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Chemical Bonding

Last orbit(4)

3 rd orbit

2 nd orbit

1 st orbit

nucleus

This is the
modern form
of atom
OCTET- The outer most orbit of an atom containing 8
electrons is called octet.
DUPLET-the outer most orbit of an atom containing 2
electrons is called duplet.
like this

The atom which is duplet or octet they are stable . The


atoms which are stable are Helium [He], Neon [Ne],
Argon [Ar], Krypton [Kr], Xenon [Xe], Radon [Rn]. They
are also called as inert gases or rare gases. These
atoms does not react in chemical reactions.
The systematic arrangement of electrons in orbits is
called as electronic configuration.

like this
• CHEMICAL BONDING- The attractive force between atoms of a
molecule is called chemical bonding.
• Oxidation is a process in which the loss of electrons is done.

Reduction is process in which the loss of electrons is done.


If you burn the magnesium in carbon dioxide it becomes a white powder. Then
reaction will be written as like this

Here the blue one is magnesium and red is oxygen and grey
one is carbon.
This is one type of easy under standing

LEO means
LOSS OF ELECTRONS OXIDATION LEO
GER means
GAIN OF ELECTRONS REDUCTION GERRRRRRRRRRRRRR

There are two types CHEMICAL BONDING


They are 1)IONIC BOND 2)COVALENT BOND

1)IONIC BOND > The bond formed due to the transfer from one atom to other
•It is also called as electrovalent bond.
•Conditions .The atom forming positive ions should possess 1,2,3 electrons in its
valence shells while the other atom forming the negative ion should possess 5,6,7
electrons in its valence shells. An ionic bond is easily formed when a highly
electropositive element combines with a highly electronegative element.
Examples >
1.Sodium reacts with Chlorine to form sodiumchloride
the electronicconfiguration of Sodium 2,8,1 if it losses one electrons it can
gain neon element configuration and it can become stable and by gaining electrons
chlorine is gaining argon element configuration it is becoming stable.

In this we can observe that Na lost one electron and Cl gained electron
after loosing one electron Na gained the configuration (2,8) (neon
configuration stable form) and by gaining Cl got argon configuration an
they attain near noblegases configuration and gain the octet.thus sodium

atom becomes and chlorine becomes .


2)CALCIUM FLOURIDE

The grey color atoms


are calcium and red
are flourine

In this reaction we can understand that the calcium atom consisting (2,8,8,2)has
two more electrons than the configuration of Argon and the flourine has one atom
(2,7) less than the configuration of neon . So calcium gives off two electrons to
flourine and and flourine shares it to another one flourine so like this calcium gains
argon configuration and in 2 flourine each of them gains neon configuration.

Like this atoms transfer electrons in ionic bond.


2)COVALENT BOND> Covalent bond is a type of bond in which molecules
share their electrons
CONDITIONS.> atoms do not tend or like to loose their electrons. Two like
atoms when form covalent bond there should be equal attraction between
electrons.
There are three types of covalent bond they are
I.Single Covalent Bond
II.Double Covalent Bond
III.Triple Covalent Bond

Single covalent bond >It is formed due to the share of only of one electron
Example . 1)Covalent bond between two hydrogen atoms

2) Formation of chlorine molecule

By sharing one electron two chlorines became


stable
3) Formation of Carbon Tetrachloride >

In this green color is


chlorine and grey color is
is carbon

Double bond > A chemical bond in which an atom shares two electrons
with another atom
Example . Formation carbon-di-oxide

In this we can see that carbon molecule exchanged two electrons with each
atom of oxygen
Triple covalent bond > this bond is formed when three pairs of electrons are
shared between the combining electrons
Example > formation of nitrogen molecule

In this we can see that the nitrogen molecule has shared three electrons with
the another nitrogen

Covalent bond exists like Polar bond & Non Polar bond

Polar covalent bond > When a covalent bond is formed between the atoms of
different elements are not equally shared by two atoms
For example > The covalent bond between atoms hydrogen and flourine

In this we can see that hydrogen is partially positive and flourine is partially
negative . This type of bond is polar covalent bond
Non Polar Covalent bond > When a covalent bond is formed between atoms of
element the bonding electrons are shared equally between the atoms. Like
hydrogen, oxygen ,nitrogen ,chlorine etc are Non Polar.
Some of the covalent bond shapes.

WATER MOLECULE AMMONIA MOLECULE METHANE MOLECULE


These are some of ionic bond shapes
Na + Cl NaCl

CESIUM
CHLORIDE