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VOLTAGE CONTROL IN

POWER SYSTEMS
U.T.TAMIL ARASI
SENIOR LECT/EEE
REC

Requirements for Normal Operation of


Power system
All the load demands are met
Constant frequency
Bus Voltage magnitude within limits
No elements are overloaded

Necessity of Voltage Control


All equipment in a power system is designed for
a certain voltage level.
If the system voltage deviates, the performance
of the device suffers and its life expectancy
drops.
The voltage level of a bus is strongly related to
the reactive power injection at the bus.

Factors Responsible for Voltage


Instability
Building of large, remote power plants
Increased Reactive Power demand
Tripping of transmission or generation equipment
Improper function of Voltage control equipments

Methods of Voltage Control


Excitation control of generators
Switched Shunt Capacitors and/or reactors
Synchronous Condensers
Tap-Changing of Transformers

Voltage Variation ?
Change in the receiving end voltage or load
voltage depending upon the magnitude of the
load and power factor of the load.
Indication of the unbalance between the reactive
power generated and consumed by the load node.
If the reactive power generated is greater than the
consumed reactive power, the voltage goes up
and vice versa.

Illustration of Voltage Variation


Load connected to the source through
a line
I

V1

Load
jX

P + jQ

V2

Continuation
V2 = V1 I.Z ------------------ (1)
V1* I = P jQ
V1* = V1 ( reference vector)
I = (P jQ)/ V1* ---------------(2)
Sub (2) in (1)
V2 = V1 J*((P jQ)/ V1)X ; Since R=0
= V1- (Q/ V1)X j(P/V1)X -----------(3)
Neglecting voltage drop due to real power
V2 = V1- (Q/ V1)X
For constant value of V2 , (Q/ V1)X must remain constant
(achieved by means of local adjustments).

REACTIVE POWER
AND
VOLTAGE CONTROL

Reactive Power and Voltage Control


The control of voltage and reactive power should
satisfy the following objectives:

Voltages at the terminals of all equipment in


the system are within acceptable limits.
System stability is enhanced to maximize
utilization of the transmission system.
The reactive power flow is minimized so as
to reduce RI2 and XI2 losses to a practical
minimum.

Generation and Absorbtion of


Reactive Power
Synchronous generators can generate or absorb
reactive power depending on the excitation. When
overexcited they supply reactive power, and when
under excited they absorb reactive power.
Overhead lines, depending on the load current, either
absorb or supply reactive power. At loads below the
natural (surge impedance) load, the lines produce net
reactive power; at loads above the natural load, the
lines absorb reactive power.

Continuation
Underground cables, owing to their high capacitance,
have high natural loads. They are always loaded below
their natural loads, and hence generate reactive power
under all operating conditions.
Transformers always absorb reactive power regardless of
their loading; at no load, the shunt magnetizing reactance
effects predominate; and at full load, the series leakage
inductance effects predominate.

Continuation
Loads normally absorb reactive power. Both active power
and reactive power of the composite loads vary as a
function of voltage magnitudes. Loads at low lagging
power factors cause excessive voltage drops in the
transmission network and are uneconomical to supply.
Industrial consumers are normally charged for reactive as
well as active power; this gives them an incentive to
improve the load power factor by using shunt capacitors.
Compensators devices are usually added to supply or
absorb reactive power and thereby control the reactive
power balance in a desired manner.

Relation B/w V, P & Q at a node


The phase voltage V at a node is a function of P and Q at
that node, i.e.
V= (P.Q)
The voltage is also dependent on adjacent nodes and the
present treatment assumes that these are infinite
buses.
The total differential of V,
dV = ( V/ P).dP + ( V/ Q).dQ
And using
(P / V). ( V/ P) =1 and (Q / V). ( V/ Q) =1
dV = (dP/ (P / V)) + (dQ / (Q / V)) ----- (4.15)

Continuation
It can be seen from equation (4.15) that the change in
voltage at a node is defined by two quantities
(P / V)
and
(Q / V)
As an example consider a line with series impedance(R+jx)
and zero shunt admittance.
From equation V = (RP + XQ)/ V
We get, (V1 V)V PR XQ =0 ----- (4.16)
Where V1, the sending-end voltage, is constant and V, the
receiving-end voltage depends on P and Q (figure 4.4).
From equation (4.16) (P / V) = (V1 - 2V)/ R ---- (4.17)
Also, (Q / V) = (V1 - 2V)/ X ------- (4.18)

Continuation
dV = (dP/ (P / V)) + (dQ / (Q / V))
= (dP. R + dQ .X) / (V2 -2V) ------------- (4.19)
For constant V and V,
RdP + X dQ =0 and dQ = -(R/X) dP
(Q/V)= (Qafter Qbefore)/ (Vafter Vbefore)
Should be small for this test, a few per cent of the
normal voltage, thereby giving the sensitivity of
the node to the var change.
From the expression,
(Q / V) = (V1 - 2V)/ X

Continuation
It is evident that the smaller the reactance
associated with the node, the larger the
value of (Q / V) for a given voltage
drop.i.e, the voltage drop is inherently
small.
The greater the number of lines meeting at
a node the smaller the resultant reactance
and the larger the value of (Q / V).
Obviously, (Q / V) depends on the
network configuration.

REACTIVE
POWER
COMPENSATION

Reactive Power
Compensation
Process of supplying Reactive Power at
receiving end bus in transmission
system or load bus in distributing
system.

Devices used for Reactive Power

compensation are called Reactive


Power Compensation devices.

Effects of Reactive
Power Compensation
Voltage control
Reduction in supply side reactive burden.
Reduction of system copper loss due to
reduction of reactive current.
Decrease in KVA loading of alternators.
Reduction in investment per KW of load
supplied.
Improvement in system power factor.

Types of Compensators
Shunt Capacitors
Shunt Reactors
Series Capacitors
Synchronous Compensator
Static VAR compensators

Function of Compensation
Devices

Compensation
Function
Type
Static Shunt
Inject capacitive power at suitable
Capacitor
points of the line and keep the bus
voltage to nominal values.
Shunt
Reactors

Drain the reactive powers from the


line to control over voltage to
nominal values.

Synchronous
condensors

Supply both lagging or leading VARs


to keep the receiving end voltages to
nominal values.

Static VAR
compensators

Reduces power system oscillation


and enhances the power handling
capacity.

Earlier Day Voltage


Control Method
By adjusting the excitation of the generator at the

sending end.
The larger the reactive power required by the load the
more is the excitation to be provided at the sending
end.

Limitation:
Worked well in small isolated system where there
was no local load at the sending end.
Excitation below a certain limit may result in
instability and excitation above certain level will
result in overheating of the rotor.

Line and Bus Connected


Reactor
To strong system
To weak system

X
XR1

XR2

XR3

Shunt Reactor
Used in EHV lines
Compensate line capacitance
Limit Voltage rise
V2>V1, Shunt Reactor used
Weak System Permanent Bus

connected reactor
Strong System Switchable Bus
Connected reactor

Line and TransformerConnected Reactors


To weak system

To strong system

XR1

XR2

XR3

Tapped Shunt Reactor

Power Factor Correction in Industrial Plants


Utility supply
X

X
Plant Compensation

Individual compensation
M

Group compensation

Tertiary Connected
Capacitor Banks

Fig: Tertiary Connected banks

HV Capacitor Bank

Series Capacitor
Connected in series with line

conductors
Compensate inductive reactance of
the line
Reduces reactive power loss
Improves reactive power balance and
voltage control

Series Capacitor Drawbacks


Hunting of synchronous motor at

light load due to high R/X ratio


Ferroresonance between transformer
and series capacitor results harmonic
over voltage

Factors considered in the


application of series capacitor
Voltage rise due to reactive current
Bypassing and reinsertion
Location

C
Series Capacitor

S
(a) Single gap protective scheme

G1
S1

G2
S1

(b) Dual gap protective scheme

Capacitor bank
Damping circuit
G, G1, G2 Spark
gap
S,S1 Bypass
breaker
S2 Reinsertion
Breaker

Zinc Oxide
protective scheme
C
R

G
S

C Capacitor bank
R Nonlinear Resistor
D Damping Circuit
G Spark gap
S Bypass breaker

V
Is
jXth
Variable
Reactive
Load

Eth

(a) Thevenin equivalent circuit of HVAC network


V
Eth

(b) Voltage reactive current characteristics

Is

V
Eth0+Eth

Increasing
Xth

Eth0
Eth0 - Eth
0

IS

(c) Effect of varying source voltage Eth

IS

(d) Effect of varying system reactance Xth

Idealized static VAr system


HVAC bus
Is

VI Characteristics of ideal compensator


V

V0

Ideal VI characteristic

Is

leading

lagging

Composite Characteristics of an SVS


V
L

IL

IC

Max L

IS

Min L

+
IL
(a) Controllable reactor

Slope KS
IS

IC

Capacitive
(b) Fixed capacitor

Inductive

(c) SVS

SVS characteristics

V1
B

V3
A

V4

Slope XSL

System reactive
characteristics

V2

Capacitive

I4

I3

Inductive
Graphical solution of SVS operating point for given system conditions

Is

XL = wL
Reactor

v
Thyristor switch

Thyristor controlled Reactor

Ic

v
Thyristor switch

Thyristor switched capacitor

REACTIVE POWER AND


VOLTAGE CONTROL
Excitation system
Generation & absorption of reactive power
Relation b/w V, P,& Q at a node
Methods of voltage control

Methods of Voltage
Control
1. Shunt capacitors
2. Series capacitors
3. Synchronous capacitors
4. SVC
5. Tap changing transformers
6. Booster transformers.

Earlier Day Voltage Control


Method
By adjusting the excitation of the generator at the

sending end.
The larger the reactive power required by the load the
more is the excitation to be provided at the sending
end.

Limitation:
Worked well in small isolated system where there
was no local load at the sending end.
Excitation below a certain limit may result in
instability and excitation above certain level will
result in overheating of the rotor.

Shunt Capacitors and


Reactors
Used across an inductive load so as to supply part of the

reactive vars required by the load so that the reactive vars


transmitted over the line are reduced, thereby the voltage
across the load is maintained within certain desirable limits.
The shunt reactors are used across capacitive loads or
lightly loaded lines to absorb some of the leading vars again
to control the voltage across the load to within certain
desirable limits.
Capacitors are connected either directly to a bus bar or
through a tertiary winding of the main transformer and are
disposed along the route to minimize the voltage drop and
the losses.

Series Capacitors
It reduces the inductive reactance between the load

and the supply point, thereby reducing the voltage


drop produced by an inductive load.
It improves the voltage stable state and supplies
reactive power to the receiving end such that voltage
profile is maintained.
Improves the steady state stability.
Increases the power flow transfer in lines.
For long transmission lines where the total reactance
is high, series capacitors are effective for
improvement of system stability.

Synchronous
Compensator
It is basically a synchronous motor running at no

load.
Depending on the value of excitation, it can
absorb or generate reactive power.
Its use in high voltage transmission lines helps in
either absorption of reactive power or supply of
reactive power under light load or heavy load
conditions respectively.
Improves system stability.
Supply heavy amount of reactive power during
short period.

Disadvantages of

Devices

Compensation
Type
Static
Switched
Shunt
Capacitor

Compensation
Drawbacks

On light loads when the corrective


vars required are relatively less, the
capacitor output is large and vice
versa.

Synchronous
condensors

Only continuous control is possible.


High cost of installment & need high
maintenance.

Series
Capacitor

Severe over voltage during line


fault.
Problem of Ferro resonance & Sub
synchronous resonance

Static VAR Compensator


A parallel combination of controlled reactor and fixed static

capacitor.
Working Principle: By varying the thyristor firing angle, the
reactor current is varied thereby controlling the reactive
power absorption by inductor. Capacitor in parallel supplies
reactive power to the system.
The net reactive power injection to bus becomes
Q
= Qc Ql.
Ql is varied and thus Q is controllable. The bus voltage is
thus controllable by SVC.
During light load Ql > Qc, while during heavy load Qc < Ql.
Improves system stability, voltage stability and reduces
power oscillations.

Tap-Changing
Transformer
Almost the power transformers on transmission lines

are provided with taps for ration control i.e. control


of secondary voltage. There are two types of tap
changing transformers:
(i) Off-load tap changing transformers.
(ii) On-load (under-load) tap changing transformers.
The tap changing transformers do not control the
voltage by regulating the flow of reactive vars but by
changing the transformation ratio, the voltage in the
secondary circuit is varied and voltage control is
obtained. This method is the most popular as it can
be used for controlling voltages at all levels.

Off-load tap changing


transformers
Requires the disconnection of the transformer
when the tap setting is to beLinechanged.
Winding
Q2

Q1
S1

S2

Winding

Fig. 4.5.5 Off-load tap changing


transformer

Neutral

ON-load tap changing


transformers
In the position shown the voltage is a

maximum and since the currents divide


equally and flow in opposition through the coil
between Q1 and Q2, the resultant flux is zero
and hence minimum impedance.
To reduce the voltage, the following operations
are required in sequence: (i) open Q1; (ii)
move selector switch S1 to the next contact;
(iii) close Q1; (iv) open Q2; (v) move selector
switch S2 to the next contact; and (vi) close
Q2.

Radial transmission line with onload tap changing


transformer at
R+j
both the ends x=L
I

IS

Ir

Vr

1
:t

V2

Load
P+j
Q

t1
:
transmission
1

Fig. 4.5.7
Radial
line with
s
on-load tap changing transformer at
both the ends

V2
RP XQ
t 1

V1V2
V1

2
s

For particular values of V2 and V1 and the load requirements P


and Q, the value of ts can be obtained.

Tap-setting Adjustment for


Reactive Power Injection to
Large System

In large interconnected system, some times with the


tap-setting adjustments of the tap-changing
transformers indirectly in the system, the reactive
power requirement
may Qbe altered.
V
V
X
1

t:1
(a)
V1

Q
V1/t

X/t2

t:1

V2

(b)

Fig. 4.6.2 (a) Systems interconnected through tapchanging transformer (b) its equivalent circuit

Continuation
Reactive power requirement
2
V t (1 t )
Q
X

By changing the off-normal setting t, it is possible to


change the var requirement Q of the line due to the
reactance X.
When t is less than unity, Q is positive and there is thus a
flow of lagging VAR to bus 2.
When t is greater than unity, Q is negative and there is
thus a flow of leading VAR to bus 2.

THANK YOU