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Grid Generation

Structured grid-------- in FDM a family of coordinate lines

Grid Generation Structured grid -------- in FDM a family of coordinate lines c-type o-type
Grid Generation Structured grid -------- in FDM a family of coordinate lines c-type o-type

c-type

o-type

Choose of O-grid and C-grid

sharp edge

Avoid skewed or distorted grid elements

depend on the flow problem

the principle is more grid points in the important region

Multi-block/multi-zonal approach

Multi-block/multi-zonal approach

Overset/overlapping grids

(moving objects)

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-3
V1
V2
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-3
-1
0
1
2
-2
-2
-1
0
1
2
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FF rraammee 00 00 11  11 22 DD eecc 22 00 00 66  ||
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Unstructured grid ------ in FVM

(triangular, quadrilateral, prism, tetrahedra, hexahedra)

(more easier to generate, automatic, adaptive refinement)

Unstructured grid ------ in FVM (triangular, quadrilateral, prism, tetrahedra, hexahedra) (more easier to generate, automatic, adaptive

Hybrid grid ----in FVM

Hybrid grid ----in FVM

Structured grid----- in FDM

Transformation

complex geometry body-fitted grid----the generalized curvilinear coordinate lines are used to describe this grid.

Structured grid ----- in FDM Transformation complex geometry body-fitted grid----the generalized curvilinear coordinate lines are used

finite difference are difficult to use for curvilinear grid in x-y plane. it is convenient to set finite difference in -plane . PDE should be transformed into -plane and the FDE in -plane is calculated.

Jacobian and metrics of transformation

x=x(,), y=y(,) or =(x,y), =(x,y)

,

dx  

 

dy

x

y

x   d   

y

 

 

d

 

d  

d

  

 

 

x

x

y

y

  dx  

 

 

dy

 

d  

d

  

1

J

y

y

x

x

dx

   

dy

J=x y -x y

J is called jacobian.

x , y , x , y etc. are called metrics.

PDEs transformed into --space

NS eqs transformation

In x-y-t space, the conservative NS eqs is U t +F x +G y =0 In --space, a conservative form of NS eqs is also needed.

In --space, U , F, G are functions of (,,), using chain rule in differential calculus,

U +F +G =0

where U =JU, F =JUt +JFx +JGy , G =JUt +JFx +JGy

Grid quality

several requirements 1 One-to-one correspondence. if J0, it is ok, if J=0, some errors exist in the grid.

  • 2 Smooth.

the grid spacing step change slowly

  • 3 Orthogonal or near-orthogonal. the grid lines of two families (,) are perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to each other

  • 4 Enough grid points in the important region

Example . Considering the U x at point (i),

Example . Considering the U at point (i), U =U +(U ) ∆ x +0.5(U )

U

i+1 =U i +(U x ) i x 1 +0.5(U xx ) i (x 1 ) 2 +

U i-1 = U i (U x ) i x 2 +0.5(U xx ) i (x 2 ) 2 +

U U

i

1

i

1

  

x

2

x

1

(

U

x

)

i

0.5(

U

) (

xx i

  

x

2

x 1
x
1
) 
) 

U U

i

1

i

1

  

x

2

x

1

(

U

x

)

i

0.5(

U

) (

xx i

  

x

2

x

1

) 
) 

If ∆x 2 =∆x 1 If ∆x 2 «∆x 1

2nd order

1st order

0.5(U

xx

) (

i

x

2

 

x )

1

0.5(U

xx

) x

i

1

Grid generation---Possion equation method

Considering the solution of a steady heat conduction problem in 2D

with Dirichlet B.C.,

the solution of this problem produces isotherms which are smooth and are nonintersecting. The number of isotherms in a given region can be increased by adding a source term.

Hence, isotherms can be viewed as grid lines.

So we consider Poisson equations:

x x

y y

P(,)

 
 

x x

y y

Q(,)

 

(

x px



) 2

x



(

x



qx

) 0

 
 
 

(

y



py

) 2

y



(

y



qy

) 0

 

2

2

x y

2

p J P

/

x x y y

 

2

q J Q

/

J

1

2

x y

x y

(

,

)

(

 

,

)

2

x y

x y

After the source terms p and q are specified with some methods on the boundary and

interpolated into the inner domainwe can solve the equationsthen the grid is obtained.

How to solve the above equations ? One solution: Five-point formula and GS.