Anda di halaman 1dari 74

Wireless & Mobile Communications

Chapter 2: Wireless Transmission


Frequencies
Signals
Antennas
Signal propagation
Multiplexing
Spread spectrum
Modulation
Cellular systems

Spectrum Allocation
twisted
pair

coax cable

1 Mm
300 Hz

10 km
30 kHz

VLF

LF

optical transmission

100 m
3 MHz

MF

HF

1m
300 MHz

VHF

VLF = Very Low Frequency


LF = Low Frequency
MF = Medium Frequency
HF = High Frequency
VHF = Very High Frequency

UHF

10 mm
30 GHz

SHF

100 m
3 THz

EHF

infrared

1 m
300 THz

visible light UV

UHF = Ultra High Frequency


SHF = Super High Frequency
EHF = Extra High Frequency
UV = Ultraviolet Light

Relationship between frequency f and wave length :


= c/f
where c is the speed of light 3x108m/s
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.2

Frequencies Allocated for Mobile Communication

VHF & UHF ranges for mobile radio

allows for simple, small antennas for cars


deterministic propagation characteristics
less subject to weather conditions > more reliable connections

SHF and higher for directed radio links, satellite


communication

small antennas with directed transmission


large bandwidths available

Wireless LANs use frequencies in UHF to SHF spectrum

some systems planned up to EHF


limitations due to absorption by water and oxygen molecules
weather dependent fading, signal loss caused by heavy rainfall, etc.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.3

Allocated Frequencies

ITU-R holds auctions for new frequencies, manages


frequency bands worldwide for harmonious usage (WRC World Radio Conferences)

Mobile
phones

Cordless
telephones

Wireless
LANs

Europe

USA

Japan

NMT 453-457MHz,
463-467MHz;
GSM 890-915MHz,
935-960MHz;
1710-1785MHz,
1805-1880MHz
CT1+ 885-887MHz,
930-932MHz;
CT2
864-868MHz
DECT
1880-1900MHz
IEEE 802.11
2400-2483MHz
HIPERLAN 1
5176-5270MHz

AMPS, TDMA, CDMA


824-849MHz,
869-894MHz;
TDMA, CDMA, GSM
1850-1910MHz,
1930-1990MHz;
PACS 1850-1910MHz,
1930-1990MHz
PACS-UB 1910-1930MHz

PDC
810-826MHz,
940-956MHz;
1429-1465MHz,
1477-1513MHz

IEEE 802.11
2400-2483MHz

IEEE 802.11
2471-2497MHz

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

PHS
1895-1918MHz
JCT
254-380MHz

2.4

Signals I

physical representation of data


function of time and location
signal parameters: parameters representing the value of
data
classification

continuous time/discrete time


continuous values/discrete values
analog signal = continuous time and continuous values
digital signal = discrete time and discrete values

signal parameters of periodic signals:


period T, frequency f=1/T, amplitude A, phase shift

sine wave as special periodic signal for a carrier:


s(t) = At sin(2 ft t + t)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.5

Fourier Representation of Periodic Signals

1
g (t ) c an sin(2nft ) bn cos(2nft )
2
n 1
n 1

0
t

ideal periodic signal

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

real composition
(based on harmonics)

Spring 2003

2.6

Signals II

Different representations of signals

amplitude (amplitude domain)


frequency spectrum (frequency domain)
phase state diagram (amplitude M and phase in polar
coordinates)

Q = M sin

A [V]

A [V]
t[s]

I= M cos

f [Hz]

Composite signals mapped into frequency domain using


Fourier transformation
Digital signals need

infinite frequencies for perfect representation


modulation with a carrier frequency for transmission (->analog
signal!)
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.7

Antennas

Antennas are used to radiate and receive EM waves (energy)


Antennas link this energy between the ether and a device
such as a transmission line (e.g., coaxial cable)
Antennas consist of one or several radiating elements
through which an electric current circulates
Types of antennas:

omnidirectional
directional
phased arrays
adaptive
optimal

Principal characteristics used to characterize an antenna are:

radiation pattern
directivity
gain
efficiency

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.8

Isotropic Antennas

Isotropic radiator: equal radiation in all directions (three


dimensional) - only a theoretical reference antenna
Real antennas always have directive effects (vertical and/or
horizontal)
Radiation pattern: measurement of radiation around an
antenna

z
x

ideal
isotropic
radiator

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.9

Omnidirectional Antennas: simple dipoles

Real antennas are not isotropic radiators but, e.g., dipoles


with lengths /4, or Hertzian dipole: /2 (2 dipoles)
shape/size of antenna proportional to wavelength
/4

/2

Example: Radiation pattern of a simple Hertzian dipole


y

x
side view (xy-plane)

z
side view (yz-plane)

simple
dipole

top view (xz-plane)

Gain: ratio of the maximum power in the direction of the


main lobe to the power of an isotropic radiator (with the
same average power)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.10

Directional Antennas

Often used for microwave connections (directed point to


point transmission) or base stations for mobile phones
(e.g., radio coverage of a valley or sectors for frequency
reuse)
y
y
z
x

side view (xy-plane)

side view (yz-plane)

directed
antenna

top view (xz-plane)


z

top view, 3 sector

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

sectorized
antenna

top view, 6 sector

Spring 2003

2.11

Array Antennas

Grouping of 2 or more antennas to obtain radiating


characteristics that cannot be obtained from a single
element
Antenna diversity

switched diversity, selection diversity


receiver chooses antenna with largest output

diversity combining
combine output power to produce gain
cophasing needed to avoid cancellation
/4

/2

/4

/2

/2

/2

ground plane

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.12

Signal Propagation Ranges

Transmission range

communication possible
low error rate

Detection range

detection of the signal


possible
no communication
possible, high error rate

Interference range

signal may not be


detected
signal adds to the
background noise

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

sender

transmission
distance
detection
interference

Spring 2003

2.13

Signal Propagation I

Radio wave propagation is affected by the following


mechanisms:

reflection at large obstacles


scattering at small obstacles
diffraction at edges

reflection

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

diffraction

scattering

Spring 2003

2.14

Signal Propagation II

The signal is also subject to degradation resulting from


propagation in the mobile radio environment. The principal
phenomena are:

pathloss due to distance covered by radio signal (frequency


dependent, less at low frequencies)
fading (frequency dependent, related to multipath propagation)
shadowing induced by obstacles in the path between the
transmitted and the receiver

shadowing

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.15

Signal Propagation III

Interference from other sources and noise will also impact signal
behavior:

co-channel (mobile users in adjacent cells using same frequency) and


adjacent (mobile users using frequencies adjacent to
transmission/reception frequency) channel interference
ambient noise from the radio transmitter components or other
electronic devices,

Propagation characteristics differ with the environment through


and over which radio waves travel. Several types of environments
can be identified (dense urban, urban, suburban and rural) and are
classified according to the following parameters:

terrain morphology
vegetation density
buildings: density and height
open areas
water surfaces

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.16

Pathloss I

Free-space pathloss:
To define free-space propagation, consider an isotropic source
consisting of a transmitter with a power Pt W. At a distance d
from this source, the power transmitted is spread uniformly on
the surface of a sphere of radius d. The power density at the
distance d is then as follows:

Sr = Pt/4d2

The power received by an antenna at a distance d from the


transmitter is then equal to:

Pr = PtAe/4d2
where A is the effective area of the antenna.
e
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.17

Pathloss II

Noting that Ae = Gr/(4/2)


where Gr is the gain of the receiver

And if we replace the isotropic source by a transmitting


antenna with a gain Gt the power received at a distance d of
the transmitter by a receiving antenna of gain Gr becomes:

Pr = PtGrGt/[4(d/)]2

In decibels the propagation pathloss (PL) is given by:

PL(db) = -10log10(Pr/Pt) = -10log10(GrGt/[4(d/)]2)

This is for the ideal case and can only be applied sensibly to
satellite systems and short range LOS propagation.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.18

Multipath Propagation I

Signal can take many different paths between sender and


receiver due to reflection, scattering, diffraction

signal at sender
signal at receiver

Positive effects of multipath:

enables communication even when transmitter and receiver


are not in LOS conditions - allows radio waves effectively to
go through obstacles by getting around them thereby
increasing the radio coverage area

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.19

Multipath Propagation II

Negative effects of multipath:

Time dispersion or delay spread: signal is dispersed over time due


signals coming over different paths of different lengths
Causes interference with neighboring symbols, this is referred
to as Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
multipath spread (in secs) = (longest1 shortest2)/c
For a 5s symbol duration a 1s delay spread means about a 20%
intersymbol overlap.
The signal reaches a receiver directly and phase shifted (due to
reflections)
Distorted signal depending on the phases of the different parts,
this is referred to as Rayleigh fading, due to the distribution of the fades.
It creates fast fluctuations of the received signal (fast fading).
Random frequency modulation due to Doppler shifts on the different
paths. Doppler shift is caused by the relative velocity of the receiver to
the transmitter, leads to a frequency variation of the received signal.
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.20

Effects of Mobility

Channel characteristics change over time and location

signal paths change


different delay variations of different signal parts
different phases of signal parts
quick changes in the power received (short term fading)

Additional changes in

power

distance to sender
obstacles further away

long term
fading

slow changes in the average power

received (long term fading)


short term fading

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.21

Multiplexing Techniques

Multiplexing techniques are used to allow many users to


share a common transmission resource. In our case the
users are mobile and the transmission resource is the radio
spectrum. Sharing a common resource requires an access
mechanism that will control the multiplexing mechanism.

As in wireline systems, it is desirable to allow the


simultaneous transmission of information between two
users engaged in a connection. This is called duplexing.

Two types of duplexing exist:

Frequency division duplexing (FDD), whereby two frequency


channels are assigned to a connection, one channel for each
direction of transmission.

Time division duplexing (TDD), whereby two time slots (closely


placed in time for duplex effect) are assigned to a connection,
one slot for each direction of transmission.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.22

Multiplexing

Multiplexing in 3 dimensions

time (t) (TDM)


frequency (f) (FDM)
code (c) (CDM)

Goal: multiple use


of a shared medium

channels ki
k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

c
t

c
t

s1

f
s2

c
t

s3

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.23

Narrowband versus Wideband

These multiple access schemes can be grouped into two


categories:

Narrowband systems - the total spectrum is divided into a


large number of narrow radio bands that are shared.

Wideband systems - the total spectrum is used by each mobile


unit for both directions of transmission. Only applicable for
TDM and CDM.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.24

Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)

Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands


A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time
orthogonal system
Advantages:

no dynamic coordination
necessary, i.e., sync. and
framing
works also for analog signals
low bit rates cheaper,
delay spread

k1

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

c
f

Disadvantages:

waste of bandwidth
if the traffic is
distributed unevenly
inflexible
guard bands t
narrow filters
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.25

Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)

A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of


time orthogonal system
Advantages:

only one carrier in the


medium at any time
throughput high - supports bursts
k1
flexible multiple slots
no guard bands ?!

Disadvantages:

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

c
f

Framing and precise


synchronization
necessary
high bit rates
at each
t
Tx/Rx
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.26

Hybrid TDM/FDM

Combination of both methods


A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain
amount of time (slot).
Example: GSM, hops from one band to another each time
slot
Advantages:
k1

better protection against


tapping (hopping among
frequencies)
protection against frequency
selective interference

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

c
f

Disadvantages:

Framing and
sync. required

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.27

Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)

Each channel has a unique code


k1
(not necessarily orthogonal)
All channels use the same spectrum
at the same time
Advantages:

k2

k3

k4

k5

k6

bandwidth efficient
no coordination and synchronization
necessary
good protection against interference
and tapping

Disadvantages:

lower user data rates due to high


gains required to reduce
interference
more complex signal regeneration
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.19.1
2.28

Issues with CDM

CDM has a soft capacity. The more users the more codes that are
used. However as more codes are used the signal to interference
(S/I) ratio will drop and the bit error rate (BER) will go up for all
users.

CDM requires tight power control as it suffers from far-near effect.


In other words, a user close to the base station transmitting with
the same power as a user farther away will drown the latters
signal. All signals must have more or less equal power at the
receiver.

Rake receivers can be used to improve signal reception. Time


delayed versions (a chip or more delayed) of the signal (multipath
signals) can be collected and used to make bit level decisions.

Soft handoffs can be used. Mobiles can switch base stations


without switching carriers. Two base stations receive the mobile
signal and the mobile is receiving from two base stations (one of
the rake receivers is used to listen to other signals).

Burst transmission - reduces interference

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.29

Types of CDM I

Two types exist:

Direct Sequence CDM (DS-CDM)


spreads the narrowband user signal (Rbps) over the full spectrum by
multiplying it by a very wide bandwidth signal (W). This is done by
taking every bit in the user stream and replacing it with a pseudonoise
(PN) code (a long bit sequence called the chip rate). The codes are
orthogonal (or approx.. orthogonal).
This results in a processing gain G = W/R (chips/bit). The higher G the
better the system performance as the lower the interference. G2
indicates the number of possible codes. Not all of the codes are
orthogonal.
Frequency
Code
CDMA

Time

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.30

Types of CDM II

Frequency hopping CDM (FH-CDM)


FH-CDM is based on a narrowband FDM system in which an individual
users transmission is spread out over a number of channels over time
(the channel choice is varied in a pseudorandom fashion). If the carrier
is changed every symbol then it is referred to as a fast FH system, if it
is changed every few symbols it is a slow FH system.

A
B
B

A
A

A
A

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

A
B

Spring 2003

2.31

Orthogonality and Codes

An m-bit PN generator generates N=2m - 1 different codes.

Out of these codes only m codes are orthogonal -> zero


cross correlation.

For example a 3 bit shift register circuit shown below


generates N=7 codes.
Mod2 Adder (1+0=1, 0+1=1, 0+0=0, 1+1=0)
+

1
Initial State:

2
1
0
1
0
0
1
1

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

3
1
1
0
1
0
0
1

Spring 2003

1
1
1
0
1
0
0

2.32

Orthogonal Codes

A pair of codes is said to be orthogonal if the cross correlation is


zero: Rxy(0) = 0 .

For two m-bit codes: x1,x2,x3,...,xm and y1,y2,y3,...,ym:

For example: x = 0011 and y = 0110. Replace 0 with -1, 1 stays as is.
Then:
x = -1 -1 1 1
y = -1 1 1 -1
----------------Rxy(0) = 1 -1 +1 -1 = 0

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.33

Example of an Orthogonal Code: Walsh Codes

In 1923 J.L. Walsh introduced a complete set of orthogonal


codes. To generate a Walsh code the following two steps
must be followed:

Step 1: represent a NxN matrix as four quadrants (start off with


2x2)

Step 2: make the first, second and third quadrants indentical


and invert the fourth
b
b

bb
b b

bb
b b

bb
b b

Code 1

Code 2

or
0

2 codes: 11 and 10
bb
b b

11
10
11
10

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

11
10
00
01

or

2 codes: 00 and 01
0
0
0
0

0
1
0
1

Spring 2003

00
01
11
10

Code 1
Code 2
Code 3
Code 4

2.34

Modulation

Digital modulation

digital data is translated into an analog signal (baseband)


ASK, FSK, PSK - main focus in this chapter
differences in spectral efficiency, power efficiency, robustness

Analog modulation

shifts center frequency of baseband signal up to the radio


carrier

Motivation
smaller antennas (e.g., /4)
Frequency Division Multiplexing
medium characteristics

Basic schemes

Amplitude Modulation (AM)


Frequency Modulation (FM)
Phase Modulation (PM)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.35

Modulation and Demodulation

digital
data
101101001

digital
modulation

analog
baseband
signal

analog
modulation

radio transmitter

radio
carrier

analog
demodulation

analog
baseband
signal

synchronization
decision

digital
data
101101001

radio receiver

radio
carrier

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.36

Digital Modulation

Modulation of digital signals known as Shift Keying


1
0
Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK):

very simple
low bandwidth requirements
very susceptible to interference

Frequency Shift Keying (FSK):

needs larger bandwidth


t

Phase Shift Keying (PSK):

more complex
robust against interference
t

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.37

Advanced Frequency Shift Keying

bandwidth needed for FSK depends on the distance


between the carrier frequencies
special pre-computation avoids sudden phase shifts
MSK (Minimum Shift Keying)
bit separated into even and odd bits, the duration of each
bit is doubled
depending on the bit values (even, odd) the higher or lower
frequency, original or inverted is chosen
the frequency of one carrier is twice the frequency of the
other
even higher bandwidth efficiency using a Gaussian lowpass filter GMSK (Gaussian MSK), used in GSM

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.38

Example of MSK
1

0
bit

data

even

0101

even bits

odd

0011

odd bits

signal
value

hnnh
- - ++

low
frequency

h: high frequency
n: low frequency
+: original signal
-: inverted signal

high
frequency

MSK
signal

t
No phase shifts!

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.39

Advanced Phase Shift Keying

BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying):

bit value 0: sine wave


bit value 1: inverted sine wave
very simple PSK
low spectral efficiency
robust, used e.g. in satellite systems

10

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift


Keying):
2 bits coded as one symbol
symbol determines shift of sine wave
needs less bandwidth compared to
BPSK
A
more complex

Often also transmission of relative,


not absolute phase shift: DQPSK Differential QPSK (IS-136, PACS,
PHS)
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

11

00

01

t
11
Spring 2003

10

00

01
2.40

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM): combines


amplitude and phase modulation
it is possible to code n bits using one symbol
2n discrete levels, n=2 identical to QPSK
bit error rate increases with n, but less errors compared to
comparable PSK schemes

0010
0011

0001

Example: 16-QAM (4 bits = 1 symbol)

0000
I

1000

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Symbols 0011 and 0001 have the


same phase, but different amplitude.
0000 and 1000 have different phase,
but same amplitude.
used in standard 9600 bit/s
modems
Spring 2003

2.41

Spread spectrum technology: CDM

Problem of radio transmission: frequency dependent fading


can wipe out narrow band signals for duration of the
interference
Solution: spread the narrow band signal into a broad band
signal using a special code

power

protection against narrow band interference

interference

spread
signal

power

signal
spread
interference

detection at
receiver
f

protection against narrowband interference

Side effects:

coexistence of several signals without dynamic coordination


tap-proof

Alternatives: Direct Sequence, Frequency Hopping

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.42

Effects of spreading and interference

i)

user signal
broadband interference
narrowband interference

ii)
f

sender
P

iii)

iv)
f

v)
f

receiver

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.28.1
2.43

Spreading and frequency selective fading


channel
quality

narrowband channels

4
frequency
narrow band
signal

guard space

channel
quality

spread
spectrum
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

spread spectrum channels

frequency

Spring 2003

2.29.1
2.44

DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) I

XOR of the signal with pseudo-random number (chipping


sequence)

many chips per bit (e.g., 128) result in higher bandwidth of the
signal
t
b

Advantages
user data

reduces frequency selective


fading
in cellular networks

chipping
sequence
01101010110101

01101011001010

precise power control necessary

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

=
resulting
signal

Disadvantages

XOR

tc

base stations can use the


same frequency range
several base stations can
detect and recover the signal
soft handover

tb: bit period


tc: chip period

Spring 2003

2.30.1
2.45

DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) II


spread
spectrum
signal

user data
X

transmit
signal
modulator

chipping
sequence

radio
carrier
transmitter

correlator
lowpass
filtered
signal

received
signal
demodulator
radio
carrier

products

sampled
sums
data

integrator

decision

chipping
sequence
receiver

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.31.1
2.46

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) I

Discrete changes of carrier frequency

sequence of frequency changes determined via pseudo


random number sequence

Two versions

Fast Hopping:
several frequencies per user bit
Slow Hopping:
several user bits per frequency

Advantages

frequency selective fading and interference limited to short


period
simple implementation
uses only small portion of spectrum at any time

Disadvantages

not as robust as DSSS


simpler to detect

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.32.1
2.47

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) II


tb
user data
0

td

f3

slow
hopping
(3 bits/hop)

f2
f1
f

td

f3

fast
hopping
(3 hops/bit)

f2
f1
t

tb: bit period


ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

td: dwell time


Spring 2003

2.33.1
2.48

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) III

user data
modulator

modulator

frequency
synthesizer

transmitter

hopping
sequence

narrowband
signal

received
signal

data
demodulator

hopping
sequence

spread
transmit
signal

narrowband
signal

demodulator

frequency
synthesizer

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

receiver

Spring 2003

2.34.1
2.49

Concept of Cellular Communications

In the late 60s it was proposed to alleviate the problem of


spectrum congestion by restructuring the coverage area of mobile
radio systems.

The cellular concept does not use broadcasting over large areas.
Instead smaller areas called cells are handled by less powerful
base stations that use less power for transmission. Now the
available spectrum can be re-used from one cell to another
thereby increasing the capacity of the system.

However this did give rise to a new problem, as a mobile unit


moved it could potentially leave the coverage area (cell) of a base
station in which it established the call. This required complex
controls that enabled the handing over of a connection (called
handoff) to the new cell that the mobile unit moved into.

In summary, the essential elements of a cellular system are:

Low power transmitter and small coverage areas called cells

Spectrum (frequency) re-use

Handoff

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.50

Cell structure

Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a


certain transmission area (cell)
Mobile stations communicate only via the base station

Advantages of cell structures:

higher capacity, higher number of users


less transmission power needed
more robust, decentralized
base station deals with interference, transmission area etc.
locally

Problems:

fixed network needed for the base stations


handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary
interference with other cells

Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the


country side (GSM) - even less for higher frequencies

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.35.1
2.51

Cellular Network
Other MSCs
F1,F2,..,F6

(IS 41)
F7,F8,..,F12
PSTN

F7,F8,..,F12

MSC
F1,F2,..,F6

Base
Station
Handoff
Cell

MSC: Mobile Switching Center


PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network

(Theoretical)

Practical Cell - coverage depends on antenna location and


height, transmitter power, terrain, foliage, buildings, etc.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.52

Some Definitions

Forward path or down link - from base station down to the mobile

Reverse path or up link - from the mobile up to the base station

The mobile unit - a portable voice and/or data comm. transceiver.


It has a 10 digit telephone number that is represented by a 34 bit
mobile identification number -> (215) 684-3201 is divided into two
parts: MIN1: 215 translated into 10bits and MIN2: 684-3201
translated into 24bits. In addition each mobile unit is also
permanently programmed at the factory with a 32 bit electronic
serial number (ESN) which guards against tampering.

The cell - a geographical area covered by Radio Frequency (RF)


signals. It is essentially a radio communication center comprising
radios, antennas and supporting equipment to enable mobile to
land and land to mobile communication. Its shape and size
depend on the location, height , gain and directivity of the
antenna, the power of the transmitter, the terrain, obstacles such
as foliage, buildings, propagation paths, etc. It is a highly irregular
shape, its boundaries defined by received signal strength! But for
traffic engineering purposes and system planning and design a
hexagonal shape is used.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.53

More definitions

The base station (BS) - a transmitter and receiver that


relays signals (control and information (voice or data)) from
the mobile unit to the MSC and vice versa.
The mobile switching center (MSC) - a switching center that
controls a cluster of cells. Base stations are connected to
the MSC via wireline links. The MSC is directly connected to
the PSTN and is responsible for all calls related to mobiles
located within its domain. MSCs intercommunicate using a
link protocol specified by IS (International Standard) 41.
This enables roaming of mobile units (i.e. obtaining service
outside of the home base). The MSC is also responsible for
billing, it keeps track of air time, errors, delays, blocking,
call dropping (due to handoff failure), etc. It is also
responsible for the handoff process, it keeps track of signal
strengths and will initiate a handoff when deemed
necessary (note to handoff or not to handoff is not a trivial
issue!)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.54

The Basic Cellular Communication Protocol I

Every mobile unit whether at home or roaming, has to


register with the MSC controlling the area it is in. If it does
not register then the MSC does not know of its existence
and will not be able to process any of its calls.
The home location register (HLR) is used to keep
information regarding a mobile unit/user, it is a database for
storing and managing subscriber information. When
roaming, a mobile unit registers with a foreign MSC and
data from its HRL is relayed to the visitor location register
(VLR). The VLR is a dynamic database used to store
roaming mobile subscriber information. The HLR and VLR
communicate via the MSCs using IS 41.
The cellular system uses out of band signalling. Most of the
control information is sent over different channels from the
user information (voice or data) channels. Inband signalling
is used for control during the connection (disconnect,
handoff, etc.)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.55

The Basic Cellular Communication Protocol II

A mobile unit when enabled (power on) scans the control


channels and tunes to the one with the strongest signal. The
control channels are known and carry signals pertaining to the
cell sites, e.g. transmission power to be used by the mobile unit in
a particular cell. This process is called initialization.

If the mobile wants to initiate a call, it sends in a service request


on the reverse path control link. The service request contains the
destination phone number and identification information (MIN1,
MIN2, and ESN) of the source mobile unit to verify the originator.

When the base station receives the request, it relays it to the MSC.
The MSC then checks to see it is it a number of another mobile or
of a fixed user. If the latter the call is forwarded to the PSTN. If the
former, it checks to see if the destination mobile unit is a
subscriber (local or visitor/roamer). If not it relays the call to the
PSTN to forward to the appropriate MSC.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.56

The Basic Cellular Communication Protocol III

If the destination is within its cluster it sends out a paging


message to all the base stations. Every base station then
relays this message by broadcasting it on its control
channel. If the destination mobile unit is enabled (power on)
it will detect this message and respond to the base station.

The base station relays this response to the MSC. The MSC
then allocates channels to both the source mobile unit and
the destination mobile unit. The corresponding base
stations pass this information on to the respective mobile
units. The mobile units then tune to the correct channels
and the communication link is established.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.57

Spectrum and Capacity Issues

Spectrum is limited

Allocated Spectrum
F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9

FDM
F1,F2,...F9: frequency channels

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.58

Frequency Re-use I

To be able to increase the capacity of the system, frequencies must


be re-used in the cellular layout (unless we are using spread
spectrum techniques).

Frequencies cannot be re-used in adjacent cells because of cochannel interference. The cells using the same frequencies must be
dispersed across the cellular layout. The closer the spacing the
more efficient the scheme!
Fx:subset of
frequencies
used in a
cell
Cochannel
Interference

F2

F1
F1

F2
Minimum
Re-use distance

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.59

Frequency Re-use II

For an omni-directional antenna, with constant signal


power, each cell site coverage area would be circular
(barring any terrain irregularities or obstacles).

To achieve full coverage without dead spots, a series of


regular polygons for cell sites are required.

The hexagonal was chosen as it comes the closest to the


shape of a circle, and a hexagonal layout requires fewer
cells (when compared to triangles or rectangles, it has the
largest surface area given the same radius R) -> less cells.

Goal is to find the minimum distance between cells using


same frequencies.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.60

Frequency re-use distance I


60%

i,j - integers -> intercell distance


along cell centers
i
A

i,j: multiples of 31/2R

j
D
A
R

D - min. dist.
D=31/2R[i2+j 2+ij]1/2
R = radius of hexagonal

R: cell radius

i,j are integers

R
(u,v)

1
31/2R

31/2R
R

300

1
(0,0)
u2-u1=3 1/2Ri
v2-v1=31/2 Rj

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.61

Frequency re-use distance II

For two adjacent cells: D=31/2R

The closest we can place the same frequencies is called the


first tier around the center cell (minimal re-use distance ->
lower -> more capacity!).

For simplicity we only take the first tier of cells into account
for co-channel interference (i.e., we ignore 2nd, 3rd, etc.
tiers, cause much less interference, negligible!).

Original cell
First tier of interferers
Second tier of interferers

Cluster of N cells with


different frequencies

They are all equidistant


away from each other (D)
Each cell has exactly six equidistant interfering cells
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.62

Frequency re-use distance III


Radius = D

D
First Tier
(all use same
frequencies as
center cell)

Radius

R
Cluster of N cells with
frequencies different
from center cell
(large hexagon)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.63

Frequency re-use distance III

Radius = dist. between two co-channel cells =


(3R2[i2+j2+ij])1/2 = D

Since the area of a hexagon is proportional to the square of


the distance between its center and a vertex (i.e., its radius),
the area of the large hexagon is:
Alarge = k[Radius]2 = k[3R2[i2+j2+ij]]
where k is a constant.

Similarly the area of each cell (i.e., small hexagon) is:


Asmall = k[R2]

Comparing these expressions we find that:


Alarge/Asmall = 3[i2+j2+ij] = D2/R2

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.64

Frequency re-use distance IV

From symmetry we can see that the large hexagon


encloses the center cluster of N cells plus 1/3 the number of
the cells associated with 6 other peripheral hexagons. Thus
the total number of cells enclosed by the first tier is:
N+6(1/3N) = 3N

Since the area of a hexagon is proportional to the number


of cells contained within it:
Alarge/Asmall = 3N/1 = 3N

Substituting we get:
3N = 3[i2+j2+ij] = D2/R2

Or:
D/R = q =(3N)1/2

is referred to as the reuse ratio!

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.65

Co-channel Interference I

The co-channel interference ratio S/I is given as:


S
S ---------- = ---------------Ni
I
I k
k=1
S = desired signal power in a cell (note that many texts use C
instead of S), Ik = interference signal power from the kth cell, Ni =
number of interfering cells.

If we only assume the first tier of interfering cells, then Ni=6,and


all cells interfere equally (they are all equidistant!).

The signal power at any point is inversely proportional to the


inverse of the distance from the source raised to the g power.
(2<g<5)

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.66

Co-channel Interference II

Ik is proportional to Dg , and S is proportional to Rg , where g


is the propagation path loss and is dependent upon terrain
environment. For cellular systems it is often taken as = 4.

Therefore:

g
g
S
R
1
q
--- = ----------------- = ---------------- = ----I
g
g
6
6D
6 q

The relationship between SNR (signal to noise ratio - Eb/No)


and S/I for cellular systems with Rayleigh fading channels:
SNR = S/I(db) 9db.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.67

For a given S/I how to get N

Recall that: D/R = q =(3N)1/2

An S/I = 18db (decibels=10logS/I) = 63.1, gives an


acceptable voice quality.

Therefore q = [6x63.1]1/4 = 4.41 when g = 4

Substituting for N we get N = (4.41)2/3 equals approx. 7

This means that if we have 49 frequency channels available,


each cell gets 49/7 = 7 frequency channels.

If we have 82 available then 82/7 = 11.714 -> which means


that 5 cells will have 12 and 2 cells will have 11!

How does that translate to i and j for a cell layout?


N = [i2+j2+ij], find i,j that satisfy the equation!

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.68

Calculating i, j, and D from N


7

7
2

i
2

6
1

1
D

3
4

N=7 -> i=2, j=1


f2
f4

f7

f2
f6

f1
f3

f5
f4

f7

f1
f3

f2

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

D = 4.41R

f3

f5

f6

f5

f2

Spring 2003

2.69

Frequency planning

Frequency reuse only with a certain distance between the


base stations
Standard model using 7 frequencies:
f3
f5

f4

f2

f6
f1

f3

f5
f4

f7

f1

f2

Fixed frequency assignment:

certain frequencies are assigned to a certain cell


problem: different traffic load in different cells

Dynamic frequency assignment:

base station chooses frequencies depending on the


frequencies already used in neighbor cells
more capacity in cells with more traffic
assignment can also be based on interference measurements
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.36.1
2.70

Increasing Capacity

We can see that by reducing the area of a cell we can


increase capacity as we will have more cells each with its
own set of frequencies.

What is drawback of shrinking the size of the cells (cell


splitting)? Increase in the number of handoffs -> increased
load on the system! Also need more infrastrucutre -> base
stations (each cell needs a BS).

An easier solution exists, sectorization. It does not reduce


handoffs, its advantage: it does not require more
infrastructure.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.71

Sectorization I

We can also increase the capacity by using sectors in cells.

Directional antennas instead of being omnidirectional, will


only beam over a certain angle.
F1+F2+F3=Fa 120%

F1+F2+F3+F4+F5+F6=Fa

F1
F3

F2

f3
f2

f1

f2

f3
f3

f1
f3

f2

f2
f1

f1

F3
F4

F5
6 sectors

f3

f1

f2

F6
Fa: A cells set of frequencies

3 sectors
f3

F1

F2

60%

f3

f2
f2
f2
f1
f1 f
f
1
f3
f3
h
h
3
h1 2
h1 2
g2 h3 g2 h3
g2
g1
g1
g
1
g3
g3
g3

f3

3 cell cluster
ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

3 cell cluster with 3 sectors


Spring 2003

2.72

Sectorization II

What does that mean?

We can now assign frequency sets to sectors and decrease


the re-use distance or improve S/I ratio (i.e. signal quality).

Question: By how much? Depends on number of sectors


(i.e., 60% or 120%).
A: set of frequencies in a sector
A

First Tier
(all use same
frequencies in
sectors as
A center cell)

A:Do not interfere with


Asector of center cell
AA

A
A:Cause Cell site to
mobile interference

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

A:Cause Mobile to cell


site interference

Spring 2003

2.73

Other Capacity or Signal Improvement Tech.

Dynamic channel allocation (DCA): allows cells to borrow


frequencies from other cells within the cluster if not used
by them. Can be used to alleviate hotspots. Another
implementation basically has all channels available to all
cells, they get allocated based upon demand.

Power control: by reducing the transmitted power, the


battery life of a mobile can be extended. It also helps in
reducing -channel and adjacent channel interference.

ICS 243E - Ch.2 Wireless Transmission

Spring 2003

2.74