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GSM 6190

Theory in Management
: Scientific Management: 100 years
old; Poised for the next century
Authors : Michael Freeman, Nova
Southeastern College
: Megat Shariffudin b. Zulkifli (GM
Mohamad Razif b. Haji Abdul
Mubin (GM 03956)


To indicate that, although the name

scientific Management is no more
popular, its principles are still in use

piece-rate system was a popular
method of shop management (before
Taylors, in 1911, combine ideas about
scientific management and publish his
work The principles of Scientific

Key points of The Principles of Scientific

Prosperity for employer and employee
the principal object of management
should be to secure maximum prosperity
for the employer, couple with the
maximum prosperity for each employee

Management is to take on new

1. Develop a science for each element of a
mans work
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach,
and develop the workman
3. Heartily cooperate with the men so as to
ensure all the work being done according to
first principle
4. Equal division of the work and the
responsibilities between management and
- scientific management goes beyond physical

The task Idea

The work of every workman is fully planned
out by the management at least a day in
Each man receives complete written

Scientific Management Does Not

Require Piece-rates
Introduce incentives to workers rapid
promotion or advancement, higher wages i.e.
prices, bonus for good rapid work, shorter
hours of labour, better surrounding and
working conditions

Revision of Scientific Management

Periodically revised by Taylors society
(founded by Frank Gilbreth) to ensure
scientific management to grow and
Critics: it does not work in reality.
Employers / management do not give
incentives i.e. payrise or bonus when
productivity increases, no joint efforts
exist, no real consultation

Harlow S. Person revised the list:

Management Research. Research investigate and
experiment constitute the only sound basis for the solution
of management problems to determine purpose, policy,
program etc.
Management Standards. Result of research must be made
available in the form of defined and published standards.
Management Control. There must be established a
systematic procedure, based on the defined standards, for
execution of works. Common objectives are achieved with
a minimum waste of heman and material energies and
maximum human welfare
Cooperation. Durably effective management requires
recognition of the natural law of cooperation - Integration
of individual interests and desires and of individual
capacities with the requirement of group purposes

Management Committees
Committees within the management group
Advisory work. Assisting concerning decision making
on policies and plans, recommendation concerning
special problems
Workers groups are recognised yet (Taylor Society,

Inspection and Piece-rate systems

Device for the maintenance of, or intrepretation of,
reasons for variation from the established definite
Inspection discovers the exact situation, the causes and
the consequences
Inspect the first piece of a lot to prevent a whole run
from being waste

Scientific Management is adaptable

Must be individually tailored to each
Developed out of a harmony of desires
and understandings within an
organization through the guidance of
outstanding leadership

Scientific Management at Age 100

Is not faded into history
Principles of Scientific Management are
very much alive:
Develop a science for each element of
Mans work = Time and motions study,
using computers spreadsheet(Paulin, 1992).
Research, Investigate and Experiment =
process of analysis, measurement,
comparisons. Workers themselves analyze
jobs, design more efficient procedures, and
create consensus for new standards (Adler,

Scientifically Select and Then Train, Teach

and Develop the Workman = hires only
the most dependable, productive
employees and develops them at
minimum cost: selection, hiring,
orientation, training and monitoring
(Levine, 1993)
Have published Standards Which Serve as
Common Goals, Facilities and Methods =
manufacturing, aviation and shipping
procedures and methods in manuals

Heartily Cooperate with the Men =

encourage creativity. i.e.:
demanding and rewarding individual initiatives
and improvement
Publicly recognizing those who excel
Designing the systems and organization
structure that cause individuals to feel they
control their own destinies

Inspection is to Maintain = Statistical

process control (SPC), aid management in
making its decisions on scientifically
based facts.

Special Incentives = bonus system that

tied to productivity, pay link to
performance (to spur sales, boost
productivity and improve employee
There is No One-Size-Fits-All Management
Solution. Flexibility is the key as Scientific
Management could be modifies due to
new information, new laws, or local
operating conditions.

Its flexibility has made Scientific
Management survive more than
100 years after its inception. Its
principles are still relevant and
managers still use them.
Scientific Management is still
alive, well, and poised for the
next century