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Network

Topologies

Sheryl May C. Jagonia

Define Network

Define Networking

Network Classifications

Different Network Devices

Learning Objective

Define Topology
Identify Different Kinds of Network Topology
Discuss Bus Topology
Discuss Star Topology
Discuss Ring Topology
Discuss Tree Topology
Discuss Mesh Topology
Enumerate advantages and disadvantages
of each kind of topology

Network Topologies

Topologies
Topologies are the architectural drawings
that show the overall physical configuration
for a given communications system.
A topology will indicate the access
methods and will govern the rules that are
used to design and implement the
communication system.
Topologies represent the drawing of your
network cable plant.

Network Topologies
Line Topology
Bus Topology
Star Topology
Ring Topology
Mesh Topology
Tree Topology
Fully Connected

Bus Topology
A bus is a single
electrical circuit to
which all devices in
the network are
connected (although
the bus might be
made up of many
individual pieces of
wire).

Bus Topology
Advantages:
Simple Reliable
Cabling is
inexpensive, easy to
extend
Uses cable
economically
More computer can be
added without
disruption.

Disadvantages:
Heavy traffic can slow
down network
Any cable that is
broken or terminated
can bring the network
down
Can be difficult to
isolate problems

Star Topology
By far, the most
common network
topology is the star
topology.
In a star network,
individual computers
are connected to a
central device, such
as a hub or switch.

Star Topology
Advantages:
Easy to add new
computers or modify
network
Centralization
enhances network
monitoring
Single computer failure
does not affect the
network

Disadvantages:
If the central hub fails,
network will fail
Requires more cable
and intricate installation
It is more expensive
as it uses the most
cabling.

Ring Topology
A "pure" ring topology is
a collection of separate
point-to-point links,
arranged to make a ring.
Each node's network
interface card (NIC) has
one input and one output
connection, so each
node is connected to two
links.

Ring Topology
Advantages:
All computers have
equal access to the rest
of the network.
Even with many users,
network performance is
steady.

Disadvantages:
A single computer
failure can impact the
network.
Isolating problems can
be difficult.
Adding or removing
computers can disrupt
network operations.

Tree Topology
Tree topologies integrate
multiple star topologies
together onto a bus.
In its simplest form, only hub
devices connect directly to
the tree bus.
This bus/star hybrid approach
supports future expandability
of the network much better
than a bus or a star alone.

Tree Topology
Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Central hub (repeater)


increases the distance a
signal can travel
between devices.

More cabling is
required in a tree than
in other topologies
(except mesh).
Entire network
collapse if central Hub
fails.

Mesh Topology
It uses redundant links
between devices.
A true mesh has a link
between each device
in the network.
Most are hybrid mesh
networks which have
some redundant links
but not all.

Mesh Topology
Advantage:

Disadvantage:

Relatively easy to
troubleshoot and are
very fault tolerant.

Difficulty of installation
and reconfiguration
because of the quantity
of links.

Guaranteed
communications channel Cost of maintaining
capacity.
redundant link
Relatively easy to
troubleshoot.

Fully Connected
Also referred to as a
fully mesh topology
Requires that all the
terminals be
connected to all the
other terminals, as
it's name implies.

Fully Connected
Advantages:

Disadvantages:

A fault in one terminal


on the network will not
effect the rest.

A large amount of
cabling is required.

When network usage


is high, data packets
can be transmitted via
different cables, thereby
reducing network
clogging.

Topology Summary
Topologies are the important part of the
network design theory.
Similarly you should have the knowledge of
each network device so that you can
properly use them according to your
network needs.
So the basic understanding of the network
topologies and network devices is a must to
build a good network.

Design Considerations
The best topology involves
matching with the environment it
is to be used in.
The physical arrangement of
computers do not dictate the
necessary topology