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TRAFFIC PROTECTION IN TRANSPORT NETWORKS

Alberto Bellato
CTO
Technology and architecture
Optical Networks Division
ALCATEL
Vimercate

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 2

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 3

Transport network concept


Scope of a Transport Network is to
>

Transparently carry a client signal over several nodes


in the network

>

Provide means for a service monitoring in order to


guarantee an agreed quality of service

>

Simplify maintenance operations

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 4

Transport network concept


En
use d
rs
En
use d
rs

d
En rs
e
us

Intermedia
te nodes

En
use d
rs

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 5

End
s
user

Transport network concept


En
d
us
ers

En
d
us
ers

Intermed
iate
nodes

End
us ers

En
use d
rs

OH

client

OH

client

OH

client

OH

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 6

OH

>

Client signals to be carried are


mapped over hierarchical
transport entities in order to
achieve an optimized network
management

>

I.e. no need to manage the client


signal at intermediate nodes, but
bundles of signals with larger
granularity

En
use d
rs

client OH

client OH

client

OH

OH

OH

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 7

Need for traffic protection


>

A transport network should provide a mean for a


secure traffic delivery between different sites

>

Need to provide a mechanism able to minimize as


much as possible the impact of events that may cause
the interruption of the service

Note that this is different from network security, where


there is the need to protect data from external attacks

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 8

Failures in the Network


FIBRE DAMAGE
DIG UP
FIRE
HUMIDITY
MICRO-BENDING
RODENT
VIBRATION

OPTICAL
LINK
FAILURE

CONNECTOR
FAILURE
CONNECTOR DEFECT
TEMPERATURE
CYCLING
DIRT

HARDWARE FAILURE
OPTO-ELECTRONIC
DEVICE FAILURE
POWER SUPPLY
FAILURE

SPLICE FAILURE
VIBRATION
CRAFT DEFECTS

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 9

NODE FAILURE

N.E. SITE
FAILURE

EQUIPMENT FAILURE
POWER SUPPLY FAILURE
OVERLOADS / SOFTWARE /
PROCEDURAL

Why Traffic Protection in Transport Network?


IMPORTANT SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE.
SOURCE OF PROFITABILITY.
GAINS CUSTOMER LOYALTY.
REDUCES NETWORK MAINTENANCE COSTS.
MINIMISES BAD PRESS.

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 10

Users Dependency in Telecoms


ESTIMATED BUSINESS LOSS DUE TO TELECOMS
SERVICE FAILURE, AN FCA (US) REPORT:
$107000 PER MINUTE IN A BROKERAGE INSTITUTION
$47000 PER MINUTE IN A CREDIT CARD/SALES AUTHORISATION
$2500 PER MINUTE IN A PAY PER VIEW
$1800 PER MINUTE IN A HOME SHOPPING (TV)
$1500 PER MINUTE IN A CATALOG SALES
$1500 PER MINUTE IN AN AIRLINE RESERVATION BOOTH

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 11

Price Sensitivity in Public Telecom Operators SLAs

EXAMPLES OF NATIONAL OPERATORS SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTS


GUARANTEED MAX
UAT

GUARANTEED MAX
MTTR

FINANCIAL
PENALTY

PRICE PREMIUM

EU Premium: 1 2
Hour/Year

4 8 Hours

10% of a month
2 months

15 50%

EU Standard: 4 13
Hour/ Year

4 8 Hours

1 month - 1year
revenue fees

10 15%

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 12

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection &


Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 13

Network Topologies

Ring Based

Eventual
closure

Mesh Based

Linear

Ring Based
Linear
Eventual
closure

Medium
density
of population
POPULATION IS CONSIDERED AS
AMOUNT OF NETWORK
ELEMENTS TO BE CONNECTED

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 14

High density
of population

Low density
of population

PROTECTION
Protection is a method for the traffic recovery, considered as
high priority traffic (Normal traffic) , usually associated to
a fast process where the Network Elements (NE)
autonomously decide when to act (selfhealing).
The protection algorithm is implemented and handled by
NEs
The protection application makes use of preassigned
capacity
between nodes (protection transport entity)
The alternative path used for traffic recovery, has a
either a
predefined routing or it is allocated through
predefined links
Protection transport entity can carry low priority
A.traffic
Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND
(Extra
15
Traffic) when not in switching condition

Protection application
H
G
I
F

L
A

Switch time 50 300 ms


E

Working circuit path: GFHIL


Failure on section: HI
Predefined alternative path (protection path) on GEABL
Protection transport entity can be used for the transport of low riority traffic
(depending on the specific protection scheme)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 16

RESTORATION
Restoration is a method for the traffic recovery, usually
associated to a slower process, where the switching
decision is taken by a Network Management System
(NMS) which can be either centralized or distributed
through the network.

The restoration application makes use of any capacity


available between nodes, depending on failure
scenario and on traffic matrix
The restored path doesn't have a unique predefined
routing.

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 17

Restoration Application
H
G
I
F

L
A

Switch time
500 ms up to 10 s
E

Working circuit path: GFHIL


Failure on section: HI
NMS decides optimum routing (e.g. GFABIL) among possible alternative
paths

(e.g. GEDCL or GFAIL or GFEABL)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 18

Network Topologies
N
O
I
CT
E
T
O
PR Ring Based

Mesh Based
N
O
I
T
C
TE
O
PR Ring Based

Medium
density
of population

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 19

N
N
O
I
O
I
CT
AT
E
R
T
O
O
T
R
S
P
RE
High density
of population

N
O
I
CT
E
T
O Eventual
R
closure
P

Linear
N
O
I
CT
E
T
O
Linear
R
Eventual
P
closure
Low density
of population

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

Definitions
Switching Criteria
Protection Architectures

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 20

Scope of the Protection - Trail


A Trail is defined as the transfer of information validated by
the overhead information between two Access Points at
whichever layer, (after terminating the overhead associated
to that layer)
AP

TCP

TCP

AP

AP

Sub-network

Layer a Trail
Layer b Trail

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 21

TCP
Sub-network

Layer a Trail

Trail Protection

TCP

AP

Transport network concept


En
use d
rs
En
use d
rs

Intermedia
te nodes

l
Trai

er
Lay

d
En rs
e
us

ail
a Tr
r
e
y
La

En
use d
rs

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 22

La
ye

b
Tra
il

End
s
user

Scope of the Protection - SNC


A Sub-Network Connection (SNC) is defined as the
transfer of information between Connection Points or
Termination Connection Points, (before terminating the
overhead associated to that layer).
AP

TCP

CP
Sub-network

CP
Sub-network

Intermediate Path portion


End-to-End Path

SNC Protection

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 23

TCP
Sub-network

AP

Transport network concept


En
use d
rs
En
use d
rs

Intermedia
te nodes

d
En rs
e
us

rtion
th po
a
p
iate
med
Inter

En
use d
rs

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 24

End
s
user

Architecture Mode
Redundant: Normal Traffic
is bridged permanently
on working/protection
resources Extra Traffic
is not supported

End 1Working
(wk)

End 2
Normal
Traffic

Protection
(pr)

+ (1 wk + 1 pr)
Shared: Normal Traffic is
usually connected to
working resource bridge occurs only when
protection is required
Extra Traffic may be
carried by protection
resource (when no
requested for protection)

End 1Working
(wk)

Protection
(pr)

: (N1 wk : M pr)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 25

End 2

Normal
Traffic
Extra
Traffic

Switching Mode
End 1Working
(wk)

End 2

Protection
(pr)

Unidirectional (or single ended )

End 1

Working
(wk)

End 2

Protection
(pr)
APS signaling over protection

Bidirectional (or dual ended)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 26

Each end switches


independently on the
base of switching
criteria locally detected

Both ends, on the base of


switching criteria detected,
perform bridge & switch
triggered by protocol exchange
message (Automatic Protection
Switching signalling) over
protection transport entity

Switching Mode and Path Routing


Unidirectional Diverse routing
End 1

Bidirectional Uniform routing


End 1

End 2

The traffic is routed on


different equipment and
links

End 2

The traffic shares the same


equipment and links
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 27

Switching Mode Possible Advantages


Advantages of unidirectional protection switching:
simplicity of implementation: no protocol required
but double bandwidth used
best switch time performance, than bidirectional protection switching,
due to
the lack of protocol message exchange
greater chance of restoring traffic, than bidirectional protection
switching,
but diverse routing

Advantages of bidirectional protection switching:


greater efficiency of bandwidth usage, than unidirectional protection
switching,
due to the ability of supporting extra-traffic on protection path
when no switching is required
chance to get easier maintenance operations due to uniform routing:
traffic travels in
both directions either along the working path or the protection
path, then, one path is active
the alternative path is standby (reduced number of sites possibly interested)
equal delay for both directions of transmission, significant feature with
transoceanic links and via-satellite links
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 28

Operation Mode
In revertive operation mode, the traffic signal always returns to the
working transport entity, when it has recovered from the defect or the external
request is cleared
(revertive operation is handled either unidirectionally
or bidirectionally consistently to the switching mode of the protection
scheme)
Revertive unidir
Revertive bidir
End 1 Working

Protection

End 2

End 1 Working

End 2

Protection
bidirectional revert switch
triggered by APS signaling

In nonrevertive operation mode, the traffic signal does not return to the
working transport entity, once the defect or the external request affecting
working resource has
been removed.

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 29

Operation Mode Application


The not revertive operation mode is applicable only where a working
transport resource has a dedicated protection resource (e.g. protection scheme
with unidirectional switching mode).
Advantage: glitch on traffic, due to revert switch, avoided, then traffic
performance
increased.

The revertive operation mode is applicable both in case of protection


resource dedicated to a working resource and in case of protection resource
shared among
different working transport entities. The revertive mode is
appropriate when:
the protection resource capacity is required to restore other traffic signal,
due to more urgent need (e.g., protection scheme with shared protection transport
entity)
the protection resource may be subject to frequent re-arrangement (e.g.
where a
network has limited capacity and protection routes are frequently rearranged to maximize network efficiency when changes occur in the network)
the protection resource is of significantly lower performance than the
working resource (e.g. where the protection transport entity has a worse error
performance or longer delay than the working transport entity)
an operator needs to know which transport entities are carrying normal
traffic in order to simplify the management of the network
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 30

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

Definitions
Switching Criteria
Protection Architectures

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 31

Protection Algorithm Controller


SWITCHING CRITERIA
EXTERNALLY
INITIATED
COMMANDS
INPUTS
Parameters able to
produce a state
machine evolution

OUTPUTS
Actions produced
by the state
machine evolution

AUTOMATICALLY PROTOCOL
INITIATED
MESSAGES
COMMANDS (in dual-ended sw.)

PROTECTION ALGORITHM
CONTROLLER

MATRIX
UPDATED
RE-CONFIGURATION
PROTOCOL
(e.g. Bridge/Switch)
MESSAGES
(in dual-ended sw.)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 32

Hardware (fpga
usually) or
Software tasks
resident into the
Network Element
able to process
input parameters
and providing
output actions
according to the
specific protection
algorithm

Switching Initiation Criteria


are, those conditions able to START (initiate), at a Network
Element, a protection activity (i.e. a state machine evolution).
Specifically:
AUTOMATICALLY
INITIATED
COMMANDS

Fault conditions affecting the


traffic to be protected at the
specific layer
IN DETAILS

EXTERNALLY
INITIATED
COMMANDS

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 33

Available commands allowing the


operator to control protection
algorithm, by forcing, pre-empting
or testing the switching status

Automatically Initiated Commands

Signal Fail
All the defect conditions producing the unavailability of the
traffic to be protected at the interested layer
Signal Degrade
Error condition affecting traffic to be protected at the interested
layer, over a specific threshold set by operator (not necessarily
producing a unavailability)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 34

Externally Initiated Commands


Configuration modification and maintenance
Lockout of Protection makes the protection transport entity unavailable for (all)
the Normal Traffic(s) to be protected
Forced Switch (#n) forces Normal Traffic (#n) to be routed over the protection
transport entity
Manual Switch (#n) routes Normal Traffic (#n) over the protection transport entity
unless a fault condition (SF, SD) requires another signal to be routed over this
transport entity
Control Commands
Lockout of Working (#n) disables the access to the protection transport entity for
the (specific) Normal Traffic
Clear Lockout of Working (#n) clears the Lockout of Working (#n) command

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 35

Externally Initiated Commands


In bidirectional switching mode systems, testing of APS protocol
Exercise (#n) emulates a switch request (for Normal Traffic #n) without performing
any actual switch action, unless the protection transport entity is being used
Clearing previous external command (not addressable by other specific
clear command)
Clear clears all the switch commands
Freeze the protection process (commands under standardization)
Freeze the current state of the Protection Algorithm Controller (mainly thought for
checking the APS protocol exchange for APS Controller)
Clear Freeze clears the Freeze command and allows the Protection Algorithm
Controller to evolve on the base of current inputs state
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 36

Protection Switching Performance


Switch Initiation
Time
(or Detection Time)
Time interval between the
occurrence of a network
impairment and the
detection of a signal fail
(SF) or signal degrade (SD)
triggered by that network
impairment

Hold-Off Time
Time interval after the
detection of a SF or SD
and its confirmation as a
condition requiring the
protection switching
procedure

Switch Completion
Time
The interval from the
decision to switch
(including time needed to
achieve this decision) to the
completion of the bridge
and switch operation at a
switching node initiating the
bridge request

Time

Network Impairment

SF SD trigger

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 37

Start of protection
Switching operations
(SF-SD confirmation)

Protected traffic
restored

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

Definitions
Switching Criteria
Protection Architectures

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 38

Protection Architecture Linear


Linear protection architecture is applicable to both linear and ring
network topology: only End nodes performs a protection activity,
due to the resident Protection Algorithm Controller

N.T.

N.T.

NE 1

P.A.C.

Intermediate node performing


traffic cross-connection and alarm
(defects / errors) propagation

P.A.C.

NE 3
(Pr)

NE 1
(Wk)

NE 4

NE 3
(Pr)

NE 2

(Wk)

NE 4
NE 2

P.A.C.

P.A.C.

N.T.

N.T.

Linear network topology


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 39

Ring network topology

Protection Architecture Linear


Linear protection architecture is also applicable to meshed network topology,
whenever two separated paths (working and protection) can be identified through
the network: again, only End nodes performs a protection activity, due to the
resident Protection Algorithm Controller
N.T.
(Wk)

Intermediate nodes
performing traffic crossconnection and alarm
(defects / errors) propagation

(Pr)

N.T.

Meshed network topology


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 40

Protection Architecture SPRing


SPRing (Shared Protected Ring) protection architecture is applicable only to
ring network topology: every node of the ring performs a protection activity due
to the resident Protection Algorithm Controller (APS controller)
N.T.
(Pr)
P.A.C.

(Wk)

N.T.

Working and Protection


resources carried into the
same transmission mean
(e.g. fiber / )

P.A.C.

NE 1
P.A.C.

NE 3

NE 4

NE 1
P.A.C.

P.A.C.

NE 2
P.A.C.

N.T.

NE 4

P.A.C.

NE 2
Working and Protection
resources carried into
dedicated transmission
means (e.g. fiber / )

2F (fiber) ring network topology


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 41

NE 3

P.A.C.

N.T.

4F (fiber) ring network topo

Protection Architecture SPRing


N.T.
(Wk)
(Pr)

N.T.

Meshed network topology

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 42

SPRing protection architecture is also


applicable to meshed network topology,
whenever a closed connection of NEs
(i.e. a ring) is identified through the
network: again, every node of the ring,
performs a protection activity, due to the
resident Protection Algorithm Controller

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

Linear
Ring

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 43

Basic Linear Protection Schemes


Protection
Architectur
e

LINEAR

Network
Topology

Protection
Algorithm

Switching
Operation

Linear / Ring /
Meshed

1+1

Linear / Ring /
Meshed

1:N

unidir / bidir

Linear / Ring /
Meshed

M:N

bidir

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 44

unidir / bidir

Linear 1 + 1 protection scheme


Linear / ring protected network
Working (Wk)

Permanent bridge

Selector

Normal Traffic
(High Priority)

Normal Traffic
(High Priority)

NE 1

Protection (Pr)

NE 2

Cross-connection matrix

1+1 scheme
1 protection resources dedicated to 1 working resource
only Normal Traffic connected (Extra Traffic on protection res. NOT
supported)
through permanent bridge on the two communication
resources (wk/pr)
traffic data switched (selected) on the base of switching criteria detected
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 45

1 + 1 unidir algorithm - I
NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
(Wk)

Protection activity
NE 1

NE 2
Switching criterion
declaration

(Pr)
No
Action

TAL
Switch

Unidirectional Switch
completed
[Time]
[Time]

NE 1
N.T.

Switch

(Wk)

(Pr)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 46

NE 2

TAL algorithm evolution time

In non-revertive systems, new


switch status is kept also after
failure/degrade/command removal
from working resource

1 + 1 unidir algorithm - II
Failure/Degrade condition removed
from working resource WTR timer starts

NE 1
N.T.

Switch present until


WTR timer expiring

NE 2

Protection activity

(Wk)

NE 1

NE 2
Failure /
Degrade
removal

(Pr)

Switch

W.T.R. (Switch)

No
Action

Revert
Revert switch on main
performed

[Time]

NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
(Wk)

(Pr)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 47

W.T.R. timer expiring

At WTR timer expired, starting


connectivity re-established
(revert switch on working main
resource)

[Time]

1 + 1 bidir algorithm - I
NE 1

Protection activity

NE 2

N.T.

NE 1

(Wk)

NE 2
Switching criterion
declaration

TAL
(Pr)

Request Type,
Channel identifier

Protocol message along protection resource


(No Request code)

NE 1

Switch

N.T.

(Wk)

(Bridge)

TAL
Reverse Request,
Channel bridged

TAL

Request Type,
Channel bridged

NE 2
Switch

Bidirectional Switch
completed
[Time]
[Time]

(Pr)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 48

Switch

TAL

TAL algorithm evolution time


Switch

(Bridge)

In non-revertive systems, new switch status is


kept also after failure/degrade/command removal
from working resource, Do Not Revert code is
signaled

1 + 1 bidir algorithm - II
Protection activity

Failure/Degrade condition removed from


working resource WTR timer starts at tail end

NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
(Wk)

NE 1
Head end

(Bridge)
Switch
(Pr)
Switch present at both ends
until WTR timer expiring

NE 2

Revert

Failure /
Degrade
removal

Wait To Restore,
Channel bridged
Reverse Request,
Channel bridged
No Request,
Channel bridged

Tail end

W.T.R.
(Bridge)
Switch
Revert

No Request

NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
(Wk)

Revert switch on main


bidirectionallyperfor
med
[Time]
[Time]
W.T.R. timer expiring

(Pr)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 49

As soon as WTR timer is expired, starting connectivity


is re-established on both ends through, No Request
code.

Linear 1 : N protection scheme


Normal Traffic #1
(High Priority)

Normal Traffic #1
(High Priority)

Working (Wk)

Normal Traffic #n
(High Priority)

Normal Traffic #n
(High Priority)

Protection (Pr)

Extra Traffic
(Low Priority)

Extra Traffic
(Low Priority)

NE 1

NE 2

1:N scheme
1 protection resource shared among N (1) working resources
implicitly bidirectional; protocol exchange along the protection resource
the amount of working resources (N) handled, and, consequently, of the Normal Traffics
protected,
depends on the characteristics of protocol supported (nr of bits/bytes
dedicated into signaling)
both bridge and switch connections performed on the base of protocol algorithm
activation
either Null Signal (no meaningful traffic connected) or Extra Traffic (low priority traffic) can
be connected
to protection resource when protection activity is not required
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 50

1 : N bidir algorithm - I
N. T. #1
Working (Wk)
No Request code on
protocol and E.T./ Null
Signal connected on pr)

N. T. #n

Protection (Pr)

E. T.

Bridge

Switch

N. T. #1 recovered
Working (Wk)

N. T. #n not interested
by protection activity

Protection (Pr)

E. T. squelched
Squelching
(AIS injection)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 51

Squelching
(AIS injection)

1 : N bidir algorithm - II
Br&Sw and E.T. squelching
present at both ends until
WTR timer expiring

Failure/Degrade condition removed from working resource


WTR timer starts at tail end

N. T. #1 recovered
Working (Wk)

N. T. #n not interested
by protection activity

Protection (Pr)

E. T. squelched

N. T. #1
As soon as WTR timer is
expired, starting
connectivity is reestablished on both
ends through protocol

Working (Wk)

N. T. #n

E. T.

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 52

Protection (Pr)

1 : N bidir algorithm - III


Protection activity for single Degrade/Failure/Command
NE 1

NE 2

Request Type,
Channel Identifier

E.T. sq.
Bridge

TAL

Request Type,
Channel bridged

Switch

E.T. sq.

Bridge
&
Switch

TAL
Reverse Request,
Channel bridged

Bridge
&
Switch

Bidirectional Switch
completed
[Time]
[Time]

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 53

Failure /
Degrade
removal

Wait To Restore,
Channel bridged
Reverse Request,
Channel bridged
No Request,
E.T/N.S. Ch. Ident.

TAL

TAL algorithm evolution time

NE 2

Head end

Switching criterion
declaration

TAL

NE 1

Release Switch
Bridge E.T. / N.S.
on protection
Switch
E.T. / N.S.
on protection

Tail end

W.T.R.
Bridge
&
Switch
Release
Switch

No Request
E.T./N.S. Ch. bridge
No Request
E.T./N.S. Ch. bridge

Bridge & Switch


E.T. / N.S.
on protection

Revert on main
bidirectionallyperfor
med
[Time]
[Time]
W.T.R. timer expiring

Linear APS channel content


Protocol Parameters
Request Type i.e. the request (failure / degrade / command) or state (No Request /
Do Not Revert / WTR) to be signalled / acknowledged by each end of
the protection group
Requesting Channel Identifier i.e. the identifier of working / protection resource
for which the request type is issued

Bridged Channel Identifier (bridge status) i.e. the identifier of working / protection reso
for which the bridge / switch matrix configuration
is performed

Architecture mode i.e. the redundant configuration, +, or the shared configuration, :

Switching mode
i.e. the locally provisioned unidirectional / bidirectio
signalled to remote end for possible provisioning mismatch detection
(supported in OTH, optional in SDH)

Operation mode
i.e. the locally revertive / not revertive operation m
remote end for possible provisioning mismatch detection
(supported in OTH)
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 54

Squelching in linear schemes


Extra Traffic squelching
This type of squelching is needed in every type of scheme, linear or ring,
supporting traffic
configuration on the Low Priority channels (Protection channels).
This traffic, called extra with respect that one configured on High Priority
channels called
normal, is pre-empted when the Low Priority channels are required for
protecting normal
traffic.
The access to the Low Priority by Normal Traffic might lead to traffic
misconnected, if no
specific mechanism was implemented: Extra Traffic squelching performed before
any matrix
re-configuration (Bridge/Switch) avoids this potential problem.
In linear 1:N schemes, Extra Traffic squelching implies that end nodes forces
a defined alarm signal (AIS) towards the Extra Traffic user.
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 55

Squelching in linear schemes - I


NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
N.T.

(Wk)

E.T.

E.T.
(Pr)
Request Type,
Channel Identifier

NE 1
N.T.

(No E.T. sq.)

NE 2
(Wk)

E.T.

N.T.

E.T.
(Pr)

(No E.T. sq.)


Bridge

Request Type,
Channel Identifier

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 56

Request Type from NE2 processed Bridge performed at NE1 (but Switch not
performed yet at NE2)
transient misconnection between N.T. and
E.T. in the direction NE1 > NE2

Squelching in linear schemes - II


NE 1
N.T.

NE 2
N.T.

(Wk)

E.T.

E.T.
(Pr)
Reverse Request,
Channel bridged

NE 1
N.T.

Bridge & Switch

NE 2
(Wk)

E.T.

N.T.

E.T.
(Pr)
Switch

Reverse Request from NE1 processed Switch performed at NE2


initial misconnection removed;
Bridge performed at NE2 (and Switch not
performed yet at NE1)
new transient misconnection between N.T.
and E.T. in the direction NE2 > NE1

Request Type,
Channel bridged

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 57

Request Type from NE2 processed Switch performed at NE1


new misconnection removed;

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

Linear
Ring

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 58

Basic SPRing Protection Schemes


Protection
Architectur
e

Network
Topology
Ring / Meshed

SPRING

Protection
Algorithm
1:1
2F/4F classic

Switching
Operation
bidir

1:1
Ring / Meshed

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 59

4F
transoceanic

bidir

2F/4F SPRing protection scheme


2F/4F scheme

N.T. E.T.

Working (Wk)

NE 1

In 2F topology, same transmission mean


(fiber / ) carries both working and protection
resources. If N is total number of resources
(channels) available as ring line capacity, then:

Protection
(Pr)

- working resources are 1 N/2


- protection resources are N/2 + 1 N

NE 4

NE 2

In 4F topology, dedicated transmission mean


(fiber / ) carries either working or protection
resources. If N is total number of resources
E.T. (channels) available as ring line capacity, then:

E.T.

E
E

NE 3

- working resources are N


- protection resources are N
Each side of a node interfacing the ring is
conventionally named West/East

Each node of the ring is involved in protection


activity
(protocol handling, matrix configuration).
Protocol
message exchange always occurs
between adjacent nodes along protection resources

N.T. E.T.

IDLE state

Working resources
Protection resources

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 60

In Idle state (no protection required through the


ring), N.T. is on working resources, E.T. may be
configured on protection resources. Protocol
signaling carries No request code from each node
to the adjacent one

2F classic SPRing Ring Switch


N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

Bridge to x+N/2 Protection


resources

SHORT

PATH

Switch to x+N/2 Protection


resources

NE 1
Working resource
x

Bridge

NE 4

E.T.
squelched

NE 2

Switch

P.T.

Protection resources
N/2+1 N
Pass-through
PATH

NE 3

LONG

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched


Working resources
Protection resources

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 61

Squelching
(AIS injection)

2F classic SPRing Ring Switch


Ring Switch recovers Normal Traffic
through protection resources on the LONG
path, when both
working and protection resources of a span are failure/degrade affected
or when a ring command (Force / Manual)is applied.
- In 2F topology this scenario occurs anytime a failure/degrade affects at least one out of
two transmission means of a span, or when a ring command is applied on that span.
During ring switch all the Extra Traffics configured through the ring are squelched
(regardless of the actual use of that channel for Normal Traffic protection).
The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:
Switching Macro-state entered by end nodes of the span interested with switching
criteria, both initiating a ring switch by sending (tail end) to the adjacent switching node,
both on the LONG and on the SHORT path of the ring a ring bridge request, or
acknowledging (head end), both on LONG / SHORT path a ring bridge request destined to
itself.
In classic application, only switching
nodes performs ring Bridge&Switch, on the base of APS signaling exchanged through the
LONG path
(see yellow nodes in previous example)
Full Pass-through Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not switching), bypassing bridge request not destined to itself; performing also the bidirectional by-pass
(EW, W E) of protection resources (Low Priority channels). Pass-through nodes are
also called intermediate nodes.
(see grey nodes in previous example)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 62

4F classic SPRing Ring Switch


N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

SHORT

PATH

In classic application (2F/4F) the


protection path corresponds always to
the LONG path of the scheme: the
propagation delay for the protected
traffic is, then, always maximized.

Switch

NE 1

When applied to huge rings including


transoceanic links or via satellite
links, and depending on the type of
service transported, this delay can lead
to a final performance degradation of
E.T.
the service
squelched

Bridge

Bridge

P.T.

NE 4

NE 2

Switch

P.T.

PATH

NE 3

LONG

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 63

Squelching
(AIS injection)

Working resources
Protection resources

4F transoceanic SPRing Ring Switch


N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

SHORT

PATH

In transoceanic application (4F) the


protection path in ring switch condition,
corresponds to the LONG path of the
scheme only when the protected Normal
Traffic is configured between adjacent
nodes.

Switch

NE 1

With different traffic distribution (where


node pass-through occurs) the protection
path is limited to the portion of the ring,
not fault affected, between nodes
E.T.
terminating the protected Normal Traffic.
squelched

Bridge

Pass-through

NE 4

NE 2
Switch

NE 3

Temporary squelching, if associated LP channels


are not required for ring switch connectivity
PATH

Bridge

LONG

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 64

4F SPRing Ring Switch - I


Ring Switch, in 4F topology occurs anytime a failure/degrade affects at least two out of
four transmission means of a span, in such a way that both one working and one
protection resources results fault affected or when a ring command is applied on that span. As
for 2F ring, Normal Traffic is
recovered through protection resources on the LONG path.
In classic (also called terrestrial) application, same behaviour already described about
2F ring,
same
E.T. squelching policy and same node macro-states apply.
In transoceanic application, current standard reference (SDH) states that during ring
switch all the Extra Traffics configured through the ring are squelched; after the ring switch
is performed, those
Low Priority channels not used for Normal Traffic protection are reconnected to Extra Traffic.
This is a slow process possibly using communication channels between the nodes of the
ring, i.e. control plane, for E.T. re-configuration (protection protocol independent).
Both distributed ring switch and Extra Traffic recovery is applicable, due to the knowledge
of the whole
ring connectivity at each node of the ring (see Traffic Map).
The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 65

4F SPRing Ring Switch - II


Switching Macro-state entered by end node of the span interested with switching
criteria, initiating a
ring switch by sending (tail end) to the adjacent switching node, both
on the LONG and on the
SHORT path of the ring a ring bridge request, or acknowledging
(head end), both on LONG/SHORT path a ring bridge request destined to itself.
Switching nodes performs ring
Bridge&Switch only when adding/dropping (terminating) Normal Traffic to be protected on the
base of APS signaling exchanged through the LONG path (see yellow nodes in previous
example).
Full Pass-through Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not switching), bypassing bridge request not destined to itself. The same protocol specified in classic
application is used.
Pass-through nodes performs ring Bridge&Switch only when
adding/dropping (terminating) Normal Traffic to be protected on the base of APS signaling
received by both switching nodes; otherwise, they realize the bidirectional by-pass (EW,
W E) of protection resources (Low Priority channels). Pass-through nodes are also called
intermediate nodes (see grey nodes in previous example).

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 66

SPRing APS channel content


Protocol parameters
Request Type i.e. the request (failure / degrade / command) or state (No Request / WTR)
to be signalled / acknowledged by opposite end of the span interested
Destination Node i.e. the adjacent node addressed by APS signalling
Source Node i.e. the node sourcing the APS signaling
Path i.e. the portion of the ring interested by APS signaling, short ,(span fault affected), or
long, (the remaining spans of the ring)
Bridge status i.e. idle, bridge , bridge & switch matrix configuration

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 67

4F SPRing Span switch


Working resource
x

N.T. recovered

Bridge to Protection
resource x

E.T. squelched

SHORT

PATH

Temporary squelching in transoceanic


application, if associated LP channels are not
required for span switch connectivity

Switch to Protection
resource x

NE 1
Bridge

E.T.
squelched

NE 4

K - pass-through

NE 3
PATH

Switch

E.T.
kept

NE 2

LONG

N.T. recovered E.T. kept

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 68

The protection path corresponds


always to the SHORT path of the
scheme: i.e. Normal Traffic is recovered
through the same span along
protection resource.

4F SPRing Span switch


Span Switch, in 4F topology (both classic and transoceanic applications) occurs
anytime a failure/degrade affects only the working transmission mean of a span in one or
both directions or a span command is applied. Normal
Traffic is recovered through the
associated protection
resource of that
span by using the same algorithm already
described for linear 1:N scheme.
During span switch (both classic and transoceanic applications) all the Extra Traffics
configured in the span fault affected are squelched; while remaining E.T. allocated in
different spans of the ring are kept.
In transoceanic application, those L.P. channels not
required for span switch connectivity, then the associated E.T., are restored
after span
switch is performed (same way already described for ring
switch).
The following node macro-states are entered during protection activity:
Switching Macro-state entered by end node of the span interested with switching
criteria, initiating a span switch by sending (tail end) to the adjacent switching node, both
on the LONG and on the SHORT path of the ring a span bridge request, or
acknowledging (head end) , both on LONG/SHORT path, a span bridge request destined to
itself.
Only switching
nodes performs span Bridge&Switch (see yellow nodes in the example).
K byte Pass-through Macro-state entered by each node of the ring (not switching),
by-passing bridge request sent on the LONG path by switching node. The same protocol
specified in classic application is used.
K byte Pass-through nodes do not perform any
reconfiguration
of local
K-byte Pass-through nodes are also called
A.
Bellato CTO T&A Team
- ONDconnectivity.
69
intermediate nodes. (see grey nodes in the example)

Squelching in ring schemes


Extra Traffic squelching
The same considerations already reported for linear schemes apply: the access to
the Low Priority by Normal Traffic might lead to traffic misconnected, if no
specific mechanism was implemented: Extra Traffic squelching performed before
any matrix re-configuration (Bridge/Switch/Pass-Through) avoids this potential
problem.
In ring schemes, Extra Traffic squelching implies that nodes dropping Extra
Traffic forces
a defined alarm signal (AIS) towards the Extra Traffic user, both
in case they enter the
switching (due to a ring/span switch) or the passthrough state.
Besides, nodes
performing span switch have also to insert the alarm
signal (AIS)
towards the ring, on Low Priority channels carrying possible E.T.
passing from the protected span through the node.

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 70

Squelching in ring schemes


4F topology

N.T. recovered

E.T. squelched

NE 1
Span
Br&Sw

NE 4

NE 2

E.T. squelched on
adjacent span

NE 3

N.T. recovered E.T. squelched


(by NE 4)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 71

Squelching in ring schemes


Ring squelching
This type of squelching is needed in 2F/4F classical SPRing, when a node of the
ring becomes isolated either for node failure or for multiple failures requiring ring
switch at both sides.
In this case, due to the ring switch action performed by nodes adjacent the
isolated one (i.e. switching nodes), possible traffics terminated into isolated node
and allocated on same High Priority channels for both sides (West/East), would be
misconnected by accessing the same Low Priority channels.
This condition is avoided by inserting at the switching nodes AIS signal on
protection channels, making them unavailable through the ring (the AIS insertion
is performed bi- directionally).

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 72

Squelching in ring schemes


N.T. #1
Wk Ch. #x
Pr Ch. #x+ N/2
W

NE 1

NE 4

NE 2

N.T. #1

N.T. #2

E
E

NE 3

Pr Ch. #x+ N/2


Wk Ch. #x

Same Protection channel accessed by


switching nodes (NE1-NE3) through Ring
Br&Sw with no squelching policy,
permanent misconnection produced
between N.T. #1 and N.T. #2

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 73

N.T. #2

Squelching in ring schemes


N.T. #1
Wk CH. #x
Pr CH. #x+ N/2
W

NE 1

NE 4

NE 2

N.T. #1
N.T. #2

E
E

NE 3

Pr CH. #x+ N/2


Wk CH. #x

N.T. #2
Misconnection avoided through Low
Priority channel squelching (AIS
injection) at switching nodes

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 74

SNC vs SPRing
Up to 2xN paths
N/2 wk resources

N wk resources

N/2 wk resources

N/2 wk resources

Up to N paths

Total N paths

N/2 wk resources

WITH
WITHADJACENT
ADJACENTTRAFFIC
TRAFFICALLOCATION
ALLOCATION
THE
PROTECTION
SCHEME
THE PROTECTION SCHEMEWITH
WITH
MOST
PROFITABLE
BANDWIDTH
MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH
OCCUPATION
OCCUPATION
IS
IS

WITH
WITHHUBBED
HUBBEDTRAFFIC
TRAFFICALLOCATION
ALLOCATION
THE
PROTECTION
SCHEME
THE PROTECTION SCHEMEWITH
WITH
MOST
PROFITABLE
BANDWIDTH
MOST PROFITABLE BANDWIDTH
OCCUPATION
OCCUPATION
IS
IS

SPRING

SNC

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 75

SNC vs SPRing

Ring protection

Access
network

Access
networ
k

e2e protection

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 76

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

Restoration

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/ OTN

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 77

Centralized Restoration
Centralized restoration is
historically an application of
network management in Transport
Network (i.e. SDH), where the
amount of operators was very
limited and a complete
geographical network (e.g. country)
used to be configured and
controlled by a single(few)
manager(s).
Centralized Restoration is an
application provided to an operator
by a single vendor.
Centralized Restoration is a
network application not
standardized, i.e. proprietary
applications are provided by each
vendor.
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 78

Operating System

DCN Network
ECC

Network
Element

Transport Network
Generic Path

System Evolution - Distributed Restoration


Distributed Restoration is
historically an application coming from
Data Network survivability , where
the amount of Private Networks (i.e.
Data) is unlimited and it becomes
unfeasible to configure and control
different networks connected to each
other through a single (few)
manager(s).
Distributed Restoration is an
application thought for a multi
vendor enviroment.
The de-regulation in Public Networks,
has made distributed management,
then distributed restoration attractive
also for Transport Network. This implies
a standard activity in order to align
applications from different vendors.
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 79

DCN Network
DCN Network
NE from
vendor a

ECC

Transport Network
Generic Path
NE from
vendor b

Distributed
Manger

Content
>

Transport Network Concept

>

Need for traffic protection

>

Methods for traffic protection: Protection & Restoration

>

Basics for traffic protection

>

Protection Schemes in Transport Networks

>

APPENDIX: Protection schemes in SDH/ Sonet/


OTN

Layering
Network
Frame Structure
Schemes
Network Applications
Reference Standards

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 80

SDH layering

LAYERS

PHYSk

PHYSo

RSTSk

RSTSo

MSTSk

MSTSo

MSPC

MSASo

HPC

HO PATH/TRAIL

HO
Trail

HPTSk

HPTSo

HPASk
LTCM LPOM
LTCT LSUT

LPASo

LPC

LO PATH/TRAIL

LO
Trail

LPTSk
CLIENT
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 81

RS TRAIL
MS TRAIL

MSASk
HTCM HPOM
HTCT HSUT

PHYSICAL

LPTSo
CLIENT

SDH Network
STM-N

RS trail

RS trail

RS trail

MS trail
2R
DXC

MS trail

ADM

3R

TM

TM

TM

TM

DXC

ADM

ADM

DXC
HO / LO PATH (TRAIL)

KEY
TM Terminal Multiplexer
LE (2R) Line Equipment: repeater (no Ck recovery)
LE (3R) Line Equipment: regenerator (Ck recovery)
DXC Digital Cross-Connect
ADM Add Drop Multiplex

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 82

il
M
a
tr
ST
l
ai
NRS
tr

STM-N

S
M

STM-N

STM-N Frame Structure


STM-N
RSOH

AUG

Administrative pointers

Two ways of SDH


multiplexing

MSOH

KEY
RSOH Regenerator Section OverHead
MSOH Multiplex Section OverHead
AUG Administrative Unit Group
VC Virtual Container
POH Path OverHead

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 83

V
C
4
P
O
H

High
High
Order
Order

V
C
3
P
O
H

High
High
Order
Order

V
C
3
P
O
H
V
C
1
2
P
O
H

Low
Low
Order
Order

Low
Low
Order
Order

SDH Protection Schemes - Summary


LAYER

SCHEME

TRIGGERING
FAULT

SWITCH
COM.
TIME

MS
Trail

Linear 1+1
MSP (uni/bid)

MS layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1:N MSP


(uni/bid)

MS layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

2F/4F classic
MS-SPRing (bid)

MS layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

4F
transoceanic
MS-SPRing (bid)

MS layer
defects (SF/SD)

300 ms

Linear 1+1
SNCP/I (uni)

MSA/HPA
defects (SF
AIS/LOP)

50 ms

Linear 1+1
SNCP/N (uni)

MSA/HPA
defects +
HPOM/LPOM
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1+1
SNCP/S (uni)

HTCM/LTCM
defects (N1/N2
byte SF/SD)

50 ms

SNCP/N defects

50 ms

HO/LO
Path

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 84

HO/LO

Linear 1+1 VC

REFERENCE
STANDARD
S

ITU-T G.841
ITU-T G.783
ITU-T
G.808.1

SDH Multiplex Section Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 MSP - Linear 1:N MSP

Layer

MS Trail

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min

APS channel

K1 K2 byte of MSOH

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear SF on Protection Lockout Pr FS SF High Priority SF


Low Priority SD High Priority SD Low Priority MS WTR EX
NR
N x Clear N x Lockout Wk (in 1:N scheme only)

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

NOT DEFINED by ITU-T G.841

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 85

SDH Multiplex Section Protection


Protection
Scheme

2/4F classic MS-SPRing - 4F transoceanic MS-SPRing (ring)

Layer

MS Trail

Switching Mode

Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive

W.T.R. timer

NOT DEFINED

APS channel

K1 K2 bytes of MSOH

Switching
Criteria/ States*

Clear LP-S (or SF-P) FS-S FS-R SF-S SF-R SD-P SD-S
SD-R MS-S MS-R WTR EX-S EX-R NR

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

Clear LW-S

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms for classic application (1200 Km/16 NEs propagation delay


included)

Clear LW-R

300 ms for transoceanic application

Hold-Off timer

NOT REQUIRED by ITU-T G.841

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 86

* - S span / P protection / R ring

SDH Multiplex Section Protection SF / SD


STM-N
RSOH
Administrative pointers

MSOH

K2 byte (bits 5-8) MS-AIS (due to LOS, LOF) (SF)


B2 bytes B2 Exber (SF) / B2 Signal Degrade (SD)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 87

APS channel in SDH MSP schemes


STM-N

STM-N

RSOH

RSOH

Pointers
K1

bits 1-4
K2

MSOH

Request Type
Req. Ch. Id.
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status)
Arch. Mode

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 88

Pointers
K1

bits 1-4
K2

MSOH

Request Type
Source Node ID
Destination
Node ID Path
Bridge Status

SDH MS Protection Applications


S
M

TM

3R
TM

Protection

TM

Linear 1+1 MSP

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 89

DXC

2/4 F
ADM MS-SPRing ADM

Linear 1:N MSP

DXC

TM

2R

ADM

ai

DXC

Working

MS trail

tr

MS trail

SDH SNC Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 SNCP/I - Inherent based on MSA (HO) or HPA defects


(LO)

Layer

HO / LO Path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 sec step

APS channel

NOT APPLICABLE

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (SSF) Manual Switch


WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not


applicable)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 90

SDH SNC Protection SF (SNCP/I)


H1, H2 bytes AUAIS / AULOP (HO VC3/VC4 SSF SF)
H1, H2 bytes TUAIS / TULOP (LO VC3 SSF SF)

STM-N
RSOH
H1

H2

H3

VC 12
V1
V2

MSOH

V3
V4
V5
V1, V2 bytes TUAIS / TULOP (LO VC12 SSF SF)
K4
Stuff byte

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 91

SDH SNC Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 SNCP/N - Not Intrusive based on MSA / HPA defects +


POH defects (HPOM / LPOM)

Layer

HO / LO Path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 sec step

APS channel

NOT APPLICABLE

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF SD Manual Switch


WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not


applicable)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 92

SDH SNC protection SF / SD (SNCP/N)


HO / LO SSF (SF)
(AUAIS / TUAIS
AULOP / TULOP)
+

J1 Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF)


B3 B3 Exber (SF) / B3 Signal Degrade
(SD)
C2 Signal Label Mismatch (SF) / UNEQ
(SF)
V5 Bip2 Exber (SF) / Bip2 Signal Degrade (SD) / Signal
Label Mismatch (SF) / UNEQ (SF)
J2 Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF)
K4 (bit 1) Extended Signal Label Mismatch (SF)

VC 3/4 POH
J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
F3
K3
N1
VC 12 POH
V5
J2
N2
K4
Stuff byte

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 93

140
bytes

SDH SNC Protection Application


HO/LO Sub-Network
HO/LO
Sub-Net.

HO/LO Sub-Network

DXC

TM
TM

Working

2R

3R
TM

Protection

TM

HO/LO SNCP N

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 94

ADM

DXC

HO/LO SNCP I

HO/LO
ADM SNCP N

DXC

ADM

SDH SNC Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 SNCP/S - Subsystem based on N1 byte (HO-POH)


and N2 byte (LO-POH) monitoring through HTCM block or LTCM block

Layer

HO / LO Path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 sec step

APS channel

NOT APPLICABLE

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF SD Manual Switch


WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not


applicable)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 95

SDH SNC Protection SF / SD (SNCP/S)


HO / LO SSF (SF)
(AUAIS / TUAIS
AULOP / TULOP)
+

N1 Bip8 Signal Degrade (SD) / UNEQ (SF) / Loss of


Tandem
Connection (SF) / Trace Identifier Mismatch
(SF)

VC 3/4 POH
J1

K3
N1
VC 12 POH
V5
J2

N2 Bip2 Signal Degrade (SD) / UNEQ (SF) / Loss of


Tandem
Connection (SF) / Trace Identifier Mismatch
(SF)

N2
K4
Stuff byte

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 96

SDH SNCP/S Application


DOMAIN B

HTCT/LTCT
Protection

HTCT/LTCT

DOMAIN A

DXC

DXC

DXC

DXC

DXC

Working

HO / LO VC TC
(intermediate monitoring)
HO / LO VC trail (end-to-end monitoring)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 97

DOMAIN C

SDH Trail Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 HO / LO VC Trail (linear 1:1 f.f.s.)

Layer

HO / LO Trail

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional f.f.s.

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 sec step

APS channel

K3 (bits 1-4; APS protocol T.B.D.) (HO)

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

K4 (bits 3-4; APS protocol T.B.D.) (LO)

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF* SD* Manual Switch


WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NEs propagation delay is T.B.D.)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(decreasing priority
level)

* - As for SNCP/N
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 98

SONET Layering (Bellcore GR-253)


Payload

(DS1, DS2, DS3


DS4NA, Video, etc.)
LAYERS

Map Payload
and Path OH
into SPE
Map SPE
and Line
OH
into
internal
Map
signal
internal
signal and
Section OH
into
STS-N
signal
Optical
Conversion

Payload and Path Overhead

HO/LO PATH

SPE and Line Overhead

LINE

STS-N
Signal

SECTION

Light
Pulses

Terminal

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 99

PHYSICAL
STE Regenerator

Terminal

SONET Network
Section

Section

Section
Line

ADM

Line

M
Cn
O
tio

OC-M

c
Se

OC-M

n
Li

OC-M

3R
DCS

TM

TM

TM

TM

DCS

ADM

ADM

DCS
STS path / VT PATH

KEY
TM Terminal Multiplexer
RGTR Regenerator (3R)
DCS Digital Cross-Connect
ADM Add Drop Multiplex

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 100

The following matches may be considered between SDH


and SONET technology:
STM-N
OC-M (where M=3N)
RS
Section
MS
Line
HO PATH
STS path
LO PATH
VT path

SONET Frame Structure


OC-N / STS-N
Section
Overhead
STS1
pointers

Line
Overhead

Transport Overhead

S
T
S
1
P
O
H

High
High
Order
Order

V
T
3
P
O
H
V
T
6
P
O
H

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 101

V
T
2
P
O
H

V
T
1.5
P
O
H

Low
Low
Order
Order

Low
Low
Order
Order

Low
Low
Order
Order

Low
Low
Order
Order

SONET Protection Schemes - Summary


LAYER

SCHEME

TRIGGERING
FAULT

SWITCH
COM.
TIME

Line

Linear 1+1 APS


(uni/bid)

Line layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1:N APS


(uni/bid)

Line layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

2F/4F classic
MS-SPRing (bid)

Line layer
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1+1
UPSR (uni)

STS/VT pointer
processing
defects
(AIS/LOP) +
STS/VT POH
defects

50 ms

HO/LO
Path

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 102

REFERENCE
STANDARDS

Bellcore GR-253
(linear APS)

Bellcore GR1400 (UPSR)


Bellcore GR-1230
(BLSR)

SONET Line Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 APS - Linear 1:N APS

Layer

Line

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 min step

APS channel

K1 K2 byte of Line Overhead

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear SF on Protection Lockout Pr FS SF High Priority SF


Low Priority SD High Priority SD Low Priority MS WTR EX
NR
N x Clear N x Lockout Wk (in 1:N scheme only)

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-253

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 103

SONET Line Protection


Protection
Scheme

2/4F Bidirectional Line Selfhealing Ring (BLSR)

Layer

Line

Switching Mode

Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; step 1 min (optionally, lower bound of 0 min)

APS channel

K1 K2 bytes of MSOH

Switching
Criteria/ States*

Clear LP-S (or SF-P) FS-S FS-R SF-S SF-R SD-P SD-S
SD-R MS-S MS-R WTR EX-S EX-R NR

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

Clear LW-S

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms for classic application (1200 Km/16 NEs propagation delay


included)

Hold-Off timer

NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-1230

Clear LW-R

* - S span / P protection / R ring


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 104

SONET Line Protection SF / SD


OC-N

OPTICAL SIGNAL ONLY

Section
Overhead
STS1 pointers

Line
Overhead

Transport Overhead

LOS (Loss of Signal) and LOF (Loss of Frame) are


considered as direct triggers (both as SF) for Line
protection scheme

K2 byte (bits 5-8) AIS-L (SF)


B2 bytes B2 Exber (SF) / B2 Signal Degrade
(SD)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 105

APS channel in SONET Line schemes


OC-N

OC-N

SectionOH
Pointers
K1

SectionOH
bits 1-4

K2

bits 1-4

Pointers
K1

K2

LineOH

LineOH

Request Type
Req. Ch. Id.
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status)
Arch. Mode

Request Type
Source Node ID
Destination
Node ID Path
Bridge Status

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 106

SONET Path Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 Unidirectional Path Self-healing Ring (UPSR) based on STS / VT pointer processing defects + STS POH / VT POH
defects

Layer

HO / LO Path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; 1 min step

APS channel

NOT APPLICABLE

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch AIS;LOP;UNEQ* Ex BER**


PDI-P^ SD+ Manual Switch WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (due to the lack of APS protocol, line propagation delay not


applicable)

Hold-Off timer

NOT DEFINED by Bellcore GR-1400

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

* - P for STS path (HO) / V for VT path (LO) ^ - Applicable only to STS path
** - Excessive STS path BER (HO) / Excessive VT path
+ -BER
STS (LO)
Signal Degrade (HO) / VT Signal Degrade (
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 107

SONET Path Protection SF / SD


OC-N / STS-N

H1, H2 bytes AIS-P / LOP-P (SF)

Section
Overhead
STS1
pointers

Line
Overhead

V1
VT
pointer

STS1

STS1 POH

VT

V1, V2 bytes AIS-V / LOP-V (SF)

J1
B3
C2
G1
F2
H4
Z3
Z4
Z5

B3
(SD)
C2

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 108

V5 Bip2 Exber (SF)


Bip2 Signal Degrade
(SD)
Uneq (SF)

V3
V4

B3 Exber (SF)
B3 Signal Degrade
UNEQ (SF)

V2

V5
VT POH

J2
Z6
Z7
Stuff byte

OTH Layering

LAYERS

OTSSk

OTSSo

MULTIPLEXED SIGNAL
TRANSMISSION

OMSSk

OMSSo

OPTICAL CHANNEL (
ASSIGNMENT &
MULTIPLEXING

OMSnP

OMS/OCH_A

OMS/OCH_A

ELECTRO/OPTICAL
CONVERSION

OCH
POM

OCHSo

OTUkSk

OCH_C

ODUkSk
TCT
TCM

ODU
POM

OPUkSo

CLIENT

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 109

OCHSk

ODUkSo
ODUk_C

OTUkSo
DIGITAL
PATH

OPUkSk

CLIENT

OTH Network
ODUk path (trail)
OCH, OTUk trail
OMSn trail
OTSn trail

OCH, OTUk trail


OMSn trail
OTSn trail
OTSn trail

OCH, OTUk trail


OMSn trail
OMSn trail
OTSn trail
OTSn trail

3R
LT

LT

OXC
STM-N

LT
LT

DXC

3R
LT
LT

OADM

OXC
STM-N

LT

3R

IP data

DXC
IP

KEY
LT Line Terminal (optical channel multiplexing)
OADM Optical Channel Add/Drop Multiplexer
OXC ODU Cross-Connect
3R Wavelength assignment/regeneration (O/E/O, w/ clock recovery)
R repeater (Optical Amplifier)
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 110

LT

OSn

OTH Frame Structure


FDDI

OH

Associated
overhead
Non-associated overhead

Optical domain

Digital domain

SDH/SONE
T

OH

ATM

IP

2.5 Gb/s
K=1
10 Gb/s
K=2
40 Gb/s
OCh PayloadK=3
Unit (OPUk)

GbE clear channel

Client
OPUk

OH

ODUk

FEC

OTUk

OCh Transport Unit (OTUk)

OCH

OCh OH

Optical Channel (OCh)

OCC
OMS OH
OTS OH

OSC

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 111

OCh Data Unit (ODUk)

OCC
OMSn
OPSn
OTSn

OPS0

Optical Transport Module

Optical Channel Carrier (OCC)


Optical Physical Sectio
Optical Multiplex Section
Optical Transmission Section

Optical Supervisory Channel

OTH Protection Schemes - Summary


LAYER

SCHEME

TRIGGERING
FAULT

SWITC
H COM.
TIME

OMS
Trail

Linear 1+1
OMS (uni)

OMS layer LOS +


OMS OH OOS
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

OCH
Trail

Linear 1+1
OCH SNC/N
(uni)

OCH layer LOS


(through OCH POM)
+ OCH OH OOS
defects (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1+1/1:N
ODUk SNCP/I
(uni/bid)

OTUk defects
(SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1+1/1:N
ODUk SNCP/N
(uni/bid)

ODUk defects
(through ODUk
POM) (SF/SD)

50 ms

Linear 1+1
SNCP/S
(uni/bid)

TCMi defects (up to


six TC independent
levels in ODUk OH)

50 ms

ODUk
Path

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 112

REFERENCE
STANDARDS

ITU-T G.873.1
(Linear
protection)

ITU-T G.798
ITU-T G.808.1
(under
definition)

OTH OMS Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 OMS (scheme under definition - based on OMS LOS


detection and OMS-OH OOS defects detection)

Layer

OMS trail

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; (T.B.D. step)

APS channel

Not Required (since unidir switching mode)

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear SF on Protection (TSF-P) Lockout Pr FS SF (TSF-P)


SD (TSF-O)* MS WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

* - TSF-O may be disabled by provisioning


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 113

OTH OMS Protection SF / SD


Logical content for protection purpose
Forward Defect Indication Overhead TSF-O (SD)
(FDI-O due to Loss of Signal Overhead or Trace Identifier Mismatch
detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH level)

OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

Forward Defect Indication Payload TSF-P (SF)


(FDI-P due to Loss of Signal Payload / Trace Identifier Mismatch /
Payload Missing Indication detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH
level)

OTU
OCh OH

OCH

OMS OH

OCC

OTS OH

OSC

OCC
OMSn
OPSn
OTSn
Loss of Signal Payload TSF-P
(SF)
(LOS-P)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 114

OTH OMS Protection Application


OMSn trail

OMSn trail

3R
LT

LT

LT

OXC

Pr 1 N

LT

STM-N

Wk 1 N

3R

OSC
LT
LT

OADM

STM-N

LT

Same s bundle

IP

WK s

x2

PR s

x2

Wavelength
accomodation

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 115

LT

OXC

OSC (OMS-OH OOS)

Linear 1+1 OMS


DXC

OMSn trail

IP data

3R

Linear 1+1 OMS


DXC

OTH OCH Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 OCH SNC/N - Not Intrusive based on OCH LOS


detection through POM and OCH-OH OOS defects

Layer

OCH trail

Switching Mode

Unidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; (T.B.D. step)

APS channel

Not Applicable

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF-P) SD (TSF-O)*


Manual Switch WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

* - TSF-O may be disabled by provisioning


A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 116

OTH OCH Protection SF / SD


Logical content for protection purpose
Forward Defect Indication Overhead TSF-O (SD)
(FDI-O due to Loss of Signal Overhead or Trace Identifier Mismatch
detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH level and confirmed at OMS
level)

OTM Overhead Signal (OOS)

Forward Defect Indication Payload TSF-P (SF)


(FDI-P due to Loss of Signal Payload / Trace Identifier Mismatch /
Payload Missing Indication detected, locally or remotely, at OTS OH
level or due to Loss of Signal Payload detected at OMS level)

OTU
OCH OH

Loss of Signal Payload TSF-P


(SF)

OCH

OMS OH

(LOS-P)

OCC
OTS OH

OSC

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 117

OCC
OMSn
OPSn
OTSn

OTH OCH Protection Application


OCH trail

OCH trail

3R
LT

LT

OXC
STM-N

LT

OSC (OCH OH-OOS)


Wk 1 N
Pr 1 N

LT

LT

OADM

OXC

OSC (OCH OH-OOS)

Linear 1+1 OCH


DXC

LT

Same s bundle

LT

IP data

Optical Fiber
WK s
PR s

x2

WK s

x2

PR s

x2

WK s
PR s

x1

Possible wavelength
accomodation

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 118

Linear 1+1 OCH

3R

IP

OXC

OTH ODUk Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/I - Inherent based on


server OTUk defects driving ODUk matrix re-configuration

Layer

ODUk path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; (T.B.D. step)

APS channel

APS / PCC bytes of ODUk Overhead

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (SSF) SD (SSD) Manual


Switch WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 119

OTH ODUk SNC/I protection SF / SD


BEI/BIAE

SM

TTI

BIP8

BDI
IAE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FAS LOF (SF)


MFAS LOM (SF)
TTI Trace Identifier Mismatch
(SF)
BIP-8 DEG (SD)

RES

Column #
Row#

FAS

MFAS

10

SM

11

12

GCC0

13

14

15..3824 38254080

RES

FEC

ODU Overhead

3
4

OH

ODUk
OTUk
OCH

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 120

FEC
KEY
FAS: Frame Alignment Signal (3xF6h,
3x28h)
MFAS: Multi-frame alignment signal
(0..255)
SM: Section Monitoring overhead

APS channel in OTN linear protection

ODUk
1

Row#

Frame Alignment Overhead

RES

TCM3

GCC1

TCM
ACT

GCC2

11

12

13

14

15

16

OTUk Overhead

TCM6
TCM2

10

TCM5
TCM1

APS/PCC

Request Type
Req. Ch. Id.
Br. Ch. Id. (Bridge Status)
Arch. Mode

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 121

TCM4
PM

FTFL

OPUk
overhead

EXP

RES

Bytes 5-6-7 Automatic Protection Switching /


Protection
Communication Channel
Byte 8 reserved for future use

OTH ODUk SNC/I Protection Application


OTUk trail
LT

LT

OXC
STM-N

LT

OTUk trail
LT

LT

LT

OADM

OXC

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/I LT

DXC

3R

IP data

Optical Fiber
WK s
PR s

x2

WK s

x2

PR s

x2

WK s
PR s

x1

Possible wavelength
accomodation

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 122

OXC

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/I

IP

OTH ODUk Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/N - Not Intrusive based on


ODUk defects monitored through ODUk POM

Layer

ODUk path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; (T.B.D. step)

APS channel

APS / PCC bytes of ODUk OH

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF) SD (TSD) Manual


Switch WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 123

OTH ODUk SNC/N Protection SF / SD

Row#

Frame Alignment Overhead


TCM
ACT

RES

TCM3

GCC1

GCC2

OH
OH

11

12

13

14

BEI

STAT

PM

15

TTI

BIP8

16

OTUk Overhead

TCM6
TCM2

10

BDI

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

STAT Locked Defect (SF) / ODUkAIS (SF)


TTI Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF)
BIP-8 DEG (SD)

TCM5
TCM1

APS/PCC

TCM4
PM

FTFL

OPUk
overhead

EXP

RES

OPUk
ODUk

FEC

KEY
PM: Path
Moni
torin
g

OTUk
STAT: Status
A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 124

OTH ODU SNC/N Protection Application


Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/N
ODUk path

LT

LT

OXC
STM-N

LT

LT

LT

LT

OADM

OXC

LT

DXC

3R

IP data

Optical Fiber
WK s
PR s

x2

WK s

x2

PR s

x2

WK s
PR s

x1

Possible wavelength
accomodation

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 125

IP

OXC

OTH ODUk Protection


Protection
Scheme

Linear 1+1 Linear 1:N ODUk SNC/S - based on TCMi defects


monitored at ODUk OH

Layer

ODUk path

Switching Mode

Unidirectional / Bidirectional

Operation Mode

Revertive / Not Revertive

W.T.R. timer

5 12 min; (T.B.D. step)

APS channel

APS / PCC bytes of ODUk OH

Switching
Criteria/ States

Clear Lockout-Pr Forced Switch SF (TSF) SD (TSD) Manual


Switch WTR NR

Switch
Completion Time

50 ms (line/NE propagation delay not included)

Hold-Off timer

0 10 sec; 100 ms step

(Revertive mode)
(Bidirectional Mode)

(decreasing priority
level)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 126

OTH ODUk SNC/S Protection SF / SD


STAT Locked Defect (SF) / AIS (SF) / LTC
(SF)
TTI Trace Identifier Mismatch (SF)
BIP-8 DEG (SD)
1

Row#

Frame Alignment Overhead


TCM
ACT

RES

TCM3

GCC1

GCC2

OH
OH

11

12

13

STAT

TCMi

14

15

TTI

BIP8

16

OTUk Overhead

TCM6
TCM2

10

BEI/BAEI

BDI

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

TCM5
TCM1

APS/PCC

TCM4
PM

FTFL

OPUk
overhead

EXP

RES

OPUk
ODUk
OTUk

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 127

FEC

Up to six
independent TC
levels
monitored/termin
ated
KEY
TCM: Tandem Connection Moniitoring
STAT: Status

OTH ODUk SNC/S Protection Application


TCM2 trail

Border of the OTN


Client mapping into ODU

TCM3 trail
Operator A
Operator B
User

Working
User
Protection

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/S (B)


Border of the OTN
Client mapping into ODU

Linear 1+1 ODUk SNC/S (A)


User QoS supervision (TCM1)
End-to-End path supervision (PM)

A. Bellato CTO T&A Team - OND 128