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T h e h ig h d e n s i t y e q u at i o n o f

s ta t e f o r n e u t r o n s ta r s a n d
P(aCr tC )I:
o fe s t a t e f o r n e u t r o n
- sEuq upat
e ri onnos va
s ta r m at t e r

Micaela Oertel
m i caela. oertel@obspm.fr

Laboratoire Univers et Theories (LUTH)


CNRS / Observatoire de Paris/ Universite Paris
Diderot

NewComsptar School, Barcelona, September,2226,2014

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

1 / 52

Outline
1

In t r o d u c t i o
n

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

2 / 52

Outline
1

In t r o d u c t i o
2n C o n s t r u c t i n g a n e q u at i o n o f
s tat e

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

2 / 52

Outline
1

In t r o d u c t i o
2n C o n s t r u c t i n g a n e q u at i o n o f
s tat e
3
Nuclear interaction
mod e l s
Nucleon-Nucleon interaction
Models for heavier nuclei
Constraints on the EoS
Models for bulk matter

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

2 / 52

Outline
1

In t r o d u c t i o
2n C o n s t r u c t i n g a n e q u at i o n o f
s tat e
3
Nuclear interaction
mod e l s
Nucleon-Nucleon interaction
Models for heavier nuclei
Constraints on the EoS
Models for bulk matter

Ex o tic
h a d r o n i c m at t e r
4

Hyperons
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

2 / 52

N o wa d a y s
Crab
pulsar

Vela
pulsar

Almost 2000 neutron stars


have been observed as
pulsars, among others
Crab, Vela, Geminga,
Hulse-Taylor double pulsar,
...
Hubble (blue, opt ic), Chandra (red, X)

Chandra (X)

R X J 1856-37

Some (the magnificant seven) have been


observed only by their thermal emission
Magnetars have extremely high magnetic
fields ( 1015 G at the surface)

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

3 / 52

W h y a n e u t ro n s t a r ?
Theoretical argument : high density electrically neutral
matter in -equilibrium high neutron fraction (later
. . .)

SN 1987A

Observational argument : Neutron stars are formed


in supernova events. For SN1987A 24 antineutrinos
have been observed,
11 KamiokandeII
8 IMB
This 5is Baksan
generally interpreted as a proof for the classical
scenario with two main sources of (anti-)neutrino
production, the neutronization reaction p + e n +
e and the inverse process n + e+ p + e

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

S up e r k a m i o k a n d
e

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

4 / 52

P h y s i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s t o mo d e l t h e s e
sFirst
y sstep,
t e mbuilding
s equilibrium models :
give the gravitational law (self-gravitating body), here General
Relativity described by Einsteins equations ;
assume that matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, specified by
the energy-momentum tensor of the form
T =
.

u u + p g

c2

write the equilibrium conditions following from conservation of energy


and momentum T = 0 ;
assume thermal equilibrium ;
give a law for the pressure as a function of the systems
thermodynamical state

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

5 / 52

P h y s i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s t o mo d e l t h e s e
sFirst
y sstep,
t e mbuilding
s equilibrium models :
give the gravitational law (self-gravitating body), here General
Relativity described by Einsteins equations ;
assume that matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, specified by
the energy-momentum tensor of the form
T =
.

u u + p g

c2

write the equilibrium conditions following from conservation of energy


and momentum T = 0 ;
assume thermal equilibrium ;
give a law for the pressure as a function of the systems
thermodynamical state equation of state (EoS).

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

5 / 52

P h y s i c a l i n g r e d i e n t s t o mo d e l t h e s e
sFirst
y sstep,
t e mbuilding
s equilibrium models :
give the gravitational law (self-gravitating body), here General
Relativity described by Einsteins equations ;
assume that matter can be treated as a perfect fluid, specified by
the energy-momentum tensor of the form
T =
.

u u + p g

c2

write the equilibrium conditions following from conservation of energy


and momentum T = 0 ;
assume thermal equilibrium ;
give a law for the pressure as a function of the systems
thermodynamical state equation of state (EoS).
The EoS specifies the nuclear matter properties and, in particular the strength
of the interaction between particles, which is to equilibrate gravity.
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

5 / 52

M at t e r c o mp o s i t i o n a n d e q u at i o n o f
s tat e
of a

Initial Ph a s e of Co llap s e

R [km]

Ne ut ri no Trap pi ng

R [km]

(t ~ 0)

RFe~ 3000

( t ~ 0.1s ,

~1 0 g / c m )

Matter composition changes dramatically through the core


collapse
D i f f e r e n t s ta g e s
s u p e r n o va
Starting point : onion like
structure with iron/nickel
core+ degenerate
electrons
Upon compression
(+deleptonisation) : heavier
and more neutron rich
nuclei

RFe

~ 100
Si

Fe, Ni

0.5

~ MCh M(r) [M ]

1.0

0.5

M(r) [M ]

Mhc 1.0

heavy nuclei

Si
Siburning shell

Siburning shell

B ou nc e an d S ho ck F o rm a ti o n
(t ~ 0.11s,

R [km]

o)

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

Explosion (t ~ 0.2s)

e e

f ree n, p

Ni

M(r) [M ]

1.0
e

nuclei

Siburning shell
Si

R [km]

Neu t rin o Coo l in g an d Neu t rin o


Drive n W i n d (t ~ 1 0s )

10 5

104

e e

Fe
Ni

10

Si
2

e e

PNS

nuclear matter

Si p

100
R ~~ 50

0.5

Siburning shell

Fe, Ni

Rgg ~~

free n,
p

Si M(r) [M ]

1.0

nuclei

position of
shock
formation

S ho ck S t a gn a t io n a nd Heat ing,

R [km]

Rss ~ ~ 200

For n B > n0/ 2 : nuclei


disappear in favor of
free nucleons
relatively unknown
Composition of matter
All this above
has to be covered by the
EoS !
n0 and at T > 10 MeV

Rs ~ 100 km
R

~~
1010

0.5
nuclear matter

(t ~ 0. 12 s)

RFe

Fe

radius of
shock
formation

S h oc k Pr o p ag atFe,
io n Ni
an d e Bur st

R [km]

rprocess?

10

He

e e

Rns ~~

1.3
gain layer
1.5 cooling layer

M(r) [M ]

10
R

PNS 1.4

nn
n, pp
12
,n,

Be,

3 M(r) [M ]

C, seed

(Janka et al. 07)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

6 / 52

M at t e r c o mp o s i t i o n a n d e q u at i o n o f
s tat e
Matter composition changes dramatically through the core
collapse
Starting point : onion like
N u c l e a r a b u n d an c i e s
s ta g e s
structure with iron/nickel
core+ degenerate
electrons
Upon compression
(+deleptonisation) : heavier
and more neutron rich
nuclei

at d i f f e r e n t

T= 9.01 GK, = 6.80e+09 g/cm3, Y =.0.433


e

Z (Proton Number)

40

30

20

10

Log (Mass Fraction)


5

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

90

80

N ( Neutr on Number )

T= 17.84 GK, = 3.39e+11 g/cm3, Y =.0.379


e

Z (Proton Number)

40

For n B > n0/ 2 : nuclei


disappear in favor of
free nucleons
relatively unknown
of matter
All this Composition
has to be covered
by the
above EoS !

30

20

Log (Mass Fraction)

10
5

0
0
40

10

20

30

50
80
N ( Neutr on Number
)

60

70

90

(Janka et al. 07)

n0 and at T > 10 MeV


Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

7 / 52

M at t e r c o mp o s i t i o n a n d t h e e q u a t i o n
o f s ta t e
Matter composition changes dramatically through the core
collapse
Starting point : onion like
P h a s e d i ag r a m o f b u l k
structure with iron/nickel
(m at
R M tF e/ Tr M A )
core+ degenerate
Y =0.5
electrons
Y =0.3
Y =0.1
Upon compression
(+deleptonisation) : heavier
and more neutron rich
nuclei

nuclear

T [MeV]

20
18

16

14

12
10

8
6

2
0

For n B > n0/ 2 : nuclei


disappear in favor of
free nucleons
relatively unknown
of matter
All this Composition
has to be covered
by the
above EoS !

10

-10

10

-9

10

-8

10

-7

10

-6

10

-5

10
-3

-4

10

-3

10

-2

10

-1

nB [fm ]
(Hempel & Schaffner-Bielich 09)

n0 and at T > 10 MeV


Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

8 / 52

How to construct an equation of


state ?
An equation of state is a relation between two or more functions describing the
thermodynamic state of matter, e.g. temperature, density, pressure, energy, i.e.
it describes the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions. It
assumes thermal equilibrium.

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

9 / 52

R e m i n d e r o f t h e r mo d y n a m i c i d e n t i t i e s
There are different thermodynamic potentials depending on the
temperature (T )/the entropy (S), the volume (V )/the pressure (p), the
particle number (N )/the chemical potential (), or the corresponding
densities (s, n)
the energy density (s, n i )
the free energy density f (T, n i ) = T s
X

the grand canonical potential density (T, i ) = Ts i ni


the conjugate variables are related via derivatives, e.g. n i = i
i

There is a chemical potential associated with each conserved quantity (charge,


baryon number, lepton number) and the individual chemical potentials are
linear combinations of q , B , l , e.g. proton = B + q .
At zero temperature the entropy vanishes.

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

10 / 52

Part I : Neutron star


EoS

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

11 / 52

A n e q u at i o n o f s ta t e f o r n e u t r o n
s ta r s
Start with homogeneous neutron star matter :
f (T, n B , nq , n l ) would be a pertinent (and convenient) equation of
state

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

12 / 52

A n e q u at i o n o f s ta t e f o r n e u t r o n
s ta r s
Start with homogeneous neutron star matter :
f (T, n B , nq , nl ) would be a pertinent (and convenient) equation of state
soon after their birth in supernovae ( minutes), neutron stars are
sufficiently cool for temperature effects on the EoS to be neglected in
general
strong, electromagnetic, and weak reactions are at equilibrium (this
includes in particular -equilibrium)
global charge neutrality should be fulfilled (nq = 0)
all state variables are functions of only one parameter, chosen to be e.g.
the baryon number density n B .

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

12 / 52

Mor e precisely . . .
Homogeneous (bulk) matter in the core of neutron stars
should be charge neutral :

qi n i = 0. For matter composed of neutrons,

protons, and electrons this means just np = n e .


should be in -equilibrium. This means the reactions
p + e n + e
and n p + e + e
should be in equilibrium. In bulk matter this can be achieved by the
following condition on the chemical potentials :
p + e = n + e .
Remind that the chemical potential corresponds to the energy needed to
add one particle to the Fermi sea.
Since neutrinos can freely leave the (cold) neutron star, their
chemical potential (= l ) is zero and the -equilibrium condition
reduces to
p + e = n .

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

13 / 52

Mor e precisely . . .
Homogeneous (bulk) matter in the core of neutron stars
should be charge neutral :

qi n i = 0. For matter composed of neutrons,

protons, and electrons this means just np = n e .


should be in -equilibrium. This means the reactions
p + e n + e
and n p + e + e
should be in equilibrium. In bulk matter this can be achieved by the
following condition on the chemical potentials :
p + e = n + e .
Remind that the chemical potential corresponds to the energy needed to
add one particle to the Fermi sea.
Since neutrinos can freely leave the (cold) neutron star, their
chemical potential (= l ) is zero and the -equilibrium condition
reduces to
p + e = n .
Attention : in the literature, the chemical potentials of the nucleons are
sometimes defined without the particle mass. If this is the case, the masses
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

13 / 52

The f ree Fermi gas

The most simple equation of state would be a free Fermi gas of n, p,


e.
F
i
q 2 m2 giving = q (n
2
+ m2
ni = p3 with pF =
i
i
i
i
i
3
2/3
3 )
2
charge neutrality (np = n e ) and the -equilibrium condition then allow
to determine n e as a function of n B = n n + np n i = n i (n B )

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

14 / 52

The f ree Fermi gas


0.03

Ye

0.02

0.01

0
0.8

0.2

0.4
0.6
nB [fm-3]

Ye = n e / n B
charge neutral matter in -equilibrium becomes neutron
rich
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

15 / 52

The f ree Fermi gas


The most simple equation of state would be a free Fermi gas of n, p,
e.
F
i
q 2 m2 giving = q (n
2
+ m2
ni = p3 with pF =
i
i
i
i
i
3
2/3
3 )
2
charge neutrality (np = n e ) and the -equilibrium condition then allow
to determine n e as a function of n B = n n + np n i = n i (n B )
energy density
P Fi

2 0
i =n,p,e Z

d p q p + m2i
(2) 3
2

3 (32) 2/3
3
e
5/3
i
5 2m i n ) + 4 (32) 1/3n 4/3

=
(mi ni
i =n,p
+I have used the non-rel. approximation for nucleons and neglected m e )
(Here
pressure p = +

i ni (note that

i =n,p,e

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

i n i = B n B )

i =n,p,e

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

16 / 52

N S mo d e l s : T o l m a n - O p p e n h e i m e r - V o l k o v
system
Consider hydrostatic solutions in spherical symmetry
Einstein and hydrostatic equations then reduce to :
dm
dr
d
dr
dp
dr

=
4r 2
=

2Gm 1
r c2
Gm
p
d dr
2

+ 4G
r2

c2

c
+
In the newtonian limit m(r ) describes the enclosed mass and (r )
the gravitational potential.

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

17 / 52

N S mo d e l s : T o l m a n - O p p e n h e i m e r - V o l k o v
system
Consider hydrostatic solutions in spherical symmetry
Einstein and hydrostatic equations then reduce to :
dm
dr
d
dr
dp
dr

=
4r 2
=

2Gm 1
r c2
Gm
p
d dr
2

+ 4G
r2

c2

c
+
In the newtonian limit m(r ) describes the enclosed mass and (r )
the gravitational potential.
This system of partial differential equations is called
the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) system

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

17 / 52

From a book of
statistical mechanics :
The process which has
been discussed leads to
the formation of a
degenerate gas of
neutrons. It is mainly
the quantum pressure
of this gas which is
stabilising the star.
Free gas a good EoS ?

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

18 / 52

The f ree Fermi gas


But life is not as
simple !

Mg [Msun]

0.8

0.6

0.4
5

10

15

20

25

30

R [km]

Historical note : A neutron Fermi gas EoS led Oppenheimer and Volkov
(Oppenheimer& Volkov, Phys. Rev. 55 (1939) 374) to predict maximum NS masses of 0.7M
But : Maximum neutron star mass < 1M in contradiction with observations !
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

19 / 52

The nuclear interaction comes into


play . . .

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

20 / 52

S o me b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e n u c l e o n nucleon intera ction


Mainly two experimental sources of information :
deuteron properties since the deuteron is the only bound two-nucleon
state (di-neutron and di-proton are unbound)
NN diffusion
experiments The main
conclusions are :
the NN interaction is charge independent introduction of
isospin (Heisenberg, 1932 )
Proton and neutron have isospin 1/ 2 with different
orientations
Small isospin violating contributions only from electromagnetic
corrections and differences in mass.
the NN interaction is short-range ( fm) with an attractive part and
strong repulsion below roughly 0.5 fm
the NN interaction is spin-dependent and there are important
pairing
correlations
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)
EoS for NS and SN
Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014
21 /

52

NN i n t e r a c t i o n
Nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction
relatively well known
Potential described in terms
of meson exchange (, )
Paris potential, Bonn potential,
Argonne potential . . . : very
precise description of phase shift
data, deuteron
Problem with three-body force
Recently : modern potentials based on chiral perturbation theory
(effective field theory EFT of low-energy QCD)
big advantage : consistent three-body forces (success for neutron-rich
nuclei)
Ab-initio calculations up to A 12
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

22 / 52

The n u c l e a r la n d scape

limits of the chart : neutron and proton


driplines inclination due to electromagnetic
forces
existence of magic numbers with strongly bound
nuclei (shell closures)
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

23 / 52

M o d e l s f o r he av ie r n uc le i
1. The liquid drop model
Principal idea : density of nuclei approximately constant (liquid drops)
Binding energy determined from volume, surface,asymmetry, Coulomb
and pairing terms :
2
B = aV A + aS A 2/3 + aA (N Z ) aC Z2 + (mod(N ,2)+mod(Z ,2) 1)
A
P
A 1/ 3
A 1/ 2
a
Nuclear binding energies can be very precisely
reproduced
2. The shell model
Original idea : nucleons move in a
(harmonic oscillator) potential and fill up
the shells
Inspired by atomic shell model, but LS
interaction important (magic numbers) !
Residual interaction very precisely fitted to
experimental data
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

24 / 52

M o d e l s f o r h e a v i e r n u c l e i : me a n
f i e l d mo d e l s
Selfconsistent approach (variational principle) : minimizing of h|H |i
with product ansatz (Slater determinant) for the wave function
Take effective interaction to take correlations into account
Modern interpretation in terms of Kohn-Sham energy density
functional theory
Good description of the nuclear chart up to very heavy nuclei
3.

The non-relativistic Skyrme and Gogny


interaction Zero range force (Skyrme), finite
range (Gogny) Spin-orbit interaction added by
hand
4. The relativistic mean field (RMF)
Relativistic (special relativity) treatment of the nucleons
Interaction described via effective ( !) meson exchange

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

25 / 52

M o d e l s f o r b u l k ma t t e r

Ab-initio calculations up to A 12 (not adequate for the description


of nuclear matter !)
for nuclear matter there are two types of models
phenomenological models with effective interactions

liquid drop
mean field

ab initio microscopic calculations starting from the basic NN


interaction

Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF)
Self-consisten Greens function
Variational techniques

Vlow k

...

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

26 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


1. Symmetric nuclear matter
For symmetric nuclear matter (i.e. nn = np ), the energy per baryon as a
function of density has a minimum at nuclear matter saturation density, n 0 =
0.16fm 3. The binding energy at this point is E b = 16M eV .
Several coefficients of an expansion of the energy per baryon around saturation
are measured in nuclear experiments (x = nB / n 0 1) :
1
1 3
1
2
2
E (nB , ) = E b + 1 K x2 +
K x + (J + L x +
K sym x )
18

162

18

incompressibility K
240MeV skewness coefficient

30

K symmetry energy J
32MeV
symmetry energy slope coefficient L 50

E/A [MeV]

20
10
0
-10
-20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-3

nB [fm ]

MeV symmetry incompressibility K sym ,


A free Fermi gas cannot reproduce these features
-500 MeV < K sym < 100 MeV
!
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

27 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


2. Other nuclear
experiments
data from transversal matter flow
in heavy ion collisions is sensitive to
the EoS of symmetric matter
caveats :

F l o w c o n s t r a i n t f r om h e av y i on
collision s

10

UB

matter not really in


2
10
thermal equilibrium
LB
transport calculations are
extrapolated
reinterpreted in terms of
NL, NL
1
DBHF (Bonn A)
10
EoS
DD
3
DC

in principle only valid


KVR
KVOR
for the model employed
DD-F
0
within the transport
10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6

-3
at high densities many new
.
n PRC
[fm ]
8
(Klahn et al.
degrees of freedom
2006)
(resonances, mesons, . . . )
relation to
nuclear
mesonproduction
in the
heavy-ion
collisions, in particular subthreshold
EoS
?
kaon production soft EoS in the range 2 3n
-3

P [MeV fm ]

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

28 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


3. Main present constraint from astrophysical observations : neutron star masses
Observed masses in binary systems (NS-NS, NSWD, X-ray binaries) with most precise
measurements from double neutron star
systems.
All NS-NS systems give masses close to
1.4M
Recently two precise mass measurements in
NS-WD binaries

M = 1.97 0.04M (PSR J1614-2230)


(Demorest et al, Nature 2010)

M = 2.01 0.04M (PSR J0348+0432)


(Antoniadis et al, Science 2013)
(Lattimer & Prakash, 1012.3208)

2 M probably not the end of the story (e.g. indications for a 2.4 M NS in
B1957+20 (van Kerkwijk et al., ApJ 2011))
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

29 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


4. NS radius
determinations
Measurements of rotational frequency

AP R

f = 716 Hz (PSR J1748-2446ad)

DH
B M 16 5
FP S

(Hessels et al, Science 2006)

B G N 1H 1

f = 1122 Hz not confirmed !


(XTE J1739-285) (Kaaret et al. ApJ 2007)

G M GS

S QM 3
S QM 1

Theory : Kepler frequency f K =


1008 Hz (M / M ) 1/2 (R/ 10km) 3/2
(Haensel et al. A&A 2009)

(M. Fortin, CAMK)

A measured frequency of 1.4 kHz


would constrain R1.4 < 9.5 km !

rph >>R

M (M )

Bayesian inversion of TOV equations


with observed M G R relations (Steiner et

10 3
100

2.5

80

1.5

60

al. ApJ 2010)

Radius determinations so far model


dependent (assumptions on
atmosphere, distance, . . .) (e.g. Heinke et al.
1406.1497) and theoretical uncertainties
(rotation, . . . )
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)
EoS for NS and SN

40

20
0.5

10

12

14

16

18

R (km)

(Steiner et al. ApJ 2010)


Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

30 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


5. Direct URCA threshold
the direct URCA process
n p + e + and
p + e n + , a very
efficient cooling process, is
suppressed in the cold neutron
star due to energy and
momentum conservation. It can
reappear in the very dense core
if the proton fraction exceeds
11-14%.
in contradiction with observed
surface temperatures if
Yp > 11 14% for too
low densities
main caveat : masses of
NS with observed surface
temperature not known
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

W h y is d i r e c t U RC A s up p r e s s e d ?

Consider the reaction n p + e +


.
Energy conservation
E n = E p + E e + E , where

n, p, e have E i E F i T ,
thus the neutrino has E T .
equilibrium n = p + e and
charge neutrality
2 give
pF ,e = pF ,p pF ,n / (2m n )
pF , n

Momentum conservation
< p~
p
pFp ,p
F ,n
p~
+ +p~e + p~ with |
n =
p~
|

T
.
pF ,e
can then no longer be fulfilled,
EoS for NS and SN
Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014
since

31 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


6. Baryon mass versus gravitational mass
low mass NS stars in binary NS systems could be formed in an
electron capture SN of a O-Ne-Mg core with very little mass loss
two candidate systems

M = 1.249 0.001M (PSR J0737-3039/B)

M = 1.230 0.007M (PSR J1756-2251 companion)

(Kramer et al, astro-ph/0503386)

(Ferdman et al, MNRAS 2014)

constraints on the baryon mass of the low-mass object by evolution


arguments (Podsiadlowski et al. MNRAS 2005), assuming no mass loss and a
numerical simulation (Kitaura et al. A& A 2006)
caveats
M B
ve rsus M G -r an g e f o r
d iffe ren t EoS
1.27

1.26
M [Msol]

mass loss assumption


(simulation gives little mass
loss)

uncertainties on
evolutionary scenario

does the contraint obtained


from the simulation only
reflect the properties of the
(two) EoS employed ?

Micaela
Oertel (LUTH)
multi-D
effects, magneticEoS for NS and SN

1.25

NL
NL
DBHF (Bonn A)
DD
3
DC
KVR
KVOR
DD-F

1.24

1.23
1.32

1.34
1.38

1.36
MN [Msol]

(Klahn et al. PRC 2006)


Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

32 / 52

M o d e l s f o r b u l k ma t t e r

Ab-initio calculations up to A 12 (not adequate for the description


of nuclear matter !)
for nuclear matter there are two types of models
phenomenological models with effective interactions

liquid drop
mean field

ab initio microscopic calculations starting from the basic NN


interaction

Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF)
Self-consistent Greens function
Variational techniques

Vlow k

...

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

33 / 52

T h e n o n - r e l a t i v i s t i c S k y r m e me a n
f i eStarting
l d mo
del
point is a functional for the energy density (n n , np )
Zero range interaction
Spin-orbit interaction added by hand (very important for magic numbers
of nuclei, but absent for bulk matter)
The interaction part in general contains the
following terms
a central term 2Bn , n(n p 2
na )density dependent

n (n2 , (n n 2)
term
n
p
B
B
)an effective mass term n , n ( is

B
i i
the kinetic energy density, same
form as Fermi gas)

a spin-orbit term, a gradient term


and a tensor term, which do not
contribute to nuclear matter
calculations

30

SLy4, Y p = 0.1
SLy4, Y p = 0.3

E/A [MeV]

20

SLy4, Y p = 0.5

10
0
-10
-20

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-3

n B [fm ]

How
pressure
?
How to
to proceed
proceed to
to obtain
get thethe
EoS
for neutron
star
matter ?
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

34 / 52

A Skyrm e E o S
1. Pressure
Thermodynamic relations

ni

= i and

P = +
i n i
i

Add leptons,
i.e. electrons and possibly muons (as free Fermi
2. Neutron
star EoS
gas)
Charge neutrality n q = 0
-equilibrium n = p + e (and muons ?)

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

35 / 52

A Skyrme E o S
The proton fraction in neutron star matter for different
parametrisations
0.3

SLy4 +
SLy4
Sk0p
Gs
SV

Yp

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4
0.6

0.8

nB [ fm-3]

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

36 / 52

A Skyrme E o S

500

SLy4 +
SLy4
Sk0p
Gs
SV

P [MeV/fm3]

400
300
200
100
0

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

200
600

400
800 1000
[MeV/fm3]1200

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

37 / 52

T h e r e l a t i v i s t i c me a n f i e l d ( R M F )
N e u t ron
mat t e r

L R M F = (i M g
+ ...)
1
2 2
+ m

1
2
+ ...
2
In the original version (Walecka model) only ,

In order to reproduce data, many refinements :


isovector channel (, ), nonlinear interaction, density dependent couplings, . . .
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

NL3
DD
3
D C

80

60

40

20

0
0.0

0.1

0.2
0.3
-3
density [fm ]

0.4

0.5

0.4

0.5

symmetric n u c l e a r
m at t e r
80

binding energy per nucleon E/A [MeV]

Relativistic (special relativity) treatment of the


nucleons
Interaction described via effective ( !)
meson exchange :

binding energy per nucleon E/A [MeV]

100

NL3
DD
3
D C

60

40

20

-20
0.0

0.1

0.2
0.3
-3
density [fm ]

S. Typel, nucl-th/05010156

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

38 / 52

( D i r a c ) - B r u e c k n e r - H a rt r e e - F o c k
calculations
Starting point is the bare N N -interaction
V
Construction of the Brueckner G-matrix :
X

Vi j ,ab

The Pauli operator Q prevents thea,b


baryons
(they are fermions !) to be scattered to
states below their respective Fermi
momenta
The single-particle energies are
determined self-consistently
~k 2 + X hi j |G()
i j ,ij |
ei (~k) = M i
i
j
i
2M
i
+
j to
Three-body forces necessary
reproduce empirical behaviour of
E / A(nB ).
Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Qab

ea G() ab,kl
eb
80

60

E/A (MeV)

G() i j ,kl = Vi j ,kl +

40

20

-20
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

density (fm-3 )

M. Baldo, G.F. Burgio, arXiv :1102.1364

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

39 / 52

Constraints on the EoS


7. Ab-initio calculations of neutron (and symmetric) matter
any of the many-body techniques mentioned before, i.e. (D)BHF,
SCGF, . . .
Monte-Carlo techniques

Vlow k is a renormalisation group


improved interaction potential
idea : start at an interaction scale
and evolve it to lower energies
the effective interactions at a lower
scale then contain the higher energy
dynamics (e.g. three-body forces are
generated)

NN+ 3N
Gandolfi et
al.

P [MeV fm3 ]

recently also Vlow k from chiral EFT forces


+ Hartree-Fock

P r e s s u r e f o r ( l o w -d e n s i t y )
e utter ro n V
mn at
low k + H F v s
4
MC

0
0

0.05

0.10

0.15

n [fm 3]

(Hebeler et al. ApJ 2013)

remarks
all these methods have problems (of different nature, e.g. finite
size effects in Monte-Carlo)
truncation of the initial interaction to N -body-forces
the results, in particular for symmetric matter, do not all agree

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

40 / 52

E n e rg y p e r b a ry o n f o r s y m m e t r i c m at t e r , d i f f e r e n t
a p p ro a c h e s

E/A [MeV]

-10

-5

V4

-20

-10
V6

-30

-15

-40

-20

-50

-25

-60

-30

0
V8

E/A [MeV]

-5

V 18

-10

-10

-15

-15
BHF
SCGF
FHNC
AFDMC
BBG

-20
~
V 6 (BHF)

-25
-30

-5

0
0.3

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.1

-3

0.2

-20
-25
0.3

0.4

-30
0.5

-3

[fm ]

[fm ]
(Baldo et al. PRC 2012)

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

41 / 52

E n e rg y p e r b a ry o n f o r n e u t r o n m at t e r , d i f f e r e n t
a p p ro a c h e s

E/A [MeV]

60

60
V4

40

40

V6
20

20

60

60
BHF
SCGF
FHNC
AFDMC
BBG
GFMC

E/A [MeV]

V8
40

V18
40

20

20

0
0.4

0.1

0.2

0.3

-3

[fm ]

Micaela Oertel (LUTH)

0.5

0.1
0.5

0.2 0.3
-3
[fm ]

0.4

(Baldo et al. PRC 2012)

EoS for NS and SN

Barcelona, September 22-26, 2014

42 / 52