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HERNIA INGHINALA

Hammurabi of Babylon (1700


BC)

Described hernia reduction and application of bandages to


prevent protrusion

Hippocrates (400 BC)

Described hernia as "a tear in the abdomen."

Galen (200 BC)

Described the anatomy of the abdominal wall

Heliodorus (200 BC)

Described his original method for hernia repair.

Celsus (100 AD)

Introduced translumination; described clinical signs that


differentiate a hernia from a hydrocele

Paulus Aegina

Divided hernia into enterocele (abdominal viscera descend into


scrotum), and bubonocele (swelling remains in the groin and
does not descend into the scrotum)

Maupassius (1559)

First operation to relieve a strangulated hernia

Caspar Stromayr (16th


century)

Wrote Practaica Coposa; defined direct and indirect hernias;


stressed importance of high dissection of the indirect sac;
sanctioned removal of testicle and spermatic cord for indirect
hernia

Littre

Reported a Meckel's diverticulum in a hernia sac

DeGarengeot

Described the appendix in a hernia sac

Vesalius (Flemish) and allopius


(Italy) Poupart (France)

Described the inguinal ligament.

Heister

First to describe direct hernias. (1724)

Pott (England)

Anatomy of congenital hernias; methods of incarceration

Camper (Holland)

Described the superficial subcutaneous fascia

Scarpa (Italy)

Described deep subcutaneous fascia; anatomic and surgical


importance of sliding hernias (en glissade) (1814)

Sir Ashley Cooper (England)

Described anatomy and surgical treatment of crural and


umbilical hernias; anatomy of the groin including the
superior pubic (Cooper) ligament; cremasteric fascia and the
transversalis fascia

Hunter

Emphasized the role of the processus vaginalis

Morton

Described the conjoined tendon.

Cloquet

Noted postnatal closure of the processus vaginalis; made


observations of the iliopubic tract

Hesselbach (Germany)

Defined iliopubic tract; described importance of the medial


triangle of the groin (included the femoral canal). ; described the
[1]

"corona mortis" (arterial circle formed by the deep epigastric and obturator arteries).

De Gimbernat

Described medial ligament of the femoral canal (lacunar


ligament), and division of that ligament in the treatment of
strangulated femoral hernias.

Richter (Germany)

Described partial obstruction and incarceration of a wall of the


bowel in a hernia defect.
[2,3]

Remember anatomic

vase testiculare acoperite de peritoneu


vase testiculare i ram genital al N. genitofemural

fascia extraperitoneal (esut conjunctiv lax)

canal (duct) deferent

fascia transversalis

vase cremasterice

m. transvers abdominal

vase iliace externe acoperite de peritoneu


canal deferent acoperit de peritoneu

m. oblic intern
m. oblic extern

peritoneu

vase epigastrice inferioare


lig. ombilical medial (a. ombilical)
fascia ombilical prevezical
vezica urinar
m. drept abdominal
m. piramidal
lig. ombilical median (urac)
spin iliac anterosuperioar

inele inghinale superficiale drept i stng

originea fasciei spermatice interne din fas-cia


transversalis la orificiul inghinal profund

N. ilioinghinal

funicul spermatic

simfiz pubian (acoperit de fibre


amestecate ale apone-vrozei
oblicului extern)

vase femurale
m. cremaster i fascia
cremaste-ric nvelind
funiculul spermatic

tubercul pubic
fascia spermatic extern
nvelind funiculul spermatic
falx inguinalis (tendonul conjunct)
fibre intercrurale
lig. inghinal (Poupart)

canalul inghinal i funiculul


spermatic [spermatic cord]

linia alb
m. oblic extern
teaca dreptului abdomi-nal
(foia anterioar)

aponevroza m. oblic extern

spina iliac antero-superioar


fascia transversalis n in-teriorul
trigonului inghinal

m. oblic intern (sec-ionat


i reflectat)

m. transvers abdominal
tendon conjunct
(falx inguinalis)

inel inghinal profund (n fascia


transversalis)

lig. inghinal reflectat (lig.


reflex Colles)

m. cremaster (origine lateral)

vase epigastrice inferioare (pro-fund fa


de fascia transversalis)

fibre intercrurale
lig. inghinal (Poupart)
fascia spermatic extern pe ieirea
funiculului spermatic

lig. lacunar (Gimbernat)

m. cremaster (origine medial)


inel inghinal superficial

inel (orificiu) inghinal superficial


stlp lateral
stlp medial

lig. fundiform al penisului

creast pubian

regiunea inghinal vedere anterioar

teaca dreptului (foia posterioar)


linia arcuat
spina iliac antero-superioar
fascia transversalis (secionat)
m. drept abdominal

linia alb
tract iliopubian
vase epigastrice inferioare
trigon inghinal (Hesselbach)
inel inghinal profund
vase testiculare i ram genital al N. genitofemural
fascia iliopsoasului (acoperind N. femural)
m. iliopsoas
vase iliace externe
tendon conjunct (falx inguinalis)
inel femural (dilatat)
lig. lacunar (Gimbernat)
anastomoz arterial pubo-obturatorie (corona mortis)
canal deferent
lig. pectineal (Cooper)
ram pubic superior
a. obturatorie
simfiz pubian

regiunea inghinal vedere intern

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Clasificare ghernii inghinale


Punct herniar
H. inghinala interstitiala
H. inghino-pubiana
H. inghino-funiculara
H. inghino-scrotala (labiala)

Punct herniar

h. Interstitiala

H. Inghinopubiana = pubonocel

H inghino-funiculara

H. inghino-scrotala

H inghino-pubiana

H inghino-pubiana

H inghino-scrotala

teaca dreptului (foia posterioar)


linia arcuat
spina iliac antero-superioar
fascia transversalis (secionat)
m. drept abdominal
linia alb

tract iliopubian
vase epigastrice inferioare
trigon inghinal (Hesselbach)
inel inghinal profund
vase testiculare i ram genital al N. genitofemural
fascia iliopsoasului (acoperind N. femural)
m. iliopsoas
vase iliace externe
tendon conjunct (falx inguinalis)
inel femural (dilatat)

lig. lacunar (Gimbernat)


anastomoz arterial pubo-obturatorie (corona mortis)
canal deferent
lig. pectineal (Cooper)
ram pubic superior
a. obturatorie
simfiz pubian

regiunea inghinal vedere intern

vedere intern a peretelui abdominal anterior


pleur parietal

diafragm

lig. rotund al ficatului


i vv. paraombilicale

fascia diafragmatic
lig. falciform
peritoneu (margini
secionate)

ombilic
peritoneu

fascia transversalis
linia arcuat
(arcada Douglas)

fascia transversalis
m. oblic extern
m. oblic intern

m. drept abdominal
m. transvers abdominal

vase epigastrice
inferioare

lig. ombilical medial stng (a.


ombilical stng obliterat)

trigon inghinal
Hesselbach
fascia transversalis

plica ombilical medial dreapt

lig. interfoveolar
Hesselbach

lig. ombilical median (urac obliterat) + vv. paraombilicale


n plica ombilical

vase circumflexe
iliace profunde
inel inghinal profund
ram cremasteric i
ram pubic ale
a. epigastrice inferioare

fascia ombilical prevezical


plica ombilical lateral (vase
epigastrice inferioare)

vase iliace externe


funiculul spermatic

N. femural
fascia iliopsoas
m. iliopsoas

inelul femural
teaca femural
lig. lacunar (Gimbernat)
lig. pectineal (Cooper)
tendon conjunct (falx inguinalis)
a. ombilical (parte distal obliterat)
nerv i vase obturatorii
canal obturator
ureter (secionat)
reces anterior al fosei ischioanale
a. vezical superioar
canal deferent

vase iliace externe


fosa supravezical
plica vezical transversal
m. obturator intern
arc tendinos al
m. levator ani
gland bulbouretral Cowper nvelit
n m. transvers perineal profund

vezicul
seminal
prostat i m. sfincter al uretrei


1.
2.
3.

Hernie inghinala
Oblica-externa
Directa
Oblica interna

Caracteristici
Hernia oblica-externa

Hernia directa

Hernie de forta sau congenitala


Prin orificiul inghinal profund
Sac herniar cu colet lung
Hernie de slabiciune
Adeseori bilaterala
Prin triunghiul de slaba rezistenta Gillis sau Hesselbach
Sac herniar globulos

Hernia oblica-interna

Rara
De slabiciune
Sacul contine adesea vezica uriunara

1.

2.

Hernie inghinala Oblica-Externa dobandita


Hernie inghinala Oblica-Externa congenitala

Hernia congenitala

Persistenta canalului peritoneovaginal la barbati iar la


femei a canalului Nuck

Sacul herniar se afla in interiorul funiculului


spermatic

Hernie inghinala
congenitala
1. INGHINOTESTICULARA

2.

HERNIE
CONGENITALA
FUNICULARA

Hernie inghinala
congenitala
3. FUNICULARA CU
CHIST DE
CORDON
SPERMATIC

4.

HERNIE
INGHINALA
CONGENITALA
ASOCIATA CU
HIDROCEL

HERNII CONGENITALE ASOCIATE CU


ECTOPIE TESTICULARA
1.

2.
3.

Inghino-properitoneala
Inghino-interstitiala
Inghino-superficiala

hernie

Berger: prezen concomitent


de hernie inghinal i hernie femural
( hernie cu saci multipli)
- hernie Pantaloon: hernie inghinal
dubl (n bisac, direct + indirect).

ALTE CLASIFICARI

CLASIFICARE HERNII INGHINALE


Many hernia classifications have been proposed in the last 4 decades, which
meet these criteria to varying degrees. The most popular classifications
are described below.
Casten divided hernias into 3 stages:
1.
2.
3.

Stage 1: an indirect hernia with a normal internal ring


Stage 2: an indirect hernia with an enlarged or distorted internal ring
Stage 3: all direct or femoral hernias

The Halverson and McVay classification divided hernias into 4 classes:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Class 1: small indirect hernia


Class 2: medium indirect hernia
Class 3: large indirect hernia or direct hernia
Class 4: femoral hernia

Clasificarea Nyhus, este urmtoarea:


tip I = hernie indirect, cu inel inghinal profund normal;

tip II = hernie indirect, cu inel inghinal profund dilatat;

tip IIIA = hernie inghinal direct;

tip IIIB = hernie inghinal indirect cu perete posterior


slab al canalului inghinal, sau hernie prin alunecare;

tip IIIC = hernie femural;

tip IV = hernie recidivat (A = direct, B = indirect, C


= femural, D = altele).

Ponka's system defined 2 types of indirect hernia:


(1) uncomplicated indirect inguinal hernia and
(2) sliding indirect inguinal hernia
and three types of direct hernias:
(1) small defect in the medial aspect of Hesselbach's
triangle near the pubic tubercle;
(2) diverticular hernia in the posterior wall with an
otherwise intact inguinal floor; and
(3) a large diffuse direct inguinal hernia of the entire
floor of Hesselbach's triangle.

Gilbert designed a classification for primary and recurrent inguinal


hernias done through an anterior approach (Figure 28). It is based on
evaluating 3 factors:
1.presence or absence of a peritoneal sac
2.size of the internal ring
3.integrity of the posterior wall of the canal

In 1993, Rutkow and


Robbins added a type
6 to the Gilbert
classification to
designate double
inguinal hernias and a
type 7 to designate a
femoral hernia.

Types 1, 2 and 3 are indirect hernias; types 4 and 5 are direct.

Type 1 hernias have a peritoneal sac passing through an intact internal ring that will not
admit 1 fingerbreadth (ie,<1 cm.); the posterior wall is intact.

Type 2 hernias (the most common indirect hernia) have a peritoneal sac coming
through a 1-fingerbreadth internal ring (ie, </=2 cm.); the posterior wall is intact.

Type 3 hernias have a peritoneal sac coming through a 2-fingerbreadth or wider


internal ring (ie, >2 cm.).

Type 3 hernias frequently are complete and often have a sliding component. They
begin to break down a portion of the posterior wall just medial to the internal ring.

Type 4 hernias have a full floor posterior wall breakdown or multiple defects in the
posterior wall. The internal ring is intact, and there is no peritoneal sac.

Type 5 hernias are pubic tubercle recurrence or primary diverticular hernias. There is
no peritoneal sac and the internal ring remains intact. In cases where double hernias
exist, both types are designated (eg, Types 2/4). Descriptors such as L, Sld., Inc., Strang.
Fem. are used to designate lipoma, sliding component, incarceration, strangulation and
femoral components.

Diagnostic diferential

Hernia femurala
Intre tipurile de hernii inghinale OE si D
Hidrocel
Chisturi de cordon
Diagnosticul definitiv
Varicocel
complet de hernie trebuie s
Lipoame
cuprind urmtoarele: tipul
anatomo-clinic, varietatea
Tu testiculare
(direct, indirect), eventualul
Adenopatii
stadiu complicat.

Tratament

Regula este chirurgical


Ortopedic este exceptia

Tratament chirurgical
1.

Procedee anatomice

2.

Procedee neanatomice

Retrofuniculare

Prefuniculare

3.

Procedee cu transpozitia cordonului spermatic

4.

Procedee plastice

5.

Procedee laparoscopice

Anestezie - orice

Local anesthesia. Local infiltration can be performed on virtually any


inguinal hernia, but it is usually reserved for patients of average weight
with a primary unilateral hernia. The local anesthetic is usually a
combination of a rapid-acting anesthetic, such as lidocaine or
chloroprocaine, and a longer-acting agent, such as bupivacaine, which
also provides several hours of postoperative pain relief.
Addition of sodium bicarbonate to buffer local instillation decreases
the pain at the injection site and accelerates the onset of the anesthetic
effect. Addition of epinephrine may provide some hemostasis and
prolong the effects of local anesthetics.
The local infiltration technique consists of specific, layered infiltration.
The most sensitive areas are the skin, the external oblique aponeurosis,
and the neck of a hernia sac or a lipoma. Once the external oblique
aponeurosis is reached, a small area of it should be exposed and
infiltration through it should be accomplished. When the external
oblique is opened, infiltration can be performed around the obvious
nerves, over the symphysis, and where the cord structures are adherent
to an indirect sac at the internal ring -- an area that is almost always
sensitive during dissection.

Cai de abord
Annandale Lawson Tait

Bassini
Babcok-Meingot

Lavarde

Procedeele anatomice

Proc Bassini 1890 - Edoardo Bassini -- considered the


father of modern day hernia surgery

Incizie LaRoque
Manevra
Reymond de
depistare a sacului

Rezectia sacului SOCIN

Proc Bassini

ANDREWS HACKENBRUCH refacerea canalului ingnhinal

Procedee care mentin canalul inghinal dar folosesc


Lig Cooper
Lotheisen primul care propune utilizarea lig
Cooper
Hashimotto
McVay

McVay - Hashimotto

Proc Souldice 1945

Shouldice repair. Canadian surgeon E.E. Shouldice contributed


substantially to hernia surgery in the second half of the 20th century.
He founded a clinic that has since become a hospital devoted
exclusively to the treatment of abdominal wall hernias. The Shouldice
operation for hernia repair revitalizes Bassini's original technique. It
applies the principle of an imbricated posterior wall closure with
continuous monofilament suture. At the Shouldice hospital,
continuous stainless-steel wire is used for all layers of the repair,
including the ligatures used in the subcutaneous layer
Local anesthesia is routinely used and bilateral hernias are usually
repaired separately, 2 days apart. Patients walk to and from the
operating room, begin exercise therapy on the day of surgery, and
resume their usual activities within a reasonable time after the
operation

Proc Souldice

Milestones in Hernia Repair: The Listerian Era

Marcy (1871)

Publication of original paper on antiseptic herniorrhaphy


("A New Use of Carbolized Catgut Ligature")

Czerny (1876)

Described ligating and excising the indirect peritoneal sac


through the external ring

Kocher

Twisted and suture-transfixed the peritoneal sac in the


lateral muscles. through the external ring

MacEwen
(1886)

Reefed the peritoneal sac into a plug to block the internal


ring.

LucasOpened the external oblique aponeurosis to expose the


Championniere entire inguinal canal.

Procedee neanatomice cu
desfiintarea canalului inghinal

Procedee retrofuniculare

POSTEMPSKI
WISSE

Procedee prefuniculare

FORGUE
GIRARD
FERRARIS
PASOKUKOTHI
VILANDRE
TH. IONESCU
BINET
WOFLER
MUGNAI
HALSTEDT
MARTINOV
KIMBAROVSKI

Totul in spatele funiculului aduc orificiul superficial in


dreptul celui profund
Totul in fata funiculului aduc orificiul profund in
dreptul celui superficial

Principiul Martinov
ALB la ALB
ROSU la ROSU

retrofunoicular

prefunicular

Procedee cu transpozitia cordomului spermatic


Schmieden
Marin Popescu-Urlueni

Procedee plastice
Cu material autolog

Piele - Loeve Rehn


Fascia transversalis - Ziemann
Sac herniar Lischied
M cremaster Brenner
Aponevroze Adler
Teaca drept abdominal Halsted , Vreden
Fascia lata Wangensteen, Binet

Cu material homolog
Cu material heterolog

Natural

Sintetic - PLASE cele mai folosite plase neresorbabile sunt,


n USA, Goretex (plas de politetrafluoroetilen = teflon) i Marlex
(plas polipropilenic), n Frana, Mersilene (plas poliesteric, din
dacron), iar n Romnia, Tricotplastex (plas poliesteric);

Nylon (1944)
Polyethylene mesh
(1958)
Polypropylene mesh
(1962)

Replaced rubber, metals and animal products. Initially


used for sutures, later knitted or woven into patches for
hernia repair; disintegrates in tissue and loses most of
its tensile strength within 6 months.
High-density polyethylene mesh (Marlex, 1958) resistant
to chemicals and sterilizable, but unraveled after being
cut. Modified to polypropylene mesh (1962). Available
under various trade names (Hertra-2, Marlex,
PROLENE, Surgipro, Tramex, Trelex). Available as a flat
mesh as well as 3-dimensional devices (Altex,
Hermesh3, PerFix Plug, PROLENE Hernia System).
[23]

Polyester mesh
(MERSILENE) (1984)

Composed of polyester fiber with the characteristics of


filigree; can be inserted into narrow spaces without
distortion.
[16]

Expanded
polytetrafluoroethylene

Teflon product; produces minimal adhesions when


placed intraperitoneally. Does not allow significant fibroblastic or
[22,24]

angiogenic ingrowth; must be removed if infection occurs.

Polyglycolic acid mesh


(Dexon)
Polyglactin 910 mesh
(Vicryl)

Absorbable mesh; loses strength after 8 -12 weeks;


should not be used as a sole prosthesis for the repair of
abdominal or groin hernias

TENSION FREE PROCEDURES


Stoppa (1967) and colleagues used the posterior approach
to implant an impermeable barrier around the entire
peritoneal bag, demonstrating that permanent repair of
groin hernias does not require closure of the abdominal
wall defect per se. Without having stated it, their repair used
a tension-free technique In Stoppa's approach, the mesh is
held in place by intra-abdominal pressure, an application of
Pascal's principle
Wantz furthered Stoppa's work by using it for unilateral
hernia repair.
Essential to these and all subsequent tension-free repairs is
the application of a barrier prosthesis, usually a permanent
mesh.

STOPPA

WANTZ

1993 RUTKOW ROBINS proc.

Perfix Plug. Flower-shaped


polypropylene mesh plug with multiple
petals, and onlay graft with slit to
accommodate the spermatic cord.

1997 - PROLENE Hernia System (PHS) bilayer patch


repair. Bilayer polypropylene mesh. Three-in-one device
with round disc for properitoneal repair, plug effect of
connector, and oblong shaped onlay component.

Tension free

The most important advance in hernia surgery has been


the development of tension-free repairs.
In 1958, Usher described a hernia repair using Marlex
mesh. The benefit of that repair he described as being
"tension-eliminating" or what we now call "tensionfree".
Usher opened the posterior wall and sutured a swatch of
Marlex mesh to the undersurface of the medial margin
of the defect (which he described as the transversalis
fascia and the conjoined tendon) and to the shelving
edge of the inguinal ligament. He created tails from the
mesh that encircled the spermatic cord and secured
them to the inguinal ligament.

USHER

PROC. LICHTENSTEIN - 1984

PROLENE Hernia System - 1997

PROCEDEE
ENDOSCOPICE
PROPERITONEALE
- 1991 -

PROCEDEE LAPAROSPOPICE
TRANPERITONEALE
GILBERT - 1985

In light of the huge benefit gained by the laparoscopic approach to


cholecystectomy -- and the rapid acceptance of that technique by most
surgeons -- much interest was given to the concept of laparoscopic
hernioplasty, which was introduced widely around 1990. However, many
surgeons who explored this approach to hernia repair found the learning
process to be longer and more challenging than that seen for
laparoscopic cholecystectomy or open herniorrhaphy. For this and other
reasons, the optimal and most appropriate use of the laparoscopic
technique remains a subject of debate among general surgeons.

Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy requires general rather than local


anesthesia, takes more time, costs more, and carries the potential for
more significant surgical complications than those encountered with
open techniques. As a result, at least one large trial has concluded that
laparoscopy should remain the province of specialists, with open
procedures the approach of choice for most general surgeons

COMPLICATII POSTOPERATORI
Hematoame.
Seroame
Hemoragii din plaga
Supuratii de plaga
Edem scrotal
Necroza testiculara
Recidiva herniara
Nevralgia inghinala

reparare deschis cu plas


reductibil
reparare laparoscopic

hernie palpabil
unilateral
ncarcerat

reparare deschis, po-sibil


prin laparotomie

reparare deschis cu plas properitoneal


hernie recurent
ISTORIC:
deformare parietal
durere

reparare deschis cu plas

reparare laparoscopic
EXAMEN FIZIC

tehnic alloplastic
deschis bilateral
hernie palpabil
bilateral

tehnic alloplastic
deschis n etape
aplicare laparoscopic de plas
blocad a nervului
reexaminare la 1-3 luni

durere persistent n
absena detectrii
vreunei hernii

iritaie nervoas

injecie de steroizi sau alcool

ntindere muscular

evitare a efortului fizic,


cldur local, AINS