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HELICOPTER

FLIGHT
THEORY

CONTENTS
Historical background
Airfoil theory and propeller action
Configuration of helicopters
Main rotor and design considerations

Dissymmetry of lift
Gyroscopic precession
Vibration
Torque

Cyclic control
Momentum theory
Strength and design considerations
conclusion

Helicopter is one of the earliest ideas


for achieving flight
HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
LEONARDO DA VINCI'S
CHINESE TOPS
CRAFT

Sir George Cayleys powered models


Driven by elastic

devices
Attained an altitude
of 90ft

W H Phillips constructed steam driven


helicopter

Weighed about 9kg.

MODERN HELICOPTER HISTORY


Paul Cornu constructed first manned helicopter
Two propellers
Used 18kw,90rpm engine.
A set of vanes below rotor for control

Corradino D Ascanio set first


recognized helicopter record
At an altitude of 18m for 8min

45secs.
It had contra rotating coaxial
rotors.
Controlled by flaps on the
rotor blades.
Flew over a distance of 1.5
mile.

FIRST TRUE HELICOPTERS


FA-61 helicopter designed by Heinrich Focke in
1936.

FL-282 helicopter designed by Anton Flettner

Utilized twin inter meshing rotors


Altitude of 3965m
Pay load of 360kg

VS-300 designed by Igor Sikorsky


Tail rotor

AEROFOIL THEORY AND


PROPELLER ACTION
Aerofoil features

Bernoullis Principle

propellers

Production of thrust

Configuration of helicopters
Single rotor helicopter

Tandem rotor helicopter

Side by side helicopter

Co axial helicopter
Tilt rotor aircraft

Design considerations
Dissymmetry of lift

Articulated rotors

Torque
Main rotor
Tail rotor

Gyroscopic precession
Vibration

Lateral
Vertical
High frequency
Ground resonance

CYCLIC CONTROL
Forward flight
Tilting the rotor hub is
not practical.
Tilt the tip path plane
Swash plates are used

MOMENTUM THEORY
First analytical theory
Determination of thrust
and induced velocity

STRENGTH AND DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


Rotor structure
Vibration
Service life
o Corrosion
o Creep
o Fatigue

Structural materials
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

High strength to weight ratio


Stiffness
Corrosion resistance
Specific weight
Resistance to impact loads
Temperature effects
Rate of crack propagation
Fatigue strength

CONCLUSION
There are still rooms for development.
Owing to its wide advantages it cannot be shunt
down.
Its numerous applications include
o
o
o
o

Air taxi service


Police work
Rescue work
Power line patrolling etc..

THANK
YOU