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The idea of the smallest matter was proposed by

several great people such as the Maharshi kannada

as anu and paramanu .Later Democritus a well
known Greek philosopher told that matter consists
of smallest particle as atom


Matter is composed of the smallest particles
called as atoms which cannot be further divided
Atoms of the same element are alike and behave JOHN DALTON
in the same way in all respects
Atoms of different elements are different from
each other in all respects.
Atoms of either same or different elements
combine with each other and give new particles .
These are as compound atoms
Atom is the only particle which participates in
chemical reaction.
J.J Thomson is a great scientist who invented the cathode rays
and they contain negative charged particles he also explained that
atom is a structure like this and he named that it is a
Plum pudding model: J.J.Thomson:

The cathode rays properties are they travel in straight lines , they
deflects towards anode when an electric field is applied, they in
the presence of magnetic field , they create shadows and
mechanical motion.

Then the invention cathode rays is done in discharge tube which is

invented by William crooks in in 1878
The discharge tube is a glass tube in which the it is
equipped with a out let and at the two ends cathode and
anode is present with high voltage.

This is a great invention in which the anode rays are also

invented by the great scientist named
Goldstein :
Its properties are opposite to the properties of cathode rays
anode rays consists of the particles of positive charge

This negative charged particles are named as electrons by

G.J.Stoney and positive charged particles as protons by Goldstein

After these conclusions we are able to know that matter consists of

smallest particles known as atoms and it consists of electrons and

Suprisingly during that period James Chadwick invented that atom

does not only consists of electrons and protons but also a neutral
charged particle named Neutron

James Chadwick:
Further experiments proved that there are several 100 sub-atomic

Sub atomic symbo Relativ Relative Charge in coulomb Mass in

particle10 l e mass a.m.u

Electron e -1 1/1837 1.602*1/10*10*10*___(1 0.00055

9) in negative charge

Proton p +1 1 unit mass 1.602*1/10*10*10*___(1 1.0073

of hydrogen 9) in positive charge

Neutron n 0 1 unit 0 1.0087

We know that atomic model means systematic arrangement of

electrons and protons and neutrons
The atomic model expressed by the J.J.Thomson but he did not
explained the how the positively and negative charged particles are
shielded with out getting neutralised .

Discovery of Madam curie helped us in many ways it also took part

in this
Earnest Rutherford once conducted the alpha scattering experiment
its structure is like this . Rutherford
From this experiment he concluded atomic model like this

From the above experiment he concluded that atom contains

protons and neutrons at its center in nucleus and electrons revolve
around the nucleus ,remaining space is filled with empty space. As
the alpha ray particles hit the atoms in the gold foil the rays
which hits nucleus are deviated at different angels , the rays
which passes through the empty space passes straightly , which
strikes the nucleus at its centre accurately are reflected back
wards in which they arrive
This results in the name of planetary atomic model . In this
electrons are compared with planets and nucleus with sun

But he did not explained that what forces made electrons revolve
around them and comparision electrons and nucleus with planets
and sun respectively this is claimed by a scientist named
Do you know the sum of mass of the number of protons and
neutrons is called atomic mass and denoted by (A) . And number
of protons and electron are equal to (Z). And number of neutrons
are equal to (A-Z). This was given by a scientist named Mosley.