

995.27

981.61

1,000

1,358.21

848.76

800

707.81
637.99

600

495.22

400

288.64
201.27

200

138.91
3.19

6.78

175.80

168.78
5.88

10.45

10.77

211.61
12.99

266.59

16.93

266.23

15.62

254.89

18.62

0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Tahun

2010

2011

2012

2013

Persentase Penerimaan Negara (APBN) Dari


Sektor Migas
33

31.55

31

29.40

Persentase (%)

2928.05
27
25

23.85

23

22.02
20.71

21

21.26
19.60

19
16.97

17
15
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Tahun

2010

2011

2012

2013

Subsidi BBM
250
199.9

200

Subsisdi (Rp. Triliun)

165.2
139.1

150

100

137.4

95.6
83.8

82.4

64.2
45.0

50

0
2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Tahun

2010

2011

2012

2013

Latar Belakang
Setelah tahun 2002 konsumsi minyak Indonesia
lebih besar dari produksi minyak nasional.
Cadangan minyak terbukti Indonesia tahun 2012
sebesar 3,74 MMMBbls dan cenderung turun
terus. Produksi minyak sebesar 917,75 MBbl/D.
Peningkatan produksi minyak hanya bisa
dicapai dengan kegiatan eksplorasi dan
implementasi teknologi EOR.

Produksi Minyak Cenderung Turun Terus Di Bawah


Jumlah Konsumsi Minyak Yang Cenderung Naik
Indonesia Oil Production & Consumption
1800
1600
1400

MBbls/D

1200
Consumption

1000

Production

800

600
400

2012: Produksi = 917,75 MBbl/D;


Konsumsi =1565,24 Mbbl/D

200
1965

1975

1985

1995
Year

2005

Total impor minyak tahun 2012 = 77.963.403 BOE,


Impor produk BBM tahun 2011 = 27.366 ribu kL

2015

Cadangan Minyak Terbukti Indonesia Pada Akhir Tahun 2012


Sekitar 3,74 Milyar bbls & Cenderung Turun Dari Tahun Ke Tahun
Oil Proved Reserves History
37
31

MMMBbls

25
US

China

India

Indonesia

Malaysia

19
13
7
1
1980

1984

1988

1992

1996
Year

2000

2004

2008

2012

Harga Minyak Cenderung Naik Terus Sejak Tahun 1995


(Tahun 2012: US$112.73/bbl)
Spot Crude Prices
120
110
100

Mix (Dubai, Brent, Nigerian Forcados, West Texas


Intermediate)
ICP (Indonesia Crude Price)

90
US$/Bbl

80
70
60

50
40
30

20
10
1975

1980

1985

1990

1995
Year

2000

2005

2010

2015

Indonesia Natural Gas Proved Reserve


Indonesia Natural Gas Proved Reserve
1400
1300

Reserve/Production: 41.2 Years


TCM

1200

World Share : 1.6%


1100
1000
900
800
2002

2004

2006

2008
Year

2010

2012

Indonesia Natural Gas Production &


Consumption
Indonesia Natural Gas Production & Consumption
9.0
8.0
7.0

BCF/D

6.0
5.0

Natural Gas
Production
Natural Gas
Consumption

4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0

0.0
1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014
Year

Gas Prices
Gas Prices
18.00
16.00

US$/MMBTU

14.00

LNG

Natural Gas

12.00

10.00
8.00
6.00
4.00

2.00
0.00
1984

1988

1992

1996

2000
Year

2004

2008

2012

Energy Prices Play A Key Role

Gas Demand Growth Is Driven By Non-OECD


Needs

Gas reserves-to-production (R/P) ratios


Years
2012 by region

History

BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013


BP 2013

Distribution of proved gas reserves in 1992, 2002 and 2012


Percentage

BP Statistical Review of
World Energy 2013

Gas production/consumption by region


Billion cubic metres
Production by region

Consumption by region

BP Statistical Review of
World Energy 2013

Gas consumption per capita 2012


Tonnes oil equivalent

Source: Includes data from Cedigaz.

BP Statistical Review of
World Energy 2013

Gas prices
$/Mmbtu

BP Statistical Review of
World Energy 2013

Major gas trade movements 2012


Trade flows worldwide (billion cubic metres)

Source: Includes data from Cedigaz, CISStat, GIIGNL, IHS CERA, Poten, Waterborne.

BP Statistical Review of
World Energy 2013

Shale Gas & Tight Oil Resources &


Production

Shale Gas Growth Will Gradually Spread


Beyond The US

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and


Development (OECD)
No.

Date
7-Jun-71

No.

Country
AUSTRALIA

18

Country
JAPAN

Date
28-Apr-64

AUSTRIA

29-Sep-61

19

KOREA

12-Dec-96

BELGIUM

13-Sep-61

20

LUXEMBOURG

7-Dec-61

CANADA

10-Apr-61

21

MEXICO

18-May-94

CHILE

7-May-10

22

NETHERLANDS

13-Nov-61

CZECH REPUBLIC

21-Dec-95

23

NEW ZEALAND

29-May-73

DENMARK

30-May-61

24

NORWAY

4-Jul-61

ESTONIA

9-Dec-10

25

POLAND

22-Nov-96

FINLAND

28-Jan-69

26

PORTUGAL

4-Aug-61

10

FRANCE

7-Aug-61

27

SLOVAK REPUBLIC 14-Dec-00

11

GERMANY

27-Sep-61

28

SLOVENIA

21-Jul-10

12

GREECE

27-Sep-61

29

SPAIN

3-Aug-61

13

HUNGARY

7-May-96

30

SWEDEN

28-Sep-61

14

ICELAND

5-Jun-61

31

SWITZERLAND

28-Sep-61

15

IRELAND

17-Aug-61

32

TURKEY

2-Aug-61

16

ISRAEL

7-Sep-10

33

UNITED KINGDOM 2-May-61

17

ITALY

29-Mar-62

34

UNITED STATES

12-Apr-61

Tinjauan Industri Migas Indonesia


Visi Pengusahaan Migas Di Indonesia:
Memanfaatkan migas untuk sebesar-besarnya
kemakmuran rakyat (pasal 33 UUD 1945).
Strategi Pengelolaan Migas di Indonesia:
Kontrak Bagi Hasil (Production Sharing Contract-PSC)
sebagaimana diatur dalam Undang-Undang Republik
Indonesia Nomor 22 Tahun 2001 Tentang Minyak & Gas
Bumi dimana manajemen ada ditangan pemerintah.
Tujuan Jangka Panjang PSC:
Mengusahakan minyak kita sedapat mungkin oleh kita
sendiri.

Tonggak Sejarah Dalam Industri Migas


Indonesia (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2011)

Cadangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi dan


sebarannya di Indonesia

Tantangan Ke Depan dalam Proses


Peningkatan Produksi dan Perolehan MInyak
Peningkatan produksi minyak hanya bisa dicapai
dengan kegiatan eksplorasi dan implementasi
teknologi EOR atau pemanfaatan unconventional
resources (heavy oils, oil & gas sand/shale, CBM,
gas hydrate, dll.) yang membutuhkan teknologi
dan keahlian yang tinggi.
Kegiatan eksplorasi migas butuh investasi & biaya
yang sangat besar,tingkat keberhasilan untuk
menemukan migas hanya sekitar 30%-40% dan
banyaknya di laut dalam sementara anggaran
minim.

Cadangan Hidrokarbon di Dunia

GAS HYDRATES
Gas
Methane

Hydrate
CH4 . XH2O

Value of X
6 to 7

Ethane
Propane
Carbon dioxide

C2H6 . XH2O
C3H8 . XH2O
CO2 . XH2O

6 to 8
7 to 18
6 to 7

Natural gas

NG . XH2O

1 ft3 of liquid methane @

260oF 630 ft3 of gaseous methane

Temperatures >
155oF.

260oF can be used if the liquid state is maintained at 325 psig and

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS


LNG
1 Gallon of LNG @

263oF

weighs 3.46 lbs


has a specific gravity of 0.42
has a heating value of approximately 86,000 Btu

Heat of Vaporization of LNG at 1 atm 10 Btu/SCF


It requires 6575 Btu to vaporise 1 cu ft of liquid methane.

Energy Resources

Renewable Energy Resources


(Solar, Wind, Bio-mass, hydal)

Non-Renewable Energy Resources


(Natural Gas, Petroleum, Coal)

General Classification of Fuels


FUELS

Conventional

Natural or Fossil

Nuclear

238U
92

Manufactured or Synthetic

Solid

; 238U92 ; 239Pu93

Solid

Wood , Coal
Liquid

Coke , Charcoals
Liquid

Alcohols

Petroleum
Gaseous

Gaseous

Natural Gas
Coal Bed Methane(CBM)
Marsh Gas

Coal gas
Coke oven gas
Producer gas
Water gas
Hydrogen , etc.

What is natural gas?


Natural gas is a subcategory of petroleum that is a naturally
occurring, complex mixture of hydrocarbons, with a minor
amount of inorganic compounds.
Geologists and chemists agree that petroleum originates
from plants and animal remains that accumulate on the
sea/lake floor along with the sediments that form
sedimentary rocks
The processes by which the parent organic material is
converted into petroleum are not understood.
The contributing factors are thought to be bacterial action;
shearing pressure during compaction, heat, and natural
distillation at depth; possible addition of hydrogen from
deep-seated sources; presence of catalysts; and time
(Allison and Palmer 1980).

NATURAL GAS

Definition (in normal usage) :

Natural Gas in normal usage, is considered to be a


naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons
[C1 , C2 , C3 , C4 , C5 , C6+] and non-hydrocarbons
[CO2 , N2 , He , H2O , H2S , RSH , COS , CS2 ,
etc.] associated with petroliferous geologic
formations (rocks in earths crust).

Natural Gases as supplied by the utility gas companies,


usually

contain 80 to 95% CH4 , with C2H6 , C3H8 , N2 , etc. making up the remainder.
have heating or calorific value ranging from 900 to 1200 Btu/SCF.
have specific gravity (w.r.t. air = 1.0) varying from 0.58 to 0.79 .

Methane (CH4) ( Some properties )

Auto- or Spontaneous-ignition Temperature : 1004oF (540oC)


Flammability Limits : 5% to 15% v
Critical Pressure : 673 psia (45.8 atm)
Critical Temp.:

116.3oF (343.7 oR) OR

( For other properties, see literature )

82.4oC (191 oK)

Generally,

1000 sft3 ( 1 MSCF ) of Natural Gas is equivalent to :

58 kg of Wood
52 kg of (indigenous) Coal
28 liters of Kerosene
0.168 barrel of Crude Oil (petroleum)
285 kwh of Electricity
0.024 tonne of Furnace Oil

21 kg of LPG

Product Slate

Raw Gas

Water
Helium
Nitrogen
Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen sulphide

Water
Helium
Nitrogen

Carbon dioxide
Hydrogen sulphide

Gas
Processing

Pipeline gas (Methane)

Methane
Ethane
Propane
N-Butane
i-Butane

Pentanes +

Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
Natural gasoline

Combustibles
vs
Non- combustibles

Hydrocarbons
vs
Non-hydrocarbons

Natural Gas
Constituents

Natural Gas
Constituents

Hydrocarbons
Methane

C1

Ethane
Propane

Non-hydrocarbons
Water

H2O

C2

Carbon dioxide

CO2

C3

Nitrogen

N2

n-Butane

n-C4

Helium

He

i-Butane

i-C4

Hydrogen sulphide

H2S

Pentanes

C5

Mercaptans

Hexanes+

C6+

Carbon oxysulphide COS


Carbon disulphide

RSH
CS2

Combustibles

Non-combustibles

HCs

H2O

H2S

CO2

RSH

N2

COS

He

CS2

History of Natural Gas

PETROLEUM ORIGIN
Petroleum occurs underground, at various pressures
depending on the depth.
Because of the pressure, it contains considerable
natural gas in solution.
Petroleum is derived from aquatic plants and animals
that lived and died hundreds of millions of years ago.
Their remains mixed with mud and sand in layered
deposits that, over the millennia, were geologically
transformed into sedimentary rock.
Gradually the organic matter decomposed and
eventually formed petroleum, which migrated from
the original source beds to more porous and
permeable rocks, such as sandstone and siltstone,
where it finally became entrapped. Such entrapped
accumulations of petroleum are called reservoirs.

IDEAL CONDITION FOR OIL AND


GAS FORMATION

Hydrocarbon Oil: Temperature between


180oF and 295 oF (7,000 15,000 ft)
Hydrocarbon gas: Temperature between
295 oF and 450 oF (15,000 25,000 ft).
CO2 and H2O: Temperature above 450 oF.

SCHEMATIC ILLUSTRATION
OF DEPOSITIONAL SYSTEM

SEDIMENTATION

ACCUMULATION, TRANSFORMATION
AND MIGRATION

CnH2n+2COOH or CnH2nO2 +Temperatures

WHAT MAKES OIL STAY IN THERE: TRAPS

Exploration

Production

Shipping

Oil and Gas Process

Refining

Chemical
Manufacturing

Uses

Concept of Natural Gas System

A General Scheme

CLASSIFICATION OF THE EARTHS ORGANIC SEDIMENTS

(termasuk isomernya)

Classification of hydrocarbon

Polydispersivity

GAS BUMI
Gas bumi adalah campuran hidrokarbon ringan dengan komponen
utamanya C1 atau metana. Kandungan (fraksi mol) C1 didalam
suatu reservoir dapat berbeda dibanding dengan reservoir lain.
Kandungan C1 di suatu reservoir dapat mencapai lebih dari 95%,
tetapi banyak reservoir memiliki kandungan C1 hanya 70% atau
bahkan kurang dengan komponen sisanya adalah C2, C3, C4, dst.
plus seringkali gas non-hidrokarbon seperti N2, CO2, H2S, He.
Gas bumi pada kondisi awal didalam reservoir berbentuk fasa gas.
Gas bumi bila diproduksikan dari dalam reservoir akan
menghasilkan di permukaan hanya gas saja atau gas dan cairan
hidrokarbon (kondensat), tergantung dari komposisi gas itu
didalam reservoir.
Oleh karena itu, reservoir gas dapat dikatagorikan atas: reservoir
gas kering, reservoir gas basah, dan reservoir gas kondensat.

Contoh Komposisi dan Karakteristik Gas


dan Minyak Bumi.

Karakteristik Gas Bumi


1. Reservoir gas dapat dikelompokkan atas reservoir gas
kering, reservoir gas basah dan reservoir gas kondensat.
2. Reservoir gas kering menghasilkan sangat sedikit
sekali hidrokarbon cair dipermukaan.

3. Reservoir gas basah menghasilkan hidrokarbon cair di


permukaan dengan GOR jauh diatas 15000 SCF/STB.
4. Reservoir gas kondensat bisa menghasilkan
hidrokarbon cair dipermukaan dengan GOR di atas 3500
SCF/STB.

FLUID SYSTEM: RETROGRADE GAS

Retrograde Gas

Gas at initial condition

Large quantities of
Mid 50s < oAPI < 70
condensate drop out in
Condensate = 0.25 cp
the surface facilities
1.5 < B < 2.5 to 3.5
3300 < Rinitial < 15,000 to 50,000
Condensate drop out
in the formation

PHASE BEHAVIOR: RETROGRADE GAS

Tekanan

Kondisi
awal
di reservoir

Kondisi di
dasar sumur

Separator
Temperatur

Diagram Fasa (P-T Diagram) Gas Kondensat

FLUID SYSTEM: WET GAS

Wet Gas
oAPI

Gas at initial condition

>60
Condensate drop out in
the surface facilities
Condensate = 0.25 cp
1.5 < B < 2.5 to 3.5
15,000 to 50,000 < Rinitial < 100,000

Diagram Fasa (P-T Diagram) untuk Gas Basah

Ciri-ciri Gas Basah (Wet Gas): gas yg diproduksikan ke permukaan (separator)


menghasilkan cairan hidrokarbon (kondensat) dengan Gas-Oil Ratio atau GasCondensate Ratio dapat mencapai puluhan ribu SCF/STB. Komponen C1 dapat
mencapai 85% dan kandungan C2 C6 lebih banyak dibanding gas kering.
Komposisi gas separator beda dengan komposisi gas di reservoir. Air terkondensasi
seringkali juga dihasilkan di separator.

PHASE BEHAVIOR: WET GAS

Tekanan

Kondisi awal
di reservoir

Kondisi di
dasar sumur
Separator
Temperatur

FLUID SYSTEM: DRY GAS

Gas is composed primarily of methane


with only small amounts of ethane,
propane and butane

Produce no condensate

Diagram Fasa (P-T Diagram) untuk Gas Kering

Ciri-ciri gas kering (Dry Gas): gas yg diproduksikan ke permukaan (separator)


menghasilkan kondensat hidrokarbon sedikit sekali atau bahkan tidak NOL.
Komponen C1 dominan plus sedikit C2 C4 dan mungkin ada C5+. Komposisi
gas di reservoir boleh dikatakan samna dengan komposisi di separator dan SGnya juga sama. Seringkali kondensat air (H2O) dihasilkan juga.

PHASE BEHAVIOR: DRY GAS

Tekanan

Kondisi awal
di reservoir

Dry gas

Kondisi di
dasar sumur
Separator
Temperatur

EQUATION FOR IDEAL GAS


For n moles the equation becomes:
T= absolute temperature oK or oR where
K=273 +oC and oR=460 +oF
To find the volume occupied by a quantity
of gas, when the conditions of
temperature and pressure are changed
from state 1 to state 2 we note that:

The Density of an Ideal Gas


Density is defined as the weight per unit
volume, the ideal gas law can be used to
calculate densities.
For 1 mole; m = MW

Standard Conditions
Oil and gas at reservoir conditions clearly occur
under a whole range of temperatures and
pressures.
It is common practice to relate volumes to
conditions at surface, ie 14.7 psia and 60F.

This relationship assumes that reservoir


properties behave as ideal.
sc - standard conditions
res - reservoir conditions

Mixtures of Ideal Gases


Petroleum engineering is concerned not
with single component gases but mixtures
of a number of gases.
Laws established over early years
governing ideal gas mixtures include
Daltons Law and Amagats Law.

Apparent Molecular Weight


A mixture does not have a molecular
weight although it behaves as though it
had a molecular weight. This is called the
apparent molecular weight (AMW)
If yj represents the mole fraction of the jth
component:

AMW for air = 28.97, a value of 29.0 is


usually sufficiently accurate

Specific Gravity of a Gas


The specific gravity of a gas, g is the ratio
of the density of the gas relative to that of
dry air at the same conditions.
Where:
Assuming that the gases and air are ideal.

Mg = AMW of mixture, Mair = AMW of air.

BEHAVIOUR OF REAL GASES


The ideal gas law, therefore, is not too
applicable to light hydrocarbons and their
associated fluids and it is necessary to use
a more refined equation.
There are two general methods of
correcting the ideal gas law equation:
(1) By using a correction factor in the
equation PV = nRT
(2) By using another equation-of-state
(EOS)

Compressibility Factor (Z) for Natural Gases


The correction factor z which is a function of
the gas composition, pressure and temperature
is used to modify the ideal gas law to:
z is an expression of the actual volume to what
the ideal volume would be.
The factor z is known as the compressibility
factor & the equation is known as the
compressibility equation-of-state or the
compressibility equation.

Compressibility Factor (Z) for Natural


Gases
The compressibility factor is not a constant
but varies with changes in gas
composition, temperature and pressure
and must be determined experimentally.
To compare two states the law now takes
the form:

Typical plot of the compressibility factor as a function of


pressure at constant temperature

Law of Corresponding States


The law of corresponding states shows that the properties of
many pure liquids and gases have the same value at the same
reduced temperature (Tr) and pressure (Pr) where:

Where, Tc and Pc are the pure component critical temperature


and pressure.
Although in many cases pure gases follow the Law of
Corresponding States, the gases associated with hydrocarbon
reservoirs do not. The Law has however been used to apply to
mixtures by defining parameters called pseudo critical
temperature and pseudocritical pressure.
For mixtures a pseudocritical temperature and pressure, Tpc
and Ppc is used such that:

the pseudo-critical pressure


and pseudo-critical temperature of gases correlation
Brown et al. (1948) presented in a graphical method.
Standing (1977) expressed this graphical correlation in
the following mathematical forms:
Natural Gas Systems

Gas-Condensate Systems

Pseudo-critical
properties of natural
gases

For mixtures the compressibility factor (z)


has been generated with respect to natural
gases, where z is plotted as a function of
pseudo reduced temperature, Tpr and
pseudo reduced pressure Ppr where

Compressibility factors for natural


gas (Standing & Katz)

Pseudocritical Properties
of Natural Gases

The
pseudocritical
properties of
gases can be
computed
from the basic
composition
but can also be
estimated
from the gas
gravity.

Impact of Nonhydrocarbon Components on z


value
Components like hydrogen sulphide, and carbon
dioxide have a significant impact on the value of z. If
the method previously applied is used large errors in
z result.
Wichert and Aziz have produced an equation which
enables the impact of these two gases to be
calculated.

T'pc and P'pc are used to calculate Tpr and Ppr. The
value for is obtained from the Wichert and Aziz
chart or correlation.

Wichert and Aziz pseudo-critical temperature adjustment


factor () correlation

Where:

B = Mole fraction of H2S in the gas mixture


or (yH2S)

The Carr-Kobayashi-Burrows Correction Method


(1954)

A simplified procedure to adjust the


pseudo-critical properties of natural gases
when nonhydrocarbon components are
present.
The method can be used when the
composition of the natural gas is not
available.

Adjustment factors for


pseudocritical properties
for non hydrocarbon
gases
(Wichert & Aziz)

Physical Properties for Pure Components

EXERCISE-1
By using Wichert and Aziz method,
calculate the pseudo critical properties of
the gas which is made up of the following
components; 25 lb of methane, 3 lb of
ethane and 1.5 lb of propane, if it also
contained 3 lb of hydrogen sulphide, 10 lb
of carbon dioxide and 2.5 lb of nitrogen.

solution
Components
( j)

Weight
(lb)

MW

Mole Fraction
(Yj)

Pc
(Psi)

YjPcj

Tc
o
( R)

YjTcj

C1

25

16.04

1.5586

0.743

667

495.783

344

255.696

C2

30.07

0.0998

0.048

708

33.686

550

26.169

C3

1.5

44.09

0.0340

0.016

616

9.995

666

10.806

H2S

34.08

0.0880

0.042

1306

54.827

673

28.253

CO2

10

44.01

0.2272

0.108

1071

116.056

548

59.383

N2

2.5

28.02

0.0892

0.043

493

20.977

227

9.659

Total

45

2.0969

lb mole

731.324

389.965

From Wichert & Azis chart for compositions of H2S and CO2, it is obtained = 19

EXERCISE-2
Calculate the Z factor of gas from Exercise-1
for P = 5420 psia and T = 275 oF?

solution

From solution of Exercise-1 it is found that:


T'pc = 371 oR
P'pc = 694.3 psia
Thus;
Tpr = T/Tpc = (275 oF+460)/371 oR= 1.98
Ppr = P/Ppc = 5420 psia/694.3 psia = 7.81
From Standing & Katz chart, Z is found to be
1.05