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Tutorial Class Series

Cardiovascular and
Lymphatic Systems
By Sawiji Amani
Mobile phone: 081 328 028333
E-mail: sawijiamani@gmail.com

Lecturer and Researcher


Nursing Basic Science Department
Muhammadiyah Gombong University
March 2009

General
The

cardiovascular system is a series of


tubes and a muscular pump that provides
a ONE-WAY street for blood, oxygen, and
nutrients.
Blood and nutrients travel through blood
vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).
The lymphatic system is responsible for
draining excess fluid from the tissues and
returning it to the circulatory system.

The

cardiovascular system is fueled by


a muscular pump called the heart. The
heart is actually two pumps connected
by a SEPTUM.
The right side of the heart pumps blood
that is deficient in oxygen to the lungs.
The left side of the heart pumps blood
that is rich in oxygen to the body.

Combining Forms
Angi/o
Vas/o

vessel

Angiogram (record)
Vasospasm (twitching)

aort/o

aorta

Aortostenosis
(narrowing)

Arterio/o

artery

Arteriosclerosis
(condition of
hardening)

Ather/o

Fatty plaque

Atheroma

Atri/o

atrium

Atrial

Cardi/o

heart

Cardiomegaly
(enlargement)

Electr/o

electric

Electrocardiogram
(record of electric)

Phleb/o

vein

Ven/o

Phlebitis
Venous

Thromb/o

Blood clot

Thrombolysis
(destruction
of a clot)

Ventricul/o

Ventricle
(brain or
heart)

Interventricula
r septum
(wall between
the two
ventricles)

The Heart
The

heart has three distinct layers of tissue.

1. endocardium
- deepest layer.
2. myocardium
- muscle
3. epicardium
- outermost layer

The

heart is a muscular organ that


pumps blood and is enclosed in a
membranous sac. This sac allows the
heart to beat without friction.
This sac is called the PERICARDIUM.
Peri- means around, cardium refers
to the heart.

Peri/cardi/ectomy
- sx procedure excising the pericardium.
Peri/cardi/o/rraphy
- suturing a wound of the pericardium.
My/o/cardi/um
- the muscular layer of the heart.

There

are two sides of the heart.


There are two vertical divisions of the
heart.
The

top compartments are ATRIUM


The bottom compartments are VENTRICLES
Therefore, there are right and left atrium
and right and left ventricles.

Abbreviations

Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle

for chambers:

RA
RV
LA
LV

The

ventricles are larger than the


atrium. This is because the ventricles
are responsible for pumping blood a
farther distance than the atrium.
Of the two ventricles, the left is larger
than the right. This is because the left
ventricle must pump blood to the
entire body.

rapid contraction of the atrium or


ventricle is known as a FLUTTER.
Atrial flutter can cause chest pain and
shortness of breath (SOB).
The rule for forming plural words from
the singular that end in um is to drop
the um and add an a.

The

prefix tachy- refers to rapid.

a rapid heartbeat (pulse):


tachycardia
The

prefix brady- refers to slow.

a slow heartbeat (pulse):


bradycardia

Arteries

bring blood AWAY from the heart.


Veins bring blood TOWARD the heart.
Arteries usually carry blood with much
oxygen.
Veins usually carry blood with little
oxygen.
The RIGHT ATRIUM receives blood from all
tissues of the body through veins. This
blood is oxygen poor.

The blood brought back to the heart comes


from three sources:

1.

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA (SVC) brings blood


from the top part of the body.
INFERIOR VENA CAVA (IVC) brings blood
from the lower part of the body.
CORONARY SINUS brings blood from the
heart muscle.

2.
3.

All three sources empty into the RIGHT ATRIUM.

Once

inside the right atrium, the blood


must travel to the right ventricle. In
order to do this, it must pass through
the TRICUSPID VALVE.
The function of all heart valves is to
allow one way travel of blood. It would
be dangerous to have blood backflow
because of different oxygen
concentrations.

Once

inside the right ventricle, the blood


passes through the PULMONARY SEMILUNAR
VALVE into the PULMONARY ARTERIES.
The pulmonary arteries carry oxygendeficient blood to the lungs.
Once inside the lungs, the blood vessels
branch until they reach one cell layer thick.
These CAPILLARIES combine with the
ALVEOLI of the lungs for the exchange of
oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The

blood now has much oxygen. It returns to


the heart by the PULMONARY VEINS. There
are four pulmonary veins that empty into the
LEFT ATRIUM.
The blood then must pass through the MITRAL
VALVE (BICUSPID VALVE) into the left ventricle.
From the left ventricle the blood passes
through the AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE in the
AORTA.
The aorta is the largest artery of the body.

The

contraction of the left ventricle sends blood


rich in oxygen all over the body. There are
three arteries that bring blood to the head,
neck, and upper extremities. There is one
major vessel that brings blood to the abdomen
and lower extremities.
Arteries are the large vessels that bring blood
away from the heart. These vessels branch into
smaller ARTERIOLES which eventually branch
into CAPILLARIES which are only one cell thick.

The

primary responsibility for initiating


the heartbeat is with the SINOATRIAL
NODE. This is located on the posterior
wall of the right atrium.
Once this electric current is generated,
atrial muscle contracts forcing blood
into the ventricles. Once this occurs
the heartbeat moves to another region
called the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE.

Once

this occurs, the AV node sends


electrical impulses through a series of
BUNDLE BRANCHES ending in
PURKINJE FIBERS that stimulate the
ventricles to contract.

The Cardiac Cycle and Heart


Sounds
The

CARDIAC CYCLE is the events that


occur in one complete heartbeat.
The cardiac cycle has 2 phases:
1. contraction of the heart: SYSTOLE
2. relaxation of the heart: DIASTOLE

The

atria and ventricles have different


functions during the cardiac cycle.
When the atrium are contracting, blood flows
into the ventricles. Therefore, the ventricles
have to be relaxing.
When the atria are in systole, the ventricles
are in diastole.
Electrical activity of the heart can be
measured by an electrocardiogram (EKG or
ECG).

EKGs

are electrical tracings of each


part of the cardiac cycle.
Each time a different part of the heart
contracts, an electrical impulse can be
recorded from different areas on the
thorax.

QRS complex
signals activity
of the Purkinje
fibers and
Bundle of His

P wave
signals atrial
contraction

T wave - signals
ventricular
relaxation

Microcardia
- small heart
Cardiomegaly (megalocardia)
- enlargement of heart
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
- heart attack
Hypertension
- high blood pressure

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

is a form of
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS and is characterized
by an abnormal accumulation of fat and
fibrous tissue (scarring) in a blood vessel.
This leads to a narrowing of the LUMEN
which causes a decrease in blood flow to
a part of the body.
This condition can lead to NECROSIS, or
cellular death.

To

prevent blood clots, patients may take


an ANTICOAGULANT. These are agents
that delay blood coagulation (clotting).
Anticoagulants are used to prevent
THROMBUS formation
(THROMBOGENESIS).
THROMBOLYSIS is accomplished with
THROMBOLYTIC AGENTS or medications
that destroy a clot.

An

ANEURYSM is a weakened blood


vessel wall caused by DILATION of the
vessel. This causes the vessel to
balloon and eventually burst.
There are two types of aneursym:
1. Fusiform the wall dilates equally
resulting in a tubular swelling.
2. Sacculated a balloon is attached
to the vessel by a narrow stalk.

Lymphatics

The lymphatic system functions to drain excess


fluid from the tissues. They also act as guards
against fluid impurities.
The system includes lymph nodes, lymph vessels,
and lymph fluid.

Combining Forms:
Aden/o
gland
Lymph/o
lymph
Lymphaden/o
lymph node
Lymphangi/o
lymph vessel
Splen/o
spleen