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Heater Treater

TM-4144
FIKTM ITB
2007

Pendahuluan
Heater Treaters digunakan pada tahap akhir pada proses membersihkan
air dari minyak yang akan dikirim atau dijual. Unit heater treater dapat
merupakan vessel vertikan dan vessel horizontal. Kadang kadang
pemisahan minyak dan air dengan menggunakan separator vertikal atau
horizontal belum menghasilkan minyak yang bersih menurut persyaratan
yang ditentukan. Sehingga pemanas (heater) perlu ditambahkan pada
separator. Dengan manambah panas pada sistem fluida minyak dan air
akan dapat memisahkan droplet emulsi yang lebih kecil, dimana proses
pemisahan secara gravitasi masih digunakan.
Dalam mendesain suatu heater treater harus mempertimbangkan
beberapa hal untuk memenuhi persyaratan minyak yang akan dijual
menurut persyaratan yang diminta.

Pendahuluan
Faktor faktor yang perlu diperhatikan dalam desain Heater
Treater antara lain adalah:
Kekuatan Emulsi
SG minyak dan air produksi,
Sifat sifat korosive air formasi,
Tendensi terbentuknya scale,
Tendensi terjadinya endapan paraffin,
Jumlah fluida yang akan ditangani,
Tekanan operasi yang diperlukan

Proses Pemisahan Dengan Heater


Treater
Pada dasarnya pemisahan suatu emulsi sistem water-in-oil
yaitu dengan cara memberikan panas pada aliran minyak
tersebut, sehingga butiran butiran emulsi tersebut pecah.
Dengan menaikan temperature terhadap fluida yang tidak
saling melarut tersebut (immiscible fluid) akan mempercepat
terjadinya benturan (koalisi). Terjadinya koalisi droplet ini
akan mengakibatkan membesarnya ukuran droplet dan
pengendapan (settling) droplet lebih cepat. Jika desain ini
dilakukan dengan baik maka air akan mengendap pada dasar
treating vessel karena perbedaan density.
Dalam proses pengendapan emulsi tersebut diperlukan
waktu, temperatur, sifat viskositas minyak dan ukuran dari
droplet dan vessel.

Peralatan Heater Treater


Horizontal Heater Treater
Emulsion
Inlet

Mist Extractor

OIL
OUT

GAS

Oil + Emulsion

Collector
Oil

AIR

Heater

Water
Leff

Free
Water Out
Spreader

Water
Out

Electrostatic Treater
Horizontal Electrostatic Treater
Electrode
Emulsion
Inlet

Mist Extractor

OIL
OUT

GAS

Oil + Emulsion

Oil

Collector
D

AIR

Heater

Water
Leff

Free
Water Out
Spreader

Water
Out

VERTICAL HEATER
TREATER

Dasar Teori
Treater jenis diatas umumnya digunakan untuk sistem
dengan banyak sumur. Pemisahan minyak dan air yang
dilakukan disini menggunakan kombinasi antara metoda
Settling dan Pemanasan (Heating).
Butiran emulsi air dalam minyak akan jatuh kebawah dengan
kecepatan Vt (terminal velocity) dalam fasa minyak dengan
laju VO kearah vertical keatas. Sesuai dengan hukum Stoke,
Vt dapat dituliskan sebagai :

1.78 x 10 ( SG) d
Vt
o
-6

2
m

Dasar Teori
1.78 x 10 ( SG) d
Vt
o
-6

Dimana :
Vt

= kecepatan terminal, ft/s

SG = SGW - SGO
dm

= diameter droplet air, m

= viskositas minyak, cp

2
m

Kecepatan aliran minyak, Vo , dapat dituliskan sebagai

Vo

Dimana Q = ft3/s ; D = ft ; A = ft2


A = Luas penampang = D x Leff

= d(in)/12 x Leff

Jika Qo dalam satuan bpd, maka


Q = 6.49 x 10-5 Qo , sehingga :

6.49 x 10-5 Q o
Qo
-4
Vo
7.79 x 10
d L eff
d
x
L

eff
12

Jika di set Vt = Vo , maka diperoleh :

d L eff

Qo

Qo o
438
2
( SG) d m
d L eff ( SG) d 2m
438 o

Retention Time ( tr )
t = Vol / Q

dimana

Vol [ ft3 ]
Q [ ft3 / s ]
t[s]

D 2 L eff
Vol 0.75
4

0.75 d 2 L eff

(4) (144)

Dimana: Leff = panjang effektif separator (ft)


d

= diameter separator (in)

Persamaan Vol diatas dituliskan dengan asumsi bahwa


hanya 75% penampang atau volume separator yang effektif.

Retention Time ( tr )
Jika Qo mempunyai satuan bpd, maka Q = 6.49 x 10-5
sehingga

(0.75) d 2 L eff

(4) (144)

6.49 x 10 -5 Q o

t
d 2 L eff

Qo,

0.0159 t Q o

Jika tr dalam satuan menit, maka t = 60 (tr)o , sehingga


persamaan diatas dapat dituliskan menjadi

d L eff

Q o (tr) o

1.05

Vertical Heater Treater


Terminal velocity ( Vt ), ft/s

1.78 x 10 -6 ( SG ) d 2m
Vt
o

OIL
Leff

AIR

Dimana :
o

= Viskositas Minyak, Cp

Dm

= Diameter droplet, micron

SG

= SGw - SGo

Kecepatan laju alir fasa minyak Vo (ft/s)


dapat dituliskan dengan
Vo = Q/A ; dimana Q (ft3/s) dan A(ft2)

Vertical Heater Treater


Kecepatan laju alir fasa minyak Vo (ft/s)
dapat dituliskan dengan
Vo = Q/A ; dimana Q (ft3/s) dan A(ft2)
Qo (bpd)
Qo

Vo 0.0119

OIL
Leff

d2

Jika di asumsi Vt = Vo , maka :

1.78 x 10 -6 (SG) d 2m
o

AIR

d 2 6690
d

d (in)

0.0119

Q o o
( SG) d 2m

Q o o
81.8
2
(

SG)
d
m

atau

0.5

Qo
d2

Vertical Heater Treater : Retention Time (tr)


t = Vol / Q
Jika h = tinggi coalescing Section, maka

D2
d2 h
Vol
xh
4
(4) (144)
Q 6.49 x 10-5 Q o

OIL
Leff

AIR

; h(ft) , d(in)

; Q o (bpd)

Sehingga :
d2 h

4 (144)

t
6.49 x 10-5 Q o
d 2 h 1189.919 x 10 -5 Q o t

Jika t (sec) t 60 tr, dimana tr dalam menit


Q o t ro
sehingga diperoleh
d2 h
1.4

Ukuran droplet vs Viskositas


SPE Production May 1997

d m 1% 200 o 0.25

untuk o 80 cP

d m 1% 170 o 0.40

untuk 3 cP o 80 cP

d L eff

dm

Q o o
438
(SG) d 2m

438
Qo

SG d L eff

0.5

; d

2
m

o 0.5

438 Q o

o
SG d L eff

Ukuran droplet vs Viskositas


Jika ukuran separator konstan, maka

dm

Qo

SG

0.5

log (d m ) log

Ks o

0.5

Qo
Ks

SG

0.5

0.5 log o

log (d m ) B 0.5 log o

Ukuran droplet vs Viskositas


log (d m ) B 0.5 log o
Plot : log d m vs log o

Log dm

0.5

Log o

Dari hasil empiris diperoleh


hubungan berikut

d min
d min 1%

WC

0.33

Qo

Q
o 1%

WC = water cut (%)

0.5

Ukuran Heater Treater


d L eff
d

Qo o
438
2
(SG) d m

L eff

Q o (tr) o

1.05

Q o (tr) o
d ( d L eff )
1.05

Qo o

d 438
2
(SG) d m

Q o (tr) o
1.05

Ukuran Heater Treater


d

L eff

( SG) (tr) o d 2m
(438) (1.05) o

Qo o
438
2
(SG) d m d

SG d
q
36.5 o

2
min

q ( bopd / ft2 )

Heating Calculation
Panas yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan temperatur T dapat dihitung
dengan persamaan:

W C T

( BTU/hr )

(1)

Dimana:
W

= Laju alir massa, lbm/hr

= Panas jenis fluida, BTU / (lbm- o F)

T = Peningkatan temperatur, oF
Fluida yang ditangani terdiri dari minyak (crude) dan air, dimana
minyak mempunyai sifat fisik seperti dibawah ini:

Heating Calculation
Cpo = 0.5

BTU / lbm oF

Panas Jenis Minyak

CpW = 1.0

BTU / lbm oF

Panas Jenis Air

Qf

= Qo

+ QW

QToT

(2)

Water Cut = WC = qW / ( qW + qo ) = qW / qT

(3)

QT

= QT ( 1 WC ) + QT . WC

(4)

= Wo + WW

Wo = Vo x o

lbm/hr

( Qo / 24 ) x o

; Qo (BPD)

Heating Calculation
Wo = Vo x o

( Qo / 24 ) x SGo x 350

Wo = ( QT (1 WC) / 24 ) x SGo x 350

WW = ( QT WC) / 24 ) x SGW x 350

q (BTU/hr) =

Wo Cpo T

q (BTU/hr) =

(350/24) QT ( 1 WC ) SGo CPO T

(350/24) QT WC

WW CpW T

SGW CPW T

Heating Calculation
q (BTU/hr) =

(350/24) QT T [ ( 1 WC ) SGo CPO

(350/24) WC

SGW CPW ]

Harga CP untuk minyak merupakan fungsi dari API dan


temperatur.

CP

= f ( API , T )

Water cut yang berupa emulsi dapat berkisar dari 10 % - 40 %.

Treating temperatur umumnya berkisar antara 100 - 160 F. Akan


tetapi treating temperatur dapat mencapai 300 F.

Fluid Properties
SG o

141.5

131.5 o API

o T ( 3.141 x 1010 ) T -3.444 log10 (API)


A 10.313 log10 (T) - 36.447

144.7875 0.025 API


SG o (T) - 4.1667 x 10 T

131.5 API

-4

T ( o F)

PROSEDUR PERHITUNGAN
1) Pilih temperature Heater ( T )
2) Tentukan harga viskositas minyak , o
(P,T) dan berat jenis minyak, SGo (T, API),
dan berat jenis air SGw (T) dengan
persamaan berikut:

141.5
SG o
o
131.5 API

PROSEDUR PERHITUNGAN
144.7875 0.025 API

131.5 API

SGo (T) - 4.1667 x 10 - 4 T

Dimana T dalam satuan o F.

o (T) (3.141 x 1010 ) T - 3.444 ( Log10 (API))A


A 10.313 ( log10 (T) ) - 36.447
3) Tentukan diameter droplet Minimum ( dmin ) dari hasil Lab.

dmin

= B (o) C

PROSEDUR PERHITUNGAN
4) Tentukan diameter droplet pada WC 1 % = (dm 1 % )

SPE May 1997

Treater konvensional :
dm,1% =

200 (o) 0.25

untuk o < 80 Cp

Treater Electrostatic
dm,1% =

170 (o) 0.4

untuk 3 Cp < o < 80 Cp

PROSEDUR PERHITUNGAN
5) Hitung ukuran (diameter dan panjang/tinggi) treater.

Qo o
d L eff 438
2
(SG ) dm

L eff

Qo t r o
1.05

PROSEDUR PERHITUNGAN
6) Tentukan besar nya Water Cut (WC) di Effluent

WC

dmin

d
m 1%

1 / 0.33

7) Chek ukuran treater yang sesuai dengan retention time (tr)


8) Ulangi perhitungan (mulai dari step 1) dengan meggunakan
temperatur yang berbeda.

Calculation Results
Treating Temp
Parameters

SG
o
dm 1%
dm
WC
BTU
Leff & d

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

Effects of the Temperature Increases


Settling velocity increases.
The effect of dissolving the small crystals of
paraffin and asphaltenes and thus neutralizing
their effect as potential emulsifiers.
In treating of heavy crudes the temperature may
be as high as 300 oF.
Adding heat can cause a significant loss of the
lower boiling point hydrocarbons (light ends).
This results in a shrinkage of the oil, or loss of
oil volume.

Effects of the Temperature Increases in


Heater Treater
The molecules leaving the oil phase may be
vented or compressed and sold with the gas.
If they are sold with the gas, there will probably
be a net loss in income realized by converting
liquid volume into gas volume.
Increasing the temperature at which treating
accurs also has the disadvantage of making the
crude oil that is recovered in the storage tank
heavier and thus decreasing its value. Because
the light ends are boiled off, the remaining liquid
has alower API gravity.

Effects of the Temperature Increases in


Heater Treater
Increasing the temperature may lower the
specific gravity at treater operating pressure of
both the oil to be treated and the water that must
be separated from it.
If the treating temperature is less than 200 oF the
change in S.G. with temperature can be
neglected.
The gas liberated when crude oil is heated may
create a problem in the treating equipment if the
equipment is not adequately designed

Effects of the Temperature Increases in


Heater Treater
Gas

In vertical heater-treaters and gunbarrels the gas rises through the


coalescing section. If much gas is
liberated, it can create enough
turbulence and disturb to inhibit
coalescence.
The small gas bubbles have an
attractive for surface active material
and hence for the water droplets.

H2O

H2O

H2O

Inhibit
Coalescence

Effects of the Temperature Increases in


Heater Treater
Gas

The bubbles thus have a


tendency to prevent the water
droplets from settling and may
even cause them to carry-over to
the oil outlet.
The usual oil field horizontal
heater-treater tends to overcome
the gas liberation problem by
coming to equalibrium in the
heating section before
introducing the emulsion to the
settling-coalescing section.

H2O

H2O

H2O

Inhibit Settling

Effects of the Temperature Increases in


Heater Treater
Some large crude processing systems use
a fluid-packed, pump-through system that
keeps the crude well above the bubble
point.
Top-mounted degassing separators above
electrostatic coalescers have been used in
some installations.

Designing Separator

L eff

( SG) (tr) o d 2m
(438) (1.05) o

Qo o
438
2
(SG) d m d

Settling Equation
d L eff

Qo

Qo o
438
( SG) d 2m

d L eff ( SG) d 2m

438 o

Retention Time Equation


2

d L eff

Q o (tr) o

1.05

Vertical Heater Treater


The gas separation section should have an inlet
diverter and a mist extractor.
The liquids flow through a downcomer to the
base of the treater, which serves as a free-water
knockout section.
The most commonly used single well lease
treater is the vertical treater.
Flow enters the top of the treater into a gas
separation section. Care must be axercised to
size this section so that it has adequate
dimensions to separate the gas from the inlet
flow.

Vertical Heater Treater


If the treater is located downstream of a separator, this
chamber can be very small.
The liquids flow through a downcomer to the base of the
treater, which serves as a free-water knockout section.
If the total wellstream is to be treated this section should
be sized for 3 to 5 minutes retention time for both the oil
and the water to allow the free water to settle out. This
will minimize the amount of fuel gas needed to heat the
liquid stream rising through the heating section.

Vertical Heater Treater


The end of the downcomer should be slightly
below the oil water interface to water wash the
oil being treated. This will assist in the
coalescence of water droplets in the oil.
The oil and emulsion rises over the heater firetubes to a coalescing section where sufficient
retention time is provided to allow the small
water particles in the oil continuous phase to
coalesce and sattle to the bottom.

Vertical Heater Treater


Typically, gunbarrel have a gas separating
chamber or boot on top where gas is
separated and vented, and a downcomer.
Because gunbarrels tend to be of larger
diameter than vertical heater-treaters,
many have elaborate spreader systems to
try and create uniform upward flow of the
emulsion to take maximum advantage of
the entry cross section.

Vertical Heater Treater


Most gunbarrels are unheated, though it
is possible to provide heat by heating the
incoming stream external to the tank,
installing heating coils in the tank, or
circulating the water to an external or jug
heater in a closed loop.

Vertical Heater Treater


Gunbarrels are most often used in older, small
flow rate, onshore facilities.
In recent times vertical heater-treaters have
become so inexpensive installations.
On larger installations onshore in warm weather
areas gunbarrels are still commonly used.
In areas that have a winter season it tends to be
too expensive to keep the large volume of oil at
a high enough temperature to combat potential
pour point problems.

Horizontal Heater Treater


The oil-water interface in the inlet section of the
vessel is controlled by an interface level
controller, which operates a dump valve for the
free water.
The oil and emulsion flow through a spreader
into the back or coalescing section of the vessel,
which is fluid packed.
The spreader distributes the flow evenly
throughout the length of this section.

Horizontal Heater Treater


The inlet section must be sized to handle
settling of the free water and heating of
the oil.
The coalescing section must be sized to
provide adequate retention time for
coalescence to occour and to allow the
coalescing water droplets to settle
downward countercurrent to the upward
flow of the oil.

Electrostatic Heater Treater


The flow path in an electrostatic treater is the
same as a horizontal treater.
The only difference is that an AC/DC
electrostatic field is used to promote
coalescence of the water droplets.
Field experience tends to indicate that
electrostatic treaters are efficient at reducing
water content in the crude below the 0.5 to 1.0%
basic sediment and water (BS&W) level. This
makes them particularly attractive for desalting
applications.