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TEKNIK-TEKNIK

MENDETEKSI MISKONSEPSI

Teknik Deteksi Miskonsepsi dalam


Pembelajaran Fisika.
Memberi Tes Diagnostik
Memberi Tugas Terstruktur (mandiri atau Kelompok)
Memberi pertanyaan tertulis terbuka, terbalik, dan
kaya dengan kontens
Mengoreksi langkah-langkah dalam penyelesaian
soal
Mengajukan pertanyaan terbuka secara lisan
Mewawancarai dengan menggunakan kartu
pertanyaan

Tes Diagnostik

WHYUSECONCEPTUAL
DIAGNOSTICTESTS?

Toassesshowwellstudents
understandkeyconceptsina
knowledgefieldpriorto,during,and
afterinstruction.

WHATISACONCEPTUAL
DIAGNOSTICTEST?

Atestwithitemsinamultiple
choiceorshortanswerformatthat
hasbeendesignedwithcommon
misconceptionsinmind.

WHAT IS INVOLVED

(diperlukan)

Definisi
Secara etimologis, diagnostik diambil dari
bahasa Inggris diagnostic. Bentuk kata
kerjanya adalah to diagnose, yang artinya
to determine the nature of disease (Penyakit)
from observation of symptoms (gejala).
Mendiagnosis berarti melakukan observasi
terhadap penyakit tertentu, sebagai dasar
menentukan macam atau jenis penyakitnya.
Tes diagnostik sengaja dirancang sebagai
alat untuk menemukan kesulitan belajar
yang sedang dihadapi siswa.

Definisi
In

education, the phrase diagnostic


test refers to a teacher's tool that
enables the teacher to assess or
measure student's levels in terms of
skills and knowledge.

It

enables the teacher to know the


strong and weak points of a student

Definisi..
Diagnostic testing is individually
administered tests designed to
identify weaknesses in the learning
processes.
Usually these are administered by
trained professionals and are usually
prescribed for elementary, sometimes
middle school, students

AssessmentPurposes
To reveal (mengungkapkan) the misconceptions
students bring as prior knowledge to a
class.
To measure the conceptual gains (penambahan)
of a class as a whole.
To identify concepts that are weak areas of
understanding.

AssessmentPurposes.
Hasil tes diagnostik dapat digunakan sebagai dasar
penyelenggaraan pengajaran yang lebih cocok
dengan kemampuan siswa sebenarnya, termasuk
kesulitan-kesulitan belajarnya.
Tes ini dilakukan apabila diperoleh informasi
bahwa sebagian besar peserta didik gagal dalam
mengikuti proses pembelajaran pada mata
pelajaran tertentu.
Hasil tes diagnostik memberikan informasi tentang
konsep-konsep yang belum dipahami dan yang
telah dipahami. Oleh karenanya, tes ini berisi
materi yang dirasa sulit oleh siswa, namun tingkat
kesulitan tes ini cenderung rendah.

AssessmentPurposes..
Brueckner & Melby menyatakan, Tes
diagnostik digunakan untuk
menentukan elemen-elemen dalam
suatu mata pelajaran yang mempunyai
kelemahan-kelemahan khusus dan
menyediakan alat untuk menemukan
penyebab kekurangan tersebut
(1981:73).

LimitationsofDiagnosticsTest
Todevelopreliableandvalidconceptual
diagnostictestsisamajor,longterm
undertaking.
Onlyalimitednumberofsuchtestsare
currentlyavailable,andthosemaynot
matchyourcoursegoals.
Yourfieldmaybeoneinwhichnosuch
testshavebeendeveloped.

TeachingGoalsthrough
DiagnosticsTest
Learnconceptsandtermsofasubject.
Develophigherlevelthinkingskills,
strategies,andhabits.
Recognizecommonmisconceptionsin
ordertoavoidorchangethem.

SuggestionsforResearchers
1. Adoptalreadydeveloped,fieldtestedinstruments
Wellestablishedconceptualdiagnostictests(suchastheForce
ConceptInventoryinphysics)are:researchgrounded,normed
withthousandsofstudentsatdiverseinstitutions,theproductof
manyhoursofinterviewstovalidatedistractors,andsubjected
tointensepeerreview.
Individualfacultyareunlikelytomatchsuchefforts.Youcan
adoptatest,butyoumustfollowtheguidelinesforitsusefor
theresultstobevalidandreliable.
Generallythatmeansthatyougivetheassessmentasapreand
posttest,securethetests,giveenoughtimesothatallstudents
cancompleteallquestions,statethatitisadiagnostictestand
hasnoeffectongrades,andgiveallitemsintheorderpresented
ontheinstrument.

SuggestionsforResearchers..
2. Adopt already-developed test items
You may not wish to give a complete instrument for your
classroom assessment. Instead, you can give selected
items from a well-developed instrument (below figure) .

SuggestionsforResearchers..
2. Adopt already-developed test items
While you cannot compare your results to those normed from
the complete instrument, this limited use may better match
your course goals.

3.Developyourownconceptualdiagnosticquestions
Themainadvantagewiththisprocessisthatyoucanmatchquestions
closelytoyourcoursegoals.
Youcantryoutoneortwoquestionsatatime;thismethodwilltake
verylittleclasstimeandgivesyouthechanceforimmediaterevision
basedonfeedbackfromtheclass.
Overafewsemestersyoucanbuildupabankofwellconstructed
items.However,youreallyneedtoinvestigatetheresearchliterature
beforeyoutakethispath.

StepbySteptoDevelopTest
1.Based on your experience or course goals, and perhaps a consensus of
your colleagues, make a list of the most important concepts in your
course.
2.Check the misconceptions literature in your discipline to see if the
research has revealed any misconceptions related to your key
concepts.
3.If you dont find any explicit research materials, reflect on your own
experience as a student and instructor. I have found, for instance,
that most of the concepts Ive identified as key, my students
identify as difficult; focus then on these.
4.If you find a diagnostic test already available in your discipline,
request a copy. Compare the items to your course goals and key
concepts. If the test as a whole aligns with these, use it! If not,
examine specific items for applicability to your course.

StepbySteptoDevelopTest
5.Follow the developers protocol for giving the test exactly. Contact
them if you have any questions!
6.Write brief, multiple-choice questions, using standard guidelines for
developing good items. Avoid technical jargon (bahasa golongan
tertentu); use standard language. (If you do a good job, students may
perceive these questions as hard or tricky because rote
memorization (mengingat dgn hafalan) will not ordinarily give the correct
answer.)
7.Interview a few students to discuss your questions. You want
students to choose the wrong responses for the right reasons-that is, a certain misconception or a poor line of reasoning that
leads them astray (kesasar).

StepbySteptoDevelopTest
8. The best use of a diagnostic test is as a pre/post assessment. You do
not have to wait until the end of the semester to give a post test; you
can give it right after instruction on a coherent instructional unit. If
possible, you should obtain a standard item analysis, so you can check
for problems with the test as a whole or with individual items.
9. One way to quantify the pre/post gains is to calculate a gain index
(Hake, 1998). This is the actual gain (in percentage) divided by the
total possible gain (also in percentage). Hence, the gain index can
range from zero (no gain) to 1 (greatest possible gain). This method of
calculating the gains normalizes the index, so that you can compare
gains of different groups and classes even if their pretest scores differ
widely. (Note that it is also possible to get negative results!) The
formula is
gain index = (%post - %pre)/(100 - %pre)

Jenis Tes Diagnostik


Force Concepts Inventory (FCI) untuk konsep Gaya
(Hestenes & Wells, 1992);
Mechanics Diagnostic Test (MDT) untuk bidang
mekanika (Hestenes & Halloun. 1985);
the UMd Wave Diagnostic Ujian (WDT) untuk
konsep gelombang (Wittmann, 1996);
Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) untuk bidang
astronomi (Hufnagel et al. 2000);
Diagnostic two-tier Test untuk Optik Geometri
(Chung et al. 2002); dan
The Dynamics Concept Inventory (DCI) untuk
bidang Dinamika (Gary L. Gray, 2005).

Jenis Tes Diagnostik.


The Test of Image Formation by Optical Reflection
(TIFOR) untuk bidang optik (Chung-Chih Chen,et.al
2002)
The Two-Tiered Optics Misconception (TTOM)
untuk bidang optik.
the Force Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE),

Contoh (2): Force Concept of Inventory (FCI)


Untuk melihat contoh tes diagnostik FCI
Click here

Contoh (1): The Two-Tiered Optics Misconception (TTOM)

Contoh (1): The Two-Tiered Optics Misconception (TTOM)..

Contoh (1): The Two-Tiered Optics Misconception (TTOM)..

Contoh (1): The Two-Tiered Optics Misconception (TTOM)..

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