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Magnetic Materials

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Magnetic Material
Magnetic field in materials is due to tiny electric
current loops or magnetic dipoles. At normal
temperatures the magnetic moments of the
dipoles are randomly oriented so that the net
magnetic moment is zero.
Magnetization = Magnetic moment per unit
volume
When an external magnetic field is applied the
dipoles align and the material develops a
magnetization.
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Dia-, Para-, and Ferronmagnetism


Electric dipoles always align in the direction of
magnetic field but different magnetic material
behave differently.
Diamagnetic material have their manetization
direction opposite to that of B.
Paramagnetic material have M parallel to B
Ferromagnets are those which retain their
magnetization even after the magnetic field is
withdrawn Hysteresis.
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Types of magnetic materials

M m H where m is the magnetic susceptibi lity


If mis negative, the material is diamagneti c.
If it is positive, it is paramagnet ic.

B 0 ( H m H) 0 (1 m )H 0 r H H
Here is the absolute permeabili ty and r is the
relative permeabili ty.

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Paramagnetic material in Magnetic Field


Atomic magnets are oriented in direction
of B, currents in adjacent loops cancel
giving rise to a surface current

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Force on a magnetic dipole


Force on a current carrying loop is
B
L

A
F I (dl B)
Hence the force on a closed current loop is zero.
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A current loop experiences a force in an


inhomogeneous Field
z
On sides OA & BC

F I j B (0, y,0)dy I j B(0, y, )dy


0

I j
dy
z 0, y ,
0

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Dipole in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field


z
On sides AB & OC

F I k B (0, , z )dz I k B (0,0, z )dz


0

I k
dz

y
0
0, 0, z

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Dipole in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field


Assume that the derivatives are constant at the
boundaries of small loops

F I (k
)dz ( j
)dz
y 0, 0, z
z 0, y ,
0

0
B y

B
B
B
I 2 ( j x i
) (k x i z )
y
y
z
z

B

B
B
I 2 i x j x k x (m B )
y
z
y

as B 0 and m I 2i

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Torque on a current loop


A dipole experiences
in a constant

a torque
magnetic field m B
Torque is zero when the magnetic moment is
parallel to the field. To bring the dipole to a
position which makes an angle with the
magnetic field, one has to do work.

W d mB sin d
0

mB(1 cos )
Potential Energy of dipole

U -m B
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Field due to a magnetic dipole


For paramagnetic material, magnetization is
proportional to the external field.
Magnetic field on the axis of a circular coil of radius
a was seen to be
0 I
a2
0 m

(for z a )
2
2 3/ 2
3
2 (a z )
2 z
very similar to that of electric field for an
electric dipole !

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Vector Potential of a current loop

0 I dl
A

4 r

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Vector Potential of a current loop


z

current loop is in x - y plane

field point in x - z plane

dA

distance of P from d l

r position relative to O

dl

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13


since dA|| d l , A has no z - component.

For each d l , a symmetrica lly opposite


element w hich cancels x - component of

dA but adds y - component of dA


x

dA
r

dl
O

dl

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Vector Potential of a current loop

0 I dl 0 I 2 a cos

k
d

4
4 0

0 I 2
a cos

k 2
d
2
1/ 2
4 0 (r a 2ar cos )
0 I 2
1
a 2 2a cos 1/ 2

k a cos (1 2
) d
4 0
r
r
r
0 I 2
1
a 2 a cos 3a 2 cos 2

k a cos (1 2

)d
2
4 0
r
2r
r
2r

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Vector Potential of a current loop


Use r cos x cos
2
2 2
2
0 I 2
1
a
ax
cos

3
a
x
cos

A
k a cos (1 2

) d
2
4
4 0
r
2r
r
2r

0 I
ax
k a cos 2 3 d
4 0
r

0 Ia 2 x
0 mx 0 m sin

k 3
k
k
3
2
4
r
4r
4r

03 m r
4r
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Vector Potential of magnetized

substance

If M is the magnetization, a volume dcontains


Mddipoles. The vector potential at a point P is
given by


0 M (r r )
A(r )
d

4
r r
0
1

M d

4
r r

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Vector Potential of magnetized

substance

Use


1
M
1
M M
r r
r r
r r

0
A(r )

1
1

r r Md M r r d


1
1
0 Md M dS
4 r r
r r

In the last step, we have used


vd v ds
vol

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surface

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Bound currents

0
A( r )

1
1
r r Md r r M dS



0 J b (r )
0
K b (r )

d
dS

4 vol r r
4 surface r r

J b (r ) M

K b (r ) M n

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Uniformly magnetized slab

J b (r ) M

K b (r ) M n

t
K

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Free and Bound Currents


Net current is due to actual transport of
charges while bound current is due to
magnetization.

J J free J bound
Amperes Law for magnetized material
contains contribution due to both types of
current and is,


B 0 J 0 ( J f J b )

0 ( J f M )
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Fields B, H and M
Define H-field by

H
M
0


H J f
Equivalent ly,

H d l I free(enclosed)

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Also

H M

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Example
An infinitely long cylinder of radius R contains a
frozen in magnetization M=kr, where r is distance
from axis and no free current. Find B, H, M.

M krk
Bound volume current

1 M z
M z
Jb M
r

r
r
k

K b M n |r R krk r |r R kR

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Infinitely long cylinder


Use Amperes Law. As the current is indirection,
field are along the axis. B is zero outside the
cylinder.
R

B dl BL 0 ( K b L J b Ldr )
r

0 (kLR ( k ) L( R r )) 0 kLr

B 0 krk

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Magnetized cylinder (contd.)

M z
M
0 , M is specified by curl alone.
z


B
H dl 0 H 0 0 - M

B 0 M 0 outside cylinder
kr k
0

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A uniformly magnetized Cylinder

Jb M 0

K b M n M sin

dl r
M

Rsin

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n
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Uniformly magnetized sphere


From symmetrically located pairs of elements horizontal
components cancel while vertical components add up.

dl r
dl sin
dB
dI 2 0 dI
k
4
r
2
R2
dI K b Rd MR sin d

contributi on to dB from the ring


dB ring

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0
sin 2
MR
d dl k
2
2
R
0

sin 2
M
2R sin k 0 M sin 3 dk
2
R
2
0 3

4
Mk sin d 0 Mk
2
2
3
0

2
0 M
3

dl r
M

Rsin

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Example : Large Piece of uniformly magnetized


material from which a sphere is scooped out.
For the material without v oid,

B0
H0
M
0

B0

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Fill the void with a sphere of uniform

magnetizat ion M
2

B B0 0 M
3

H
M
0

Since at the centre of the hole M 0,

B B0 2 H 0 1
H

M
M
0 0 3
0 3
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