Anda di halaman 1dari 117

2002

GEOL3810
StructuralGeology
T&Th,8:0011:50AM
Dr.LutherM.Strayer
NS353
Office:(510)8853083
lstrayer@csuhayward.edu

Chapter1
TheNatureofStructuralGeology
Structuralgeologyaddressesthearchitecture
oftheEarththephysicalcomponentsor
structuresthatmakeuptheEarthscrust,and
thatforminresponsetoappliedforcesand
stresses.

DeformationoftheEarthsCrust
Deformationusedinseveralways:

1)Structuralchangesinlocation,orientation,shape,and
volumeofabodyofrock.
2)Physicalandchemicalprocessesthatcausethechanges.
3)Geologicstructuresthatformtoaccommodatethechanges.
Anybodyofrock,regardlessofstrengthwilldeformif
conditionsareright.

DeformationoftheEarthsCrust

Deformationresultsfromstressesthatexceed
arocksstrength.

Whenpeakstrengthisreached,failureis
eitherbrittle(fracture)orductile(flow),
dependingonhowthephysicalenvironmenthas
affectedrockstrength(i.e.temperature,strain
rate,etc.).
Stressesareappliedtorocksincountless
ways:burial,cooling/heating,intrusion,plate
motion,impactsfromspace...

Architecture&Structures

Thestructuralgeologistisfacedwithafinished
productandhastheinversetaskoflearninghowit
cametobeeffectivelytheoppositetaskthatfacesan
architect.
Whatisthestructure?Whatwerethestarting
materials?Whatsthegeometry?Howdiditchange
shape?Sourceofstresses?Sequenceofdeformation?
Theseleadtomorequestions:
When?Howlong?P&T?Strengthofmeterials?
Whydoesthishappen?

PlateTectonics&StructuralGeology
Structuralgeologyisafieldwheretheresultofplate
tectonicsisdirectlyobservable.
Platemotionsaredirectlyresponsibleformanyof
thestressesthatcausedeformationofrock.
DistortionsoftheEarthscrustaremostprominent
atconvergentplatemarginscalledorogenswhere
mountainbeltsarethephysiographicexpressionof
orogenicbelts.

QuickTime and a
Animation decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Fundamental
Structures
Contacts:arethemost
basicstructures,they
separateonerockunit
fromanother
depositional,
unconformities,faults,
intrusive,shearzones.

FundamentalStructures
PrimaryStructures:Thesearesedimentary
structuresthatmaybeinstratapriorto
deformation.Theymaybequiteusefulasstrain
markers(givingusaninitialstate)andasway
upindicators,etc.
Theymustnotbemistakenforsecondary
structures,whicharetheresultofdeformation.

PrimaryStructures
BeddingLaminations

GradedBedding

up

CrossBeds(asymmetric)

up

OscillationRipples(symmetric)

up

MudCracks

up

RainDrops/Footprints

up

LoadCasts
up

ToolMarks

up

RootCasts/WormBurrows

up

Stromatolites

up

FundamentalStructures
SecondaryStructures:Thesearewhatweare
herefor!
ForminSedsandIgneousrocksafter
lithificationandcooling,andinMetamorphic
rocksduringorafterformation.
Include:jointsandshearfractures;faults;
folds;cleavage,foliationsandlineations;and
shearzones.

SecondaryStructures
Joints:
Smooth,planarcracksthatcauselossofcohesion
oftherock,anduponwhichtherehasbeenalmost
imperceptablemovement.
Theytypicallyocurrinfamiliesandswarms.
Basicjointsaretensional(modeI)fractures.Their
surfacesoftenhaveplumosestructuresthatcan
indicatedirectionofcrackpropagation

PlumoseStructures

SecondaryStructures
Shearfractures:
Forminresponsetoaveryslightshearing
movementparalleltotheplaneofthefracture.
Commonlyfoundinconjugatesets,inrocks
thathavebeenfoldedorfaulted.

SecondaryStructures
Slickensides,slickenlines:
Effectively,theyaresmallscratchesthatform
inresponsetomotiononafault.
Maybetheresultofverylargeorverysmall
displacements.
Linesindicatedirectionofmotion.Stepsin
rockormineralcoatingsmayindicatesenseof
slip.

SecondaryStructures
Transitionaltensilefractures(tensiongashes):
Combinestensileopeningbehavior(joints)
withshearing(shearfratures).
Enechelontensilefractures(veins)linkupto
formthroughgoingfaults.
Tipsofthefracturespointtomajorstress
direction.

SecondaryStructures
Faults:

Faultsarediscretefracturesordiscontinuitiesalong
whichsomeamountofoffsetoccurred,intheplane
paralleltothediscontinuity.
Magnitudeofoffsetcanbefrommmtokm.
Faultmotionmaycreatefaultgouge(clayey),
polishedsurfaces(slickensides)orbreccia(angular
fragments).
Reverse/ThrustNormalStrikeSlip

SecondaryStructures
Folds:

Foldsformwhenlayersarebentintocurved
orkinkedshapes.
Theirformscantellalotabouthow,whyand
underwhatconditionstheyformed.
Theycanforminmanywaysbuckling,due
tomotiononafaultorshearzone,flowathigh
temperatures,gravitysliding,etc.

SecondaryStructures

Cleavage,FoliationsandLineations:
Thesearefabricswiththerockthatformunder
conditionsofelevatedP&T,whenmineralgrainscan
changeshape,dissolveorprecipitate,and
recrystallize.
Thesearepenetrativestructurestheypervadethe
rockmassandareinternal,notsurficial.
Cleavageandfoliationsareplanarfeatures(2D),
whilelineationsarelinear(1D).

SecondaryStructures
ShearZones:

Shearzonesarelikefaultsinthatthey
accommodatedisplacementparalleltotheshear
zoneplaneexceptthereisnocleardiscontinuity
orfractureacrossthezonetherockmass
appearstostaycontinuous.
TheyaretypicallythehigherP&T
representationoffaults,buttherearebrittle
shearzones.

ConceptofDetailedStructural
Analysis
Detailedstructuralanalysiswithparticular
emphasisonstrainanalysisisthebasisof
structuralgeology.Itispredicatedonthe
notionthatmoststructurescontainin,or
adjascenttothem,istheinformationnecessary
todecipherthem.

Thereare3fundamentalpartstoDSA

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
DescriptiveAnalysis:isthemostimportant
andmostfundamentalaspectofDSA.It
consistsofidentifyingandaccurately
describingthelocation,attitude/orientation,
andgeometriesofstructures.
Thisisgenerallydoneinthefield,although
remotesensingisalsoused.

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
KinematicsAnalysis:thisconsistsof
determiningthedirectionandmagnitude(if
possible)ofthemotionsthatwere
responsibleforthedeformation.
Itisconcernedwithbasicmotions
translations,rotations,distortions,and
dilations

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
DynamicAnalysis:isconcernedwiththeforces
andstressesinvolvedwithdeformation.
GenerallythemostinterpretiveaspectofDSA,but
isbasedonrockmechanicsandmaterialstheory,
andshouldultimatelybebasedonnatural
observations.
Oftendonebyapplyingtheoryand/oranalog
and/ornumericalmodels.

DescriptiveAnalysis:
Itstheheartofstructuralgeology.Itfocusesonthe
exactdetailsofgeometry:3Dspatialandangular
relationships.
Anglesbetweenlinesandplanesorientationofa
lines,andoftheintesectionbetween2planes
changesinlengthsoflines
Thisleadstotheuseoforthographicand
stereographicprojectionsocalledsickfun

DescriptiveAnalysis:
Shouldideallybedonefreeofinterpretation
w/outpreconceivednotionsofwhat(we
think)shouldbethere.
Ontheotherhand,ourexperience,andour
knowledgeoftectonicsandstructuralstyle
willoftenguideorinvestigation...

ScaleofObservation:
Isincrediblyimportanttodescriptiveanalysis.
Differentfeatureshavedifferentrelativeimportance
dependingonthescaleofobservation.
Itisisimportanttomatchourobservationstothe
scaleofthephenomenawearetryingtoaddress.

StructuralElements:
Everystructureweencounteriscomposedofstructural
elements,whichmustbeidentifiedanddescribedinorder
tocarryoutdescriptiveanalyisis.
Thereare2types:
1)PhysicalElements:thesearerealandtangiblelikefold
limbsorfaultsurfaceswhichhavemeasurablegeometries
andorientations.
2)GeometricElements:areimaginarylinesandplanes(that
canalsobemeasured)whichhelpusdescribeastructures
geometry.

StructuralElements:
Bycarefulobservationofspecificfeaturesandby
theirsystematicplottinggraphically,wecan
identifysetsoffeaturesthatmighthaveacommon
orientationorappearance.Anumberofsetsof
structurescandefineasystemofstructures.

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
KinematicAnalysis:takesoffwheredescriptiveanalysis
leavesoff.
Kinematicanalysisdealswiththerecognitionofchanges
inshape,angle,area/volume,andlocationofmaterials
duringdeformationspecifically:
Translation:rigidbodymotionfromAtoB;
Rotation:aboutapoleorseriesofpoles;
Distortion:changesinangularrelationships,and;
Dilation:area/volumelossorgainduringdefm.

KinematicAnalysis:
Thegoalofkinematicanalysisistodeterminethe
deformationpaththeseriesoftranslations,
rotations,distortionsanddilationsthattakethe
structurefromitsoriginaltoitsdefortmedstate.
Thisisdoneatallscalesfromplatetectonic
motions,downtothegrainscaleinathinsection.

StrainAnalysisisoneaspect
ofkinematicanalysisthat
focusesonchangesofshape
andsizeofdeformedobjects.

PenetrativeDeformation:
Howwetreataspecificareakinematicallyoften
dependsonwhetherornotthedeformationis
penetrative,atthescaleofobservation.
Forstructurestobepenetrative,theymustbeclosely
spacedenoughtoappeartobeeverywhere
clearlythisisanotionthatiscloselytiedtothatof
scaleofobservation

Thenotionofpenetrativedeformationisstronglyscaledependent.

SlipandFlow:scaledependentdescriptions
Thephenomenaofflow,thatis,thecontinuous(no
discontinuities)shearingofmaterial,mayata
closerscaleofobservation,infactbeaccomodated
uponaseriesof(relatively)smallslipsurfacesor
faults.
Thiscanbeseenatthegrainandsubgrainscalein
myloniticrocks,andattheoutcropscaleinlarge
mountianbelts.
Modestsystematicmovementsonrelativelyclose
spacedslipsurfacescanproducesignificant
distortionsofarockmass.

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
DynamicAnalysis:interpretstheforces,stressesand
mechanicsthatproducestructures.
Amajorgoalistodeterminethemagnitudeand
orientationofstressesthatproducestructures,and
themechanicalresponseoftherockmasstothose
stresses.

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
Thisisdoneusing:
Physicaloranalogmodelswherephysicalmodels
ofnaturalprocessesaremadeusingeitheractual
rockmaterials,orrockanalogsclay,gelatin,
sillyputty,sand,butter,wax,etc.

Conceptofdetailedstructuralanalysis
Thisisalsodoneusing:
Analyticaltheoreticalmodelingamathematical
exercisewhereasolutionisderivedfrom
mechanicaltheory.
Numericalmodelsthesearecomputermodels,
systemsofdifferentialequationsthatare
numericallysolvedtosimulatenaturalphenomena.

DistinctElementModels:ThrustFaults,
NormalFaults,andtheBigOne
LutherM.Strayer
CalStateUniversity,Hayward
lstrayer@csuhayward.edu

DistinctElementParticleModel

SandModel

0%Seds

25%Seds
50%Seds

75%Seds
100%Seds

Detailedstructuralanalysis

TheFamousPizzaModel
SanManuelorebody